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VOL. V. 




MOSSES, hepatica:, lichens, characea: and alga:. 




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That the learned and estimable author of the preceding volumes 
of the English Flora, had it in his expectation, as Avell as in his 
contemplation, himself to bring his work to a conclusion, is a 
point too much in accordance with the general principles of 
human nature for any one to entertain a doubt upon the subject. 
Tbe awful memento of our great moral poet, that “^11 men 
think all men mortal but themselves,” is daily exemplified be- 
fore the eyes of every one of us ; but seldom more forcibly 
illustrated by the examples of any men, than of those engaged 
in literary labours ; and, among these, it Avould be difficult to 
find a more striking instance of the wide difference between 
human intentions and performances, than in the case of my 
excellent friend, in reference to the present work. He was 
arrested by the hand of death, as his amiable and affectionate 
biographer has told us, on the very day he received from his 
printer the last sheet of the IVth Volume, in completing which, 
he had finished his portion of the task that had been particu- 
larly the object of his studies throughout life, and regarding 
which, it may most justly be said, that he was not only emi- 
nently qualified to perform it, but even more so than any other 
living Botanist. What lay before him was of a very diflFerent 
character: it consisted of tribes of plants, minute, ill understood, 
full of difficulties, and, in many instances, more perplexed 
than elucidated by the labours of his predecessors. Yet 
still, as I have observed, it was his intention to complete his 
task ; and, Avhat is little known, the very last note from his 
pen, connected with any scientific subject, Avas a declaration 
of this intention. “ All these subjects,” he says, in allu- 



sion to the different Orders of the Class Cryptogamia, “ if 
not yet brouglit into perfect daylight, might well, by the 
help of those brilliant northern lights, Acharius, Fries, and 
Agardh, have been made more accessible to the student, and 
more instructive to systematic botanists, by one long accus- 
tomed to their contemplation in the wild scenes of nature, and 
not unfurnished with remarks of his own. If our bodily powers 
could keep pace with our mental acquirements, the student of 
half a century would not shrink from the delightful task of being 
still a teacher ; nor does he resign the hope of affording some 
future assistance to his fellow-labourers, though for the present, 

‘ a change of study,’ to use the expression of a great French 
writer, ‘ may be necessary by way of relaxation and repose.’ ” 

Neither relaxation nor repose, however, was sufficient to 
restore the bodily powers of Sir James Smith : exhausted by 
long suffering, they sank under the pressure of disease ; and the 
task of completing our national Flora is left to another, who, 
whatever his talents and knowledge, can never look upon the 
portion finished by the original author, without the sentiment 
that it is impossible for the succeeding part to be made equal 
to it. The very nature of the subject would preclude such a 
hope ; and he would be a bold man, who Avould venture to 
entertain the expectation that he could rival a performance 
which has justly obtained the highest encomiums from the most 
eminent Botanists of Europe, and which Avill not fail to be 
prized, so long as accurate description, conveyed in language 
singularly elegant and agreeable, shall continue to be estimated 
as it deserves. 

Fully impressed with this conviction, I have, nevertheless, in 
compliance with the wish of the Publishers, undertaken the 
task ; in doing which, I earnestly hope, that my labours will be 
regarded Avith the indulgence I knoAV they require, and that 
those Avho detect my errors, Avill have the kindness and the can- 
dour to acquaint me Avith them ; for thus only can Ave hope to 
obtain a perfect knoAvledge of these families of the vegetable 
kingdom, Avhich, from their minute size, are too apt to be re- 
garded as repulsive, instead of attractiAm, and Avhich, from that 
same circumstance, necessarily require unusual pains to detect 
and to discriminate them. These difficulties are, indeed, in 
some measure, removed by the valuable helps afforded in the 



illustrated works of Turner, Dillwyn, Sowerby, and Greville ; 
and not less by an extensive correspondence, and by the kind 
assistance of my friends, in those tribes which have been 
hitherto less an object of study with me than others. The 
obligations I lie under to those friends, are invariably men- 
tioned in the respective pages which owe so much to them ; but 
it behoves me here, in an especial manner, to express my grateful 
acknowledgments to Mrs. Griffiths, and to Messrs. Bori’er, 
Greville, Arnott, Wilson, and Harvey. The papers of the late 
Capt. Carmichael have also been an invaluable help to me. 

The present Part, or half Volume, is confined to the Orders 
Musci, HepaiiccB, Lichenes, Characece, and AlgcB. Another 
Part, containing the second portion of the Volume, will embrace 
the only remaining Order, the Fungi, and will be published 
with all the speed consistent witli careful execution. The 
Fungi, as is known by every Botanist, constitute an order 
of immense extent, and one, which, notwithstanding all that has 
been done by Withering, Sowerby, Purton, Carmichael, and 
Dr. Greville, must yet be acknowledged as the least understood 
of all our British Flora. The labour attending the study of 
these is much increased by their perishable nature, and by the 
difficulty, almost amounting to an impossibility, of preserving 
specimens ; so that, in many instances, if they are not carefully 
examined, and described or drawn on the spot, it is in vain 
to attempt to remedy the deficiency from the contents of an 

Thus much I have a satisfaction in saying, that the Rev. M. 
J. Berkeley of Margate, (author of Gleanings of the British 
AlgcB,') has kindly undertaken to prepare the descriptions of 
the Agarics and some allied Genera ; and to Mr. Purton, who 
has so well illustrated the Fungi in his Flora of the Midland 
Counties, I am indebted for copious MS. notes, on all the species 
that have come under his observation. Still, in so extensive 
and intricate a field, I shall greatly need the indulgence of my 
fellow-students ; and I entreat their assistance, in communicating 
their remarks, as well as specimens and drawings of the rarer 
kinds, or of new and dubious ones, from every part of the king- 
dom, particularly from the south of England, which, I have rea- 
son to believe, has been but little explored in this department, 
and which yet, from its climate, bids fair to be very productive. 



apology, I trust, will be deemed necessary for not here giving' 
such enlarged descriptions, and such full synonymy and habitats, 
as are contained in the earlier volumes of the English Flora. 
Such a plan would, indeed, have been desirable ; and it is im- 
possible to say how much it is to be wished, for the sake of 
Cryptogamic Botany, that Messrs. Turner and Borrer would 
complete their Lichenographia Britannica, begun ujjon this prin- 
ciple ; but it is obvious, that had such a j>lan been adopted, in 
the present instance, instead of the whole of the Class Crypto- 
gamia, (excepting the Ferns,) being comprised in the 2 parts of 
a single volume, 3 volumes would scarcely have proved suffi- 
cient for it. A larger page, and smaller type, and all possible 
brevity consistent with clearness, have been employed to bring 
these plants into as small a compass as possible ; many stations, 
and references to excellent local Floras, have, consequently, 
been omitted, but none, it is hoped (at least not designedly), 
that are necessary for the illustration of the species. 


February ls<, 1833. 


Page 30, n. 9, Didtjmodon crispulus, add — IVi/s. in E. Bot. Sup2)l. t. 273E 

30, n. 10, Didpmodon brachydontius, add — Wils, in E. Bot, 
t. 2735. 

35, line 25, for “ niitriform,” read dimidiate. 

47, line 31, for “ sharp,” read short. 

58, before Bryum julacetim, insert 

B. squarrosum, Hedw. (squarrose Thread- Moss) ; stems loosely 
branched downy with roots, leaves ovate acute serrulate remarkably 
reflexed, nerve disappearing below the point, capsule oblong nearly 
erect unequal substrumose at the base. Hedw, Sp. Muse, i. 44. y. 0 — 11. 
— Faludella sqtiarrosa, Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 2. P. II. t. 161. 

On Knutsford Moor, Cheshire, in one spot only, and barren, disco- 
vered by William Wilson, Esq., on the 16th of April, 1832, at the same 
time that he gathered abundantly Ilypnum Blandovii and Bjyum ajjine. 
It is to be hoped, that at some future season, Mr. Wilson will have the 
good fortune to detect fructification upon this most interesting addition 
to the British Muscologia. 

Page 65, n. 25, Bryum affine, add — Wils. in E. Bot. SujjpU t. 2739. 

73, line 10, from the bottom, for “ F. squarrosa,’’ read F. squamosa. 

79, n. 13, Ilypnum trifarium, add — Craigalleach, in Breadalbane ; 
.7. B. Hooker. 

79, n. 14, Hypnum stramineum, add — in fruit near Berwick-upon- 
Tweed, Dr, Johnston. 

82, before n. 23, 77. pulchellum — insert 
H. demissum, Wils. [(qn ostrate Feather- Moss); stem prostrate with a 
few slender branches, leaves erect subunilateral elliptic-lanceolate acute 
nerveless entire the margin recurved, capsule elliptical cernuous, lid 
with a long beak. Wils. in E. Bot. Suppl. t. 2740. 

From the woods of Cromagloun Mountain, near the upper lake of 
Killarney, Ireland, growing on the most inclined faces of detached rocks ; 
August, 1829. It has since been observed near Bedgelert, in North 
Wales, Mr. W. Wilson. — “A distinct and very elegant little species, 
remarkable for its glossy slender habit and compact mode of growth.” 

Page 87, n. 41, erase Hypnum laricinum, which proves to be the same 
as 77. Blandovii; but under the latter species the peculiar carina- 
tion of the leaf has been omitted to be described. 

Page 159, before n. 13, E. sinopictim — insert 

E. p/olysHctum, (_many-dotted Endocarpon); scales minute tartareous 
very thin crowded angular even whitish upon a thick black continuous 
substratum, apothecia minute immersed at length slightly emerging flat- 
tish above, shell black throughout, pore obsolete. — Verrucaria jiolysticta, 
Borr. in E. Bot. Su^ypl. t. 2741. 



Not uncommon on walls, whetlier of brick or flint, growing chiefly, 
but not exclusively, on the mortar. It occurs also occasionally on sand- 
stone, pd on large flints on the downs of Sussex, Mr. Borrer.—'' So 
nearly is this allied to E.fuscellum, that it is now proposed as distinct 
with considerable hesitation. E. fuscelluin 'is distinguished, however, not 
only by the thicker, pulvinate, variously tumid, and often deep! v fissured 
thallus, but more essentially by the structure of its apothecia, which 
are much more minute, and have the brown solid nucleus enveloped, in 
the immersed portion, only in a thin pellicle of their own colour, and 
not inclosed in every part in a thick black shell.” Borr. 

Page 207, ii. 2, CoUema microphyllum, add — E. Bot. Suppl. t. 2721. 

212, n. 25, Collema dermatinum, add— Bot. Suj)pl t. 2716./. 2. 

221, Roccella tincloria, add — M. Ilobiquet has separated the col- 
ouring matter of this vegetable. The new and singular product 
which he has obtained has a very sweet flavour, is easily solu- 
ble in water, colourless, chrystalizes in beautiful flat quadrangu- 
lar prisms ; — by means of a moderate heat, it may be volatilized 
without decomposing, and does not acquire the colouring pro- 
perty till it has undergone successively the action of ammonia 
and of common O-u.—Sillman's Journal, v. 18. 

246, n. 7, Chara aspera, add — in Wils. B. Bot. Suppl, t. 2758. 

299, n. 3. Gracilaria compressa. To Mrs. Griffiths’ name, for the 
station of this plant, add that of Miss Cutler, from whom I have 
received most beautiful specimens. 

306, Chcelospora Wigghii. To the station for Sidmouth, add the 
name of Miss Cutler. 

347, n. 29, Calithaninion interruptum, add — Weymouth, Bev. M. 
J. Berkeley. 

.357, after n. 38, Conferva Hutchinsice — insert 
C. rectaiigidaris. Griff. MS. {right-angled Coiifervd); filaments thick 
rigid vaguely branched dark-green entangled, branches distant divari- 
cate naked below, upper ramuli opposite spreading very short, articu- 
lations thrice as long as broad. 

Tor-abbey, Mrs. Griffiths and Mr, Borrer. Meadfoot, Mrs. Wyatt. 
— 2 — 3 inches high, filaments irregularly branched, the branches 
divaricating and entangled, nearly bare in their lower parr, furnished 
above with short, opposite, one-jointed, spreading ramuli. Articulations 
2— 3 times longer than broad; joints contracted. Nearly allied to C. 
HutchinsicB, from which it is easily distinguished by the oi)posite ramuli 
and divaricated entangled branches. 


CRYPTOGAMIA continued. 

Order IT. Musci. Linn. Mosses. 

Fructification, so called, of 2 kinds ; Anthers concealed among 
the leaves ; and Capsules covei-ed, in an early stage, with a 
calyptra which bursts transversely and regularly at the base, 
and rises up with the mostly pedunculated and operculated cap- 
side. Tlie opercidum, or lid, deciduous in most instances. Mouth 
of the capsule naked or furnished with a single or double fringe 
ov peristome ; the teeth or cilia in each row 4, 8, 16, 32, or 64. 
The seeds surronnd a columella, are enclosed in a membranous 
hag, and not accompanied by spiral filaments. — Plants of 
small stature, of a more or less compactly cellular texture, 
readily reviving, after being dry, by the application of moisture, 
bearing leaves which are very rarely, indeed, divided, often 
marked with a central nerve or costa, entire or toothed or serrated 
at the margin — Amongall the plants of the Class Cryptogahiia, 
no Order, perhaps, presents a more varied and exquisitely 
beautiful structure than the Mosses; whether we consider their 
foliage, their capsules, or the delicate single or double fringe 
W'hich surrounds the mouth of tlie lattei-. They are mostly in 
perfection in the winter months, and no part of the globe appears 
to be entirely destitute of tliem. Their maximum, however, 
doubtless exists in tlie temperate and cold climates; where they 
invest rocks and trees, especially in a northern exposure, to a con- 
siderable extent, “ affording,” says Linnaeus, “ a harbour to an 
immense number of insects, protecting them, lest they should be 
destroyed by tlie frosts of winter, or be parched by the heats 
of summer, or withered by the vicissitudes of spring, or decayed 
by the damps of autumn — so that nothing, we may be assured, 
not even the minutest vegetable, is made in vain. 


2 #^ 

Synopsis of the Genera. 

Sect. I. Seta (oi'fndtstalli) terminal. (Dicranum only offers 
o jeiv exceptions.) Acrocarpi. 

Subsect. I. Lid adhering to the mouth of the capsule, ivhich is 
destitute of peristome. Astomi. 

1. Andr.ea. Capsule 4-valved. 

2. PHASCU3I. Capside entire. 

Subsect. II. Lid deciduous; mouth of the capside naked. 


3. Sphagnum. Capsw/e sessile on a soft pediincnlated recejj?- 
tacle wliicli resembles a fruitstalk. Calyptra irregularly torn. 

4. CEdopodium. Seta elongated, thick, fleshy. Calyptra 

5. Gymnostomum. Seta more or less elongated, slender, 
rigid. Calyptra dimidiate. 

6. Anictangium. Seta more or less elongated. Calyptra 

7. ScHiSTosTEGA. elongated. very thick, marked 

with radiating cells. Calyptra campanulate, at length cleft. 

Subsect. III. Lid deciduous ; mouthof the capsule furnished loith 
a peristome. Peristomi. 

Div. I. Peristome single. Aploperistomi. 

8. Diphyscium. Peristome a cone-shaped, plaited membrane. 
Capsule oblique. 

9. Tetraphis. Peristome oi a teeth. 

10. Splachnum. Peristome of 8 or 16 geminating teeth. 
Capsule with an evident apojjhysis. 

11. Cyrtodon. Peristome of 16, equidistant, entire teeth, 
marked with a central line, incurved when dry. Capsule with 
an apophysis. Calyptra glabrous, without furrows. 

12. CoNoSTOMUM. Peristome of 16, equidistant teeth, united 
at their summits. 

13. ENCAifYPTA. Peristome of 16 teeth. Calyptra campa- 
nulate, smooth, entirely enclosing the mature capside. 

14. Weissia. Peristome of 16, entire, equidistant teeth. 
Calyptra dimidiate. 

15. Grimjiia. Peristome of 16, entire or perforated, rarely 
cleft, equidistant teeth. Calyptra mitriform. 



16. Didymodon. Peristome of 16 or 32 teeth, approaching 
in pairs or united at the base. Calyptra dimidiate. 

17. Trichostomum. Peristome of 16, equal teeth, divided 
to the base, or 32 placed together in pairs. Calyptra initri- 

18. Glyphomitrion. Capsule destitute of apophysis. Peris- 
tome of 16 teeth, approximated in pairs, reflexed Avhen dry. 
Calyptra covering the whole capsule, entire or rarely cleft on 
one side and laciniated. 

19. Dicranum. Peristome of 16, bifid, equidistant teeth. 
Calyptra dimidiate, not fringed at the base. (In some species 
of the first division the seta is lateral.) 

20. Tortula- Peristome of 32, spirally twisted teeth, more 
or less united at their base into a tubiform membrane. 

21. CiNCLiDoTUS. Pemtowie of 32, filiform, at length twisted 
teeth, anastomosing at their base. 

22. PoLYTRiCHUM. Peristome of 32 or 64 equidistant teeth, 
united at the extremity by a horizontal membrane. Calyptra 
dimidiate, very small. 

(^See Entosthodon and Orthotrichum in Diploperistomi.) 

Div. II. Peristome double. Diploperistomi. 

A. Internal peristome composed of distinct teeth or cilia, (in 
Entosthodon obsolete.^ 

23. Entosthodon. Peristome double (?) ; the outer of 16 re- 
mote (horizontal and slightly oblique) teeth, from within the 
mouth of the capsule ; inner obsolete or wanting. Capsule with 
an apophysis. 

24. Pun ARIA. Peristome oblique; the oiUer of 16, compact 
teeth ; the inner of as many cilia opposite to the teeth of the 
outer. Capside pyriform, its mouth oblique. 

25. Zygodon. Outer peristome of 16 teeth, approaching in 
pairs; the inner of 8 or 16 horizontal cilia. Ccdyptra dimidiate. 

26. Orth6trichu 3I. of 1 6 teeth, approach- 

ing in pairs; the inner of 8 or 16 horizontal cilia, (sometimes 
wanting). Calyptra mitriform, sulcate. 

B. Inner peristome formed of a membrane more or less divided into 

lacinim or segments. 

27. Bryum. Outer peristome of 16 teeth; lacinice of the 
inner 16, equal, frequently with filiform processes placed between 
them. Calyptra dimidiate. 

4 * 


28. 1 IMMIA. Outer peristome of 16 teeth ; lacinice of the inner 
variously united at the base by transverse bars and frequently 
cohei'ing at the points. Calyptra dimidiate. 

29. Bartramia. Outer peristonie 0? teeth lacinice oi t\ie 
inner 16, equal, bifid. Calyptra dimidiate. (Capsule mostly 

30. Buxraumia. 0^<^erj9er^stow^e of numerous filiform, erect, 
jointless teeth ; the inner a plaited membranous cone. Capsule 

Sect. II. Seta or fruitstalk lateral. Pleurocarpi. 

Subsect. I. Mouth of the capsule nahed. Gymnostomi. 

31. Hedwigia. Calyptra dimidiate. 

Subsect. II. Mouth of the capsule furnished with a peristome. 


Biv. I. Peristome single. Aploperistomi. 

32. Pterogonium. Peristome of 1 6, entire, equidistant teeth. 
Calyptra dimidiate. 

33. Leucodon. Peristome of 32 teeth, closely united in 
pairs. Calyptra dimidiate. 

Div. II. Peristome double. Dipuoperistomi. 

A. Internal peristome composed of free cilia. 

34. Neckera. Outer peristome of 16 teeth ; cilia of the inner 
16, sometimes connected at the base by a very short membrane. 
Calyptra dimidiate. 

35. Anomodon. pemfome of 16 teeth ; c^7^a 16, aris- 

ing from the side of the teeth. Calyptra dimidiate. 

36. Daltonia. Outer peristome of 16 teeth ; dlia 16, arising 
from the side of the teeth. Calyptra mitriform. 

B. Inner peristome composed of cilia united heloto into a membrane 
or connected by transverse bars. 

37. Fontinalis. Outer peristome of 16 teeth; cilia of the 
inner 16, connected by transverse bars, forming a reticulated 
cone. Calyjjtra mitriform. 

38. Hookeria. Outer peristome of 16 teeth; inner of 16 
cilia, united below into a membrane. Calyptra mitriform. 

39. Hypnum. Outer peristome of 16 teeth ; inner a mem- 
brane cut into 16 equal segments, with filiform processes fre- 
quently placed between them. Calyptra dimidiate. 


Sect. I. Seta (^ov friiitstalk) (Z)zVramm alone offers 

a few exceptions.) Acrocarpi.i 

Subsect. I. Lid adhering to the mouth of the capsule. Astomi.^ 
1. Andra:a. Ehrh. Andraea. 

Caps. 4-valved, the valves cohering at the exti’einity by 
means of the jjersistent lid. Calyplra iiTegularly torn. (^Musc. 
Brit. t. 1.) — Name given in honour of an Apothecary of Hano- 
ver, named Andreae. Hence the Germans write it Andrexa. 

1 . A. alpina, Hedw. (^alpine Andrrea") ; stems branched, 
leaves obovate suddenly acuminated nerveless straight imbricat- 
ing the stem on all sides. Hedw. Sp. Muse. p. 49. B. Bot. 
t. 1278. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 2. n. 1. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 2. 
t. 8. — Aoulreoia petrophila, Ehrh — Dill. Muse. t. 83. f. 39. 

Alpine rocks, but not very common. On Ben-Nevis, in the greatest 
abundance and perfection. Fr. Spring. — Foliage of a deep and glossy 
dark-brown colour. While the capside is immature, Mr. Wilson ob- 
serves the seeds to cohere in masses usually of 4, sometimes 3. 

2. A. rupestris, Hedw. (I'ock Andreeai) ; stems branched, 
leaves ovate gradually acuminated nerveless the upper ones 
falcate. Hedw. Sp. Muse. p. 47. t. 7. f. 2. E. Bot. t. 1277, 
(not of FI. Brit.') Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 2. n. 3. Muse. Brit, 
ed. 2. p. 2. t. 8. 

Rocky mountainous situations, throughout Great Britain. Fr. 
Spring. — This has been often confounded with A, Rothii, from which it 
is at once distinguishable by its broad and nerveless leaf, and usually 
browner colour. It is much more allied to the preceding species, but is 
considerably smaller. 

3. A. Rothii, Mohr, (black falcate Andrcea) ; stems almost 
simple, leaves lanceolato-subulate falcato-secund fragile nerved 
those of the perichsetium convolute, the innermost nerveless. 
Mohr, Cr. Germ. p. 386. t. 11./. 7—9. E. Bot. t. 2162. 

Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 2. n. 2. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 2. t. 8 A. 

rupestris, Roth, — Brid. — El. Brit. p. 1178. Dill. Muse. t. 83. 
/. 40. 

Alpine rocks, frequent. Fr. Spring. 

' From «*{«>!, the summit, or extremity, and the fruit, 

“ From a, without, and rrofta, the mouth. 





4. A. ?iivdlis, Hook, slender Androea) ; stems slightly 
ranched, leaves loosely imbricated lanceolate siihfalcate secund 
nerved those of the perichmtium similar to the rest. Hook, in 
Unn. Trans, v. 10. p. 395. 31. /. 4. E. Hot. t. 2307. Hobs. 

Br. Mosses, v. 2. n. 2. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 3. t. 8. 

Rocks, upon the highest summit of Ben-Nevis and the Ptarmigan 
mountains, and on the Cairngorum range. Fr. Spring. — This grows 
to the greatest size of any of the Genus, and much resembles, in 
general appearance, Jungermannia juniperina. The foliage is lax and 
flaccid, usually pale-coloured; the nerve strong and equally present in 
perichactial leaves as in the others. 

2. Phascum. Linn. Earth-Moss. 

Seta terminal. Capsule entire. Lid persistent. Calyptra 
dimidiate. (^Musc. Brit. t. 1.^ — Name; — tpasxov is an ancient 
Greek name for some mossy substance ; according to Bridel, 
the XJsnea harhata — Ihe sjtecies are among the most minute of 
Mosses, and are more frequent in the southern than the northern 
parts of Great Britain. 

* Furnished loith creeping, branched, conferva-like shoots. 

1. ^ . serrdtum, Schreb. (serrated Earth-Moss^ ; shoots branched 

conferva-like, pericheetial leaves lanceolate deeply serrated 
nerveless. Schreb. de Phase, t. 2. Hedw. Sp. Muse. p. 23. 
E. Bot. t. 460. Dicks. Cl', Ease. 1. 1. 1. Turn. Muse. 

Hib. p. 4. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 4. t. 5. — j3. base of the shoots 
opaque not jointed. P. stoloniferum, Dicks. Cr. Ease. 3. 
t. 7. /. 2. E. Bot. t. 2006. 

Sandy shaded banks, not unfrequent. In the Botanic Garden, Belfast, 
abundant. Mr. Drummond.— Fr. Spring. 

** Conferva-like shoots none. Leaves more or less subulate. 

Capside nearly sessile. 

2. P. allernifdlium, Dicks, (alternate-leaved Earth- BIoss) ; 
stems elongated, leaves entire lanceolato-suhulate remote, in- 
novations from immediately beneath the fruit. Dicks. Cr. Ease. 
1. t. 1. f. 2. E. Bot. t. 107. Sclmaegr. Suppl. v. \. p. 10. t. 10. 
— Pleuridium, Brid. 

Moist banks, rare and mostly barren. Epping Forest, E. Forster, 
Esq. Near Liverpool, Rev. Mr. Taylor. Pembroke, Rev. J. S. Tozer. 
Belfast, Mr. Drummond. Bodorgan, near Aberfraw, Wales; \n fruit 
Jan. and Feb. Mr. W. Wilson. — A verj' remarkable moss; perhaps 
esteemed rarer than it is in reality, on account of its inconspicuous 
foliage mydfi'uit. The latter is not always accompanied by the elongated 
shoots ; and the leaves, Mr. Wilson observes, are sometimes broader than 
represented in the Muse. Brit. 

3. P. crispum, Hedw. (curly-leaved Earth-Moss); leaves 
lanceolato-sidmlate flexuose crisped when dry. Hedw. St. Cr. 
V. 1. t. 9. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 2. E. Bot. t. 1680, and 
t. 618. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 6. t. 5. — P. inulticajmdare, 
El. Brit. p. 1152. E. Bot. sub t. 1680.—^. rostellatum ; beak of 




tlie lid elongated. P. rostellatum, Brid. Meth. p. 9, BryoL Germ, 
p. 58. t. Q.f. 14. 

Banks and fields. — /3, Northamptonshire. Rev. M. J. Berkeley. Fr. 
March. — The acnter beak to the capsule, which latter is more exserted, 
is all the difference I can discover between the P. rostellatum and 
P. crispum. 

4. P. mbuldtum, Linn, (^awl-leaved Earth-3Ioss) ; leaves subu- 
lato-setaceons straight, their nerve disappearing below the 
summit. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1570. Hedw. St. Or. v. 1. t. 35. 
Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 1. FI. Brit. p. 1149. E. Bot. t. 2177. 
Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 1. n. 5. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 6. t. 5. 
— P. aeaule, Dill. Muse. t. 32, yi 10. 

Dry banks and fields, frequent. Fr. Spring. 

5. P. axilldre, Dicks, (lateral-fruited Earth-Moss^ ; leaves lan- 
ceolato-subulate straight their nerve disappearing below the 
summit, fruit often apparently axillary. Diehs. Or. Ease. 1. 
j). 2. t. 1. f. 3. Turn. Muse. Bib. p. 1. El. Brit. p. 1149. 
E. Bot. t. 1036. Muse, Brit. ed. 2. p. 7, t. 5. — P. nilidum, 

Hedw. St. Or. v. 1. ^ 34 P. slrietum, Dicks. Or. Ease. 4. 

t. 10. /. 1. El. Brit.p. 1151. E. Bot. t. 2093. 

Moist banks. Fr. March. — This, like the preceding, which it much 
resembles, is of a very pale yellowish colour ; but it has less setaceous 
and less rigid leaves. From innovations, the capsules sometimes appear 
axillary, and such are generally drooping. 

*** Conferva-shoots none. Leaves lanceolate or ovate. 

Capsules nearly sessile. 

6. P. crassinervium, Schwaegr. (broad-nerved Earth-Moss) ; 
stemless, leaves erecto-patent linear-lanceolate dentato-serrate, 
nerve very broad and exciirrent. Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. p. 4. 
t. 2. Bryol. Germ. v. 1. p. 40. t. 4.f. 3. Grev. Scot. Cr. El. 
t. 353. 

On limestone soil, in a fallow-field, by the side of Bedford purlieus, 
near Wansford, Northamptonshire. Rev. M. .7. Berkeley. — Fr. Dec, 
This has the texture (loosely cellular) and habit of P . serratum,\>\\t here 
there are no conferva-like shoots, the leaves are almost exactly lanceolate 
and furnished with an exceedingly broad, excurrent nerve. 

7. P. p)dtens, Hedw. (spreading Earth-Moss^; stem short, 

leaves patent narrow-ov^ate serrated, nerve disappearing helow 
the point. Hedw. St. Cr. v. 1. 10. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 2. 

El. Brit. p. 1150. E. Bot. t. 1279. Muse. Brit. ed. 2.p. 7. t. 5. 
— leaves narrower. P. recurvifolixim, Dicks. Cr. Ease. 4. 
t. 10. — P. pachycarpon, Schioaegr. Suppxl. v. 1. p. 4. t. 2. 

Clay-fields and banks, not common. P'r. Aug. — The patent and 
strongly serrated leaves, with the nerve disappearing below the summit, 
suffice to distinguish this from all the states of P. cuspidatum. 

8. P. nmticum, Schreb. (^common dxoarf Earth-Moss) ; stem- 
less, leaves broadly ovate concave acuminate more or less 
serrated connivent, nerve reaching to the point. Schreb. de 
Phase, t. 1./ 11 — 14. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 3. El. Brit. 



p. 1 156. E. Bot. t. 2027. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 8. t. 5.—P. acau- 
lon, l3. Linn. — Dill. Muse. t. 32. f. 12. — /3. minus, leaves entire. 

Moist banks, common. — /3. near the sea, Torquay, Devon. Fr. Spring. 
-—The innermost leaves are sometimes almost hemisphaerical, and a tuft 
of the plant looks like clusters of little bulbs, frequently tinged with 
brown, and glossy. 

9. P. euspidatum, Sclireb. (cuspidate Earth-moss^; steins 
sometimes elongated, leaves ovato-acuminate erect entire, nerve 
reaching to, or beyond, the point. 3Iusc. Brit. ed. 2. p. 8. 
t. 5. — a. apiculatum, leaves apiculate. P. cuspid. Schreb. de 
Phase, t. 1. / 1—3. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 3. El. Brit. p. 1155. 
E. Bot. t. 2025. — P. Sehreberianum, Dicks. — FI. Brit. p. 1155. 
E. Bot. t. 2026. — P. curvisetum, Dicks. Cr. Ease. 4. t. 10. 
f. 4. El. Brit. p. 1154. E. Bot. t. 2259. — P. Carniolicum, et 
elatium, Web. et Mohr, — P. acaulon, a. Linn , — /3. piliferum ; 
leaves hair-pointed. P. piliferum, Schreb. de Phase, t. ^.f, 6 — 

10. FI. Brit. p. llbl. E.'Bot. t. ISm. 

Hedges, fields, and moist banks. Fr. March. — A common but very vari- 
able species in the size of the plant, length of the stems, more or less 
apiculated or piliferous foliage and in the straightness or curvature of 
the seta. For further remarks upon this species, see Muse. Brit. 1. e. 

**** Conferva-like shoots none. Leaves more or less ovate. 

Seta elongated. 

10. P. bryoides, Dicks, (tall Earth-moss') ; stem elongated, 
leaves ovate apicidate, capsule elliptical. Dicks. Cr. Ease. 4. 
f. lO.yi 3. El. Brit. p. 1154. E. Bot. t. 1180. Muse. Brit, ed, 2. 
p. 10. t. 5 — P. gymnostomoides, Brid. Meth. p. 7. 

Banks and fields in England, principally in the south, rare. Fr. Spring. 
— Habit of a Gymnostomum; but at once distinguished by the ellip- 
tical capsule and its union with the lid. Resembling, too, in minia- 
ture, the Voitia nivalis from the Carinthian Alps. 

11. P. rectum,'W'\\X\. (straight- stalked Earth-Moss); stem short, 

leaves ovate with a short point, capsule globose nearly erect. 
With. Bot. Arr. ed. 4. 771. t. IS.f. 1. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 4. 

El. Brit. p. 1153. E. Bot. t. 330. et p. 905. 3Iusc. Brit. ed. 2. 
p. 10. t. 5. 

Banks and fields, rare in Scotland, more frequent in England and 
Ireland. Fr. Spring. — This has the habit of with which 

it frequently grows intermixed, and from which it is known by its glo- 
bose capsule. Leaves often reddish. Capsule red-brown. 

12. P. curvicollum, Hedw. (crooked-stalked Earth-Moss); stem 
short, leaves narrow-ovate acuminated, capsule globose, seta 
curved. Hedtv. St. Cr. v. \. j). 11. E. Bot. t. 905, (not 330). 

Moist banks in Etigland. Fr. Spring. 

Subsect. II. Lid deciduous. Mouth of the capside naked. 


3. Sphagnum. Linn. Bog-Moss. 

Receptacle pedunculated, its peduncle resembling a fruitstalk. 
Capsule sessile on the receptacle, its lid deciduous, its mouth 




naked. Calyptra irregularly torn. (^Musc. Brit. t. 1.) — Name 
applied by Dillenius to this Genus of Plants. The Sphagrium 
of Pliny is some kind of tree-moss or lichen — The species 
are all aquatic and remarkable for the beautiful texture of 
their leaves and for their pale almost white colour, especially 
when di’y. 

1. S. obtusifoliwn, Ehrh. (blunt-leaved Bog-Moss) ; branches 
tumid, leaves ovate obtuse. Muse. Brit. p. 13. t. 4. — «. vulgaris, 
stems loosely tufted, 7 or 8 inches long, leaves closely imbri- 
cated. Ehrh. Or. n. 241, (accoi'ding to Sm.) Drum. Muse. 

Scot. V. \. n. 3 S. latifoliwn, Hedw. Sp. Muse. p. 27. Turn. 

Muse. Hib.p. 5. FI. Brit.p. 1145. E. Bot. t. \A^b.—S.cym- 
bifoliurn, Sio. (to which may be added probably S. contortum, 
Schultz and S. subsecundum, Nees ; and many species of Bridel.) 
— S. palustre, a,. Linn. — Ddl. Muse. t. 32. /! 1. — minus, stems 
densely tufted 2 or 3 inches long, leaves closely imbricated. S. 
compactum, Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. <. 3. Bryol. Germ. v. 1. 
p. 13. t. 2. f. 5. (excellent). — y. jlwitans, stems much length- 
ened out, 2 to 3 feet long slencler, leaves scattered remote. 
S. latifolium, j3. jiuitans, Turn. Muse. Hib. p>. 6. — S. immersum, 
Bryol. Germ. v. \. p. \\.t.2.f. 4. 

Bogs and still pools, in heaths and inoory soils, every where most 
abundant. Fr. Spring. — Linnaeus was perhaps correct in supposing that 
there was but one species of Sphagnum: for I think that from the 
var. a. of S. obtusifolium, the most decidedly marked of the broad-leaved 
state of the Genus, a regular gradation may be traced to S. cusjhdatum, 
which has the longest and narrowest leaves. It is very certain that 
the limits of the species, if such they may be called, cannot be defined. 
Bridel enumerates 16 species. 

2. S. squarrdsum, Web. et Molm. (^spreading -leaved Bog- 
Moss) ; branches attenuated at the extremities, leaves ovato- 
acuminate squarrose recurved. Web. et Mohr, It. Suec. t. 2.f. 1. 
a. b. E. Bot. t. 1498. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 2. n. 4. Muse. Brit, 
ed. 2. JO. 13. t. 4. 

Bogs; not rare. Er. June. — Separated from the last on account of 
its more acuminated, and, at the extremities, recurved leaves. 

3. S. acutifolium, Ehrh. (slender Bog-Moss) ; branches at- 
tenuated, leaves ovato-lanceolate crowded. Ehrh. Cr. n. 72. 
(Sm.) Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. p. 15. t. 5. Drum. Mtcsc. Scot. 
V. \. n. 1. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. j). 14. t. 4. — S. capillifolium, Hedw. 
Sp. Muse. p. 28. El. Brit. p. 1146. E. Bot. t. 1406. — S. 
palustre, (3. Linn. — Dill. Muse. t. 32./. 2. A. 

Bogs; extremely common. Fr. Spring. 

4. S. cuspiddtum, Ehrh. (long-leaved floating Bog-Moss) ; 
branches attenuated, leaves lanceolato-subulate lax. Ehrh. Or. 
n. 25, (Sm.) FI. Brit. p. 1147 . E. Bot. t. 2392. Sehioaegr. 
Suppl. V. 1. p. 16. t. 6. Turn. Muse. Hib.p. 6. Drum. Muse. 
Scot. V. 1. n. 2. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 15. t. 4. 


. uncommon, generally wholly immersed in the water ; rare 

in fiiiit. Fr. Spring. Dr, Greville has found, near Edinburgh, a state of 
this plant four feet long, with leaves 3-4ths of an inch in length, but 
always barren. 

4. QSdipodium. Schwaegr. Club -stalked Moss. 

Seta terminal, elongated, thick, fleshy. Mouth of the capsule 
without peristome, hut closely shut hy an horizontal membrane. 
Calyptra dimidiato-mitriforni. — Named from o<^o 5 , a swelling, and 
mug, afoot ; the footstalk being remarkably thickened upwards, 

1. CE, Griffithidnuyn, Schwaegr. (^Griffithian club-stalked 
Moss^. Schwaegr. Suppl. 2. yi. 15. t. 150. Brid. Bryol. Univ. 
V. 2. p. 83. — Gynmostornum Grifithianum, FI. Brit. p. 1162. 
F. Bot. t. 1938. Brum. Muse. Scot, v, 1. n. 9. Muse. Brit. ed. 
2. p. 20. t. 7. — Bryum Griffithianum, Bicks. Cr. Fuse. 4. t. 10. 
/. 10. — Splachnum Frcelichianum, With, et Hull. (Sm.) 

Crevices of rocks upon the more elevated mountains. Snowdon, 
Mr. Griffith, Mr. W. IVilson, Ingleborough, Yorkshire. Rev. J. Dalton 
and W. J. H. Clova mountains, Mr. Don and il-fr. Drummond. 
Ben-Nevis and Ben-Cruachan, Rev. Colin Smith. Ben-Ledi, Mr. J. D. 
Hooker and Mr. G. Lyon. Fr. Aug. — Stems scarcely any. Leaves large, 
roundish-obovate, strongly reticulated, succulent, the nerve disappearing 
below the summit. Seta very thick and flesh}', especially upwards, 
where it gradually enlarges into the oval nearly erect capsule. Lid he- 
misphasrical. Calyptra diaphanous in its lower half. Gemmw are found 
within the leaves, “ obovate, compressed, with lenticular edges, some- 
times intermixed with the pistils, sometimes with the anthers and jointed 
filaments ; when fully formed they have lenticular edges and are sup- 
ported on long jointed filiform stalks. Before they are detached 
they exhibit lateral innovations from their edges. The membrane which 
closes the mouth of the capsule is continued, so as to line the /id, which 
lining is detached along with the lid, adhering by means of connecting 
threads at intervals and leaving a space between it and the fleshy sub- 
stance of the lid, which is almost pellucid. Columella only ^ as long as 
the capsule. Seeds in fours.” W. Wilson. 

So remarkable a plant as this, with a splachnoid habit, does not rank 
well with the Gymnostoma. 1 have therefore followed Schwaegrichen, 
in separating it, making the essential difference to depend on the pecu- 
liar nature of the fruitstalk. 

5. Gymnostomum. Hediu. Beardless-Moss. 

Seta terminal, slender, rigid. Mouth of the capside naked, or 
at most, in an early stage, closed with a more or less complete, 
horizontal membrane. Calyptra dimidiate. — Leaves inserted on 
cdl sides of the stem. (^3Iusc. Brit. t. 1.) — Name ; yuiivog, 
naked and cropz, the mouth : from the absence of a peristome. 

* Stems more or less elongated, branched. 

1. G. ccespititium, lYeh. et Mohr, (niinide tufted beardless- 
Moss) ; leaves lanceolato-subulate canaliculate obscurely nerved 
very straight even when dry, those of the perichmtium much 
loitger than the turbinate quite furrowless capsule. Web. et Mohr, 


Cr. Germ. p. 77. a 7 id 453. — Anictangium coespititium, Hedw. 
Suppl v.\.p. 33. t. 12. — Schistidium ccespititium, Brid.—Bryol. 
Germ. p. 94. t. 8.f. 2. 

Crevices of rocks, near the highest summit of Ben-Lawers, with Saxi- 
fragn cernua and Verriicaria Iloo/ceri. Fr. July. — This very distinct Moss 
I had the good fortune to discover, whilst on a botanizing excursion with 
the students of my class in the summer of 1830. It grew in tults, so 
dense that the moss would have passed unnoticed by me, were it not 
for its glossy nestling among the leaves. 4 he colour is brown- 

ish-green. Stems branched, half an inch long. Leaves decidedly nen ed, 
even the perichaetial ones, though these are less evidently so. Lid 
obliquely rostrate. Cah/plra dimidiate, whence the plant should cei- 
tainly be retained in Gymnostomum. Seta about as long as the capsule, 
shorter than the perichaetial leaves. (G. testivum, arranged here in the 
Muscologia Britannica, I have, at the suggestion of Mr. Wilson, removed 
to Hedwigia). 

2. G. lapponicwn, Hedw. (^Lctplmul Bea?'dless-3Ioss') ; leaves 
linear-lanceolate channelled on the upper side along the pellucid 
nerve crisped wdien dry, those of the perichsetium hroadly ovate 
convolute, capsule suhexserted turhinate furrowed. Hediv. St. 
Cr. V. 3.;j. 5. A. FI. Brit. p. 1167. E. Bot. t. 2216. Drum. 
3Tusc. Scot. V. 1. n. 7. 3Iusc. Brit. ed. 2. j). 17. t. 6. — Anictan- 
gium, Hedw. Sji. — Bryum, Dicks. 

In the crevices of rocks, on Snowdon, and abundant on the summits 
of the high mountains of Scotland. Fr. July. — This is a very beautiful 
and well marked species, when bearing fruit upon the higher Alps, rarely 
exceeding an inch or an inch and a half in length ; but when growing in 
warmer and moister situations it is 3 — 5 inches long and is always barren. 

3. G. viridissimnm, Sni. {green tufted BeardIess-3Ioss) ; 
leaves hroadly lanceolate patent dotted, capsule OA'ate fur- 
rowed when old, lid obliquely rostrate. E. Bot. t. 1583. 3Iusc. 
Brit. ed. 2. p. 18. t. 6. — Dicranum viridiss., FI. Brit. p. 1224. 
Tiirn. 3Iusc. Hih. p. 71. — Grimmia Forsteri, FI. Brit. p. 1196. 
E. Bot. t. 2225. — Bryum Forsteri, Dicks. Cr. Fasc. 3. f. 7. f. 8. 
— (3. leaves reflexed when moist. 

On trunks of trees, seldom on rocks, in the south of England and Ire- 
land: rare in the north and in Scotland. Fr. Spring. — Densely pulvi- 
nate : in its foliage almost exactly resembling Zygodon conoideum. 3Ir. 
Wilson finds it on trees at Mucruss near Killarney, bearing fruit, and the 
Jtev. Colin Smith at Inverary, growing with the latter plant. 

4. G. curvirostrum, Hedw. {curve-beaked Beardless- 3Ioss); 
leaves lanceolato-suhidate erect rigid straight when dry, capsule 
(hrow'n) hroadly ovate, lid obliquely rostrate longer than the 
capsule. Hedw. St. Cr. v. 2. t. 24. FI. Brit. p. 1164. E. Bot. 
t. 2214. Drum. 3lusc. Scot. v. 1. n. 8. 3Iusc. Brit. ed. 2. p. 19. 
t. 6. — G. stelligerum, Schrad. ? — FI. Brit. p. 1164. — G. lutecium, 
FI. Brit. p. 1163. (not of E. Bot.) — G. pomiforme, Bi'yol. 
Germ. v. 1. ji. 158. t. 10. f. 18. — Bryum cestivum, Linn. — 
B. stelligerum, Dicks. 

Moist rocks. Ecclesmahon Burn, Linlithgowshire, J/r. 4r«o//. Near 


Gainsford, Yorkshire, Mr. Backhouse. 
Mr, rempleton. Fr, Summer. 

Rocks at Falrhead, Ireland. 

5. G. ruphtre, Scliwaegr. {tufted rock Beardless- Moss) ; 
leaves linear-subulate patent flaccid flexuose twisted when dry, 
® ovate, lid conico-rostrate shorter than the capsule. 

iichwaegr. Suppl. 1. jo. 31. <. 10. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 2. 

P' Suppl. t. ii . — G. curvirostrum, 
r^bs.Dr. flosses, v, 1. n. 9. — G. ceruginosum, FI. Brit. p. 1163. 
h. Dot. t. 2200 — G. articulatum, Brid. — Bryol. Germ, v, 1. 

f’ stelligerum, Bryol. Germ, v, 1. «. 168. 

11. /. 23. (Arnott.) ^ 

Moist d^rippmg rocks, not uncommon. Fr. Autumn.— I am happy 
to learn that Mr. Wilson, who has gathered this and the preceding 
trymnostomum in Wales, considers them to be truly distinct. The pre- 
sent IS, however, by far the most common. 

** Stems short, scarcely branched. 

6. G. ovdtum, Hedw. {hairy -leaved Beardless- Moss) ; leaves 
ovate erect concave piliferous, nerve expanded into a gem- 
miferous membrane, lid rostrate. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 21. t. 7. 
— vulgare; capsule ovate. Hedw. St. Cr. v. \.f. 6. FI. Brit, 
p. 1160. E. Bot. t. 1889. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 9. Drum. Muse. 
V. 2. n. 8 — gracile; capsule oblong. 

Banks and walls. Fr. Feb. — This species varies considerably in the 
length of its capsules,hence I have constituted 2 vars. In all states, the 
nerve is expanded into a membrane on each side from above the middle 
to the apex of the leaf ; but Mr. Wilson obseiwes that gemmae are not 
always attached to it. 

7. G. truncdtulum, Hoffm. (little blimt-fruited Beardless- 
Moss) ; leaves oblongo-obovate acute apiculate patent reti- 
culated pellucid entire nearly plane their margins recurved, 
capsule ovate or turbinate, lid obliquely rostrate. Muse. Brit, 
ed. 2. p. 22. t. 7 — m. capsule turbinate. G. truncatulum, Hoffm. 
Germ. v. 2. p. 27. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 7. FI. Brit. p. 1158. 
E. Bot. t. 1975. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 1. n. 12. Muse. Brit. ed. 
2. p. 22. t. 7 — G. truncatum, Hedw. St. Cr. v. 1. t. 5. — Bryum 
truncatidum, Linn — (3. capsule ovate or oblong. G. intermedium. 
Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 1 . t. \. f. a. FI. Brit. jo. 1159. E. Bot. 
t. 1976. — G. rifescens. Brid. — Bryol. Germ. v. 1. p. 121. t. 9. 
/ 1 — Bryum truncatidum, Linn. — Dill. 3Iusc. t. 45./. 7. A — E. 

On banks, walls, and fallow-fields. Fr. Winter. — Mr. Lyell and Dr. 
Greville find this occasionally with the stem branched in a fasciculated 
manner, with 6 — 8 branches, each branch bearing a capsule. 

8. G. WUsoni, Hook. ( Wilsonian Beai'dless-3Ioss); leaves 
oblongo-obovate obtuse apicidate minutely reticulated opaque 
entire, the margin slightly recurved, capsule oblongo-elliptical 
a little contracted at the mouth, lid obliquely rostrate, calyptra 
scabrous above. Hook. Bot. 3Iisc. v. \. p. 143. t. 41. — G. af- 

fine, Wilson, 31SS. (not Nees et Hornsch.) 


Near Over, Cheshire, 3Ir. W. Wilson, also near Bangor, and in 
Anglesea; near Forfar, Scotland, Mr. T. Drummond ; growing infields. 
Fr. Feb. — Nearly allied to the last, but when the two are compared, 
they will be found truly distinct. 

9. G. Heimii, (^long-stalhed Beardless-Mossy ; leaves lan- 

ceolate serrated at the point, lid obliquely rostrate. Hedw. St. 
Cr.v. 1. t. 30. Turn. Muse. Hib.p. 9. FI. Brit. p. 1162. Drum. 
Muse. Seot. V. 2. n. 12. — G. ohtusum, Hedw. Sp. Muse. t. 2. 
t. I — 3. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 9. FI. Brit. p. 1 159. E. Bot. 
t. 1407. — G. intermedium, Sehwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. p. 19. t. 7. 
(not of others.) — G. affine, Bryol. Germ. v. \.p. 140. t. 9. f. 9. 

Moist banks and pastures, especially near the sea. Fr. Spring. — This 
is of stouter and larger growth than the preceding; the leaves are more 
rigid, narrow, serrated at the extremity and frequently assume a reddish 
tinge, their margins attenuated, plane, not recurved. 

10. G. eonieum, Sehwaegr. (blunt-lidded Beardless-Moss) ; 
leaves oblongo-ovate apiculate spreading, capsule more or less 
ovate, lid conical. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 23. t. 7. — <*. capsule 
ovate. G. eonieum, Sehwaegr. Suppl. v. \. p. 26. t. 9. Bryol. 

Germ. v. 1. p. 127. t. 9. f, 4 (3. capsule turbinate. G. minu- 

tulum, Sehwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. p. 25. t. 9. Bryol. Germ. v. 1. 
j>. 123. t. 9.f. 2. 

Fields ; near Cork. Mr. J. Drummond. Too frequent in the Bot. 
Garden, Dublin. Mr. J. T. Mackay. Banks near the sea, Dunleary, 
Ireland. Mr. T. Drummond. Ringway, Cheshire; and Aberffraw, 
Wales. Mr. W. Wilson. Near Cambridge. Rev. Prof. Henslow. Fr. 
Feb. — Often growing with G. truncatulum, Phascum rectum and Weissia 
Starkeana; yet retaining all its characters : and, besides the above-men- 
tioned differences, Mr. Wilson observes that the leaves are strongly 
recurved at the margin, and the nerve is slightly thickened upwards. 

11. (jc. faseieiddre, Hedw. {blunt pear-shaped Beardless-Moss); 
leaves oblongo-acuminate nearly plane subsen-ated margined, 
capsule pyriform, lid plane submammillate. Hedw. Sp. Muse, 
t. A.f. 5 — 9 (bad). Turn. Muse. Hib. t. 10. FI. Brit. p. 1165. 
F. Bot. t. 1245. Drum. Muse. Seot. v. 2. n. 9. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. 
p. 23. t. 7. — Hyssopus Salomonis, of Hasselquist, according to 

Moist banks. Fr. Spring. — The le/f has a more prominent nerve than 
the following species, (which in habit it resembles), always with a deep 
red tinge, of which the whole of the foliage and the fruitstalk partake. 
The mouth of the capsule and margin of the lid is coloured red, and the 
mouth is in proportion wider. Capsule quite smooth. W. 

12. G. pyriforme, Hedw. (sharp pear-shaped Beardless-3Ioss) ; 

leaves ovato-acuminate concave serrated not margined, capsule 
roundish-obovate, lid convex shortly rostrate. Hedw. Sp. Muse, 
p. 38. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 11. FI. Brit. p.W^lS. E. Bot. 
t. 413. Drum. Muse. Seot. v. 1. 11. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 24. 

t. 7. — Bryum pyriforme, Linn. — Ddl. Muse. t. A4.f. 6. 

VV'et banks and ditches ; frequent. Fr. Spring. — Stouter and paler 
coloured than the last. “ It is remarkable for having a considerable 


space between the outer coat of the capsule and the proper membrane 
enclosing the seeds. The inner membrane (or seminal bag) is attached 
by numeious threads or veins to the inside of the outer covering, and 
1 ^ base proceeds a bundle of filaments, forming in appearance a 
pillar, but rgally serving as a cable to keep the tlieca steady. As the 
theca enlarges in its progress towards maturity, the lateral threads 
\y^liich, at first, are straight and tight, become lax, and the bundle of 
thieads at the base likewise: — the inner surface of the outer covering 
is overspread with anastomosing veins of a spongy lax texture, not very 
firmly attached. — This appearance does not occur in G. fasciculare; 
as the theca does, from the first, almost fill the cavity formed by the 
outer skin, though a very short bundle of vessels is sometimes visible at 
the base.” JV. 

13. G. temie, (^Jeiv-leaved Seardless-3Ioss^ ; stems scarcely 
any, leaves linear-lanceolate entire erect obtuse short with a 
strong nerve disappearing below the summit, the upper or peri- 
cheetial ones much elongated and with an obscure nerve, capsule 
oblong, lid acuminated. Hcdw. Sp. 3Iusc. t. 4./. 1 — 4. Drum. 
3Iusc. Scot. V. 2. n. 11. 3Iusc. Brit. ed. 2. p. 24. t. 1. — G.pau- 
cifolium, E. Dot. t. 2506. — Dicranum cylindricum, EL Drit. 
p. 1221. — Bryum paucifolium, Dichs. Cr. Ease. 4. t. 11./. 3. 

On walls and sandstone rocks ; but rare. 3Tr. W, Wilson has lately 
detected it on walls at Timperley, Cheshire, and Afr. T. Drummond on 
red sandstone near Belfast. Fr. /me. 

14. G. Donidnum, Sm. (Donian Deardless-3Ioss') ; stem 
scarcely any, leaves subulate, capsule tiuhinate, lid liemisphae- 
rical with an acuminated j^oint. E. Bot. t. 1582. Drum. 
3Iusc. Scot. V. 2. n. 10. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 25. t. 7. 

Sandstone rocks, Scotland. Den of Dupplin ; Mr. G. Don. Den 
of Airly and at Norran water. Air. T. Drummond. Cawsey Dene, near 
Newcastle; and limestone rocks. High Force of Tees, R. B. Bowman, 
Esq. Argyleshire, Rev. Colin Smith. Fr. Nov. — A most minute and deli- 
cate moss ; forming a stratum upon the surface of the sandstone rocks, 
in the few places where it has been found. Capsule exactly turbinate, 

15. G. mici'ostomum, Hedw. (small-mouihed Beardless-AIoss') ; 
leaves broadly sidiulate, their margins involute al)Ove the 
middle flexuose crisped when dry, capside elliptical contracted 
at the mouth, lid subulate incurved. Hedw. St. Cr. v. 3. t. 30. 
El. Drit. p. 1165. E. Dot. t. 2215. Drum. AIusc. Scot. v. 1. 
n. 10. AIusc. Brit. ed. 2. p. 25. — G. rutilans, Hedw. Sp. AIusc. 
t. 3. f 8 — 11 . — Hymeuostomian microstomum. Dr. in Linn. Trans. 
V. 12. p. 572. DryoL Germ. p. 199. t. 12. f. 4. (to which Ave 
think may safely be added, of the last-mentioned work, H. ruti- 
lans, 1. c. t. 12. f. 5., //. brachycarpum, t. 12. /i 3. H. squarrosum, 
t. 12. f. 1., H. ohliquum, t. \'2.f. 2., H. subylobosum, t. 12./. 6. 
and H. crispatum, t. 12. f. 7. 

Banks, not unfrequent, especially in subalpine countries. Fr. April. — 
Every one who has gathered this plant, must have been aware of the 
difficulty, I might almost say impossibility, of distinguishing it from 
Weissia controversa, except by a minute examination of the mouth ol the 



capsule; and then the presence of a white horizontal viembranous riwg* 
at the contracted mouth of the capsule and the absence of the teeth, will 
decide its character. Now, Air. W. Wilson has made a most interesting 
discovery, and which perhaps will tend to clear up existing doubts, 
respecting other genera of Mosses. After various observations made in 
three different years, which tended to the same result, Air, Wilson 
writes from Camyneunt, near Aber, N. Wales, 2Gth March, 1830 ; — 
“ I find here constant traces of a peristome, requiring a high magnifier 
to distinguish from the membranous border of the Gymnostoma, but 
assuming sometimes the usual appearance of the small state of 
Weissia conlroversa, of which I am inclined to think it is a mere variety. 
Specimens from Nant Frangon, gathered March 4th, 1830, have a defi- 
cient peristome in the smaller capsules and most evident red teeth in 
other cases.” This goes far towards confirming an opinion I formerly 
expressed, that the Ptychoslomim of authors was a Bryum, with a defi- 
cient inner peristome.® Leptostomum, I have shown to have sometimes 
a very near approach to teeth in the membrane at the mouth of the 
capsule.^ Hedwig’s Bryum viacrocarpuin has a peristome of the same 
kind. The Splachnum paradoxum of Br. (^S. Adamsianum ? Hoj'nsch.) is 
destitute of peristome. Mr. Wilson has proved that there is an imper- 
fect inner peristome to Weissia (Entosthodon) TemjAetord, so that it can 
hardly be distinguished from Funaria. Other mosses will probably be 
found to be subject to similar variations : and thus a new light will be 
thrown upon the real nature of established species and genera. 

6. Anictangiuh. Hedxv. Branclied-Beardless-Moss. 

Seta terminal. Alouth of the capsule naked. Calyptra mitri- 
form. {AIusc. Brit. t. 1.) — Name, — avoi/troc, open, and ccyyiiov, a 
I'essel or capsule, from the expanded mouth of the latter. — This 
genus is distinguished from Gymnostomum by its mitriform ca- 
lyptra, as Hedwigia is by its lateral fruitstalks. Hence, the 
latter will be found among the Pleurocarpi. 

1. A. ciliatum, IledAV. (Jioary Branclied-Beardless-Moss') ; 
leaves subsecund ovate concave distinctly dotted not striated, 
the margins below recurved above plane acuminated and more 
or less diaphanous at the point, those of the perichmtium toothed 
or serrated at the extremity, capsule sessile turbinate, lid plane 
subnmbonate. — a. vulgare ; all the leaves diaphanous at the 
point, those of the perichaetium laciniated. A. ciliatum, Hediv, 
Sp. 3/usc. p. 40. Turn. AIusc. Hib. p. 11. Drum. Muse. Scot. 
r. 1. n. 13. Muse, Brit. ed. 2. p. 27. t. 6. — Hedwigia ciliata, 
Hedw, St, Cr. v. 1. t. 40. — Schistidiian ciliahnn, Bricl. — Bryol. 
Germ. v. 1. p. 101. A 8. /! 5. — Gymnostomum ciliatum, Sxoartz, 
— FI. Brit. p. 1168. E. Bot. t. 1179 — Bryum ciliatum, Dicks. 

■ — Bryum apocarpum, j3. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1579. Dill. Muse, 
t. 32./. 5. — 13. imberhe; stem-leaves coloured at the points, those 
of the perichaetium diaphanous and serrated. A. ciliatum, y. 
rufescens, Arn.Disp. Muse. p. 1 1. — A. imberbe, AIusc. Brit. ed. 2. 

' Common indeed to many Gymnostoma. 

® Appendix to Captain Parry’s Attempt to reach the North Pole, p. 216. 

® See Gymnostomum Leptostomum, Musci Exot, t. 169. 



p. 27. L 6. — Gymnostomum imbcrbe, E. Bot. t. 22Q7. — Schisti- 
dium imbei’be, Biyol. Germ. v. 1. j). 99. t. 8./. 4. 

Rocks and stones, frequent.— /3. Mountains in the South of Ireland. 
Miss HtUchins. Fr. March. 

2. A. striatum, Wils. MSS. {preen Branched- Beardless- Moss^ ; 
leaves ovate concave very obscurely cellular striated the margins 
below reflexed, above distinctly recurved shortly acuminated 
more or less diaphanous at the point, those of the periclisetium 
toothed or serrated at the extremity, seta as long as the globose 
capsule, lid rostrate. — x. subincanum; leaves decidedly striated 
tipped with diaphanous points. — (3. unicolor; all tlie leaves 
coloured at the points scarcely striated. 

Rocks near Llyn Idwel, Caernarvonshire. Apr. 1829. and /3., Glen- 
gariff, Ireland. Mr. JV . Wilson. Fr. Nov. — Mr. Wilson considers the dif- 
ference in the leaves of this plant, as sufficient alone to keep it distinct 
from the preceding. These differences (except what concerns the striae) 
he finds to be constant, though certainly minute. 

7. SCHISTOSTEGA. Molir. Schistostcga. 

iSeta terminal. Mouth of the capsule naked. Lid very thick, 
with radiating cells (especially when seen from beneath). 
Calyptra campanulate, at length often cleft. — Leaves bifarious. 
{Muse Brit. t. 1.) — Name, cleft, and ffreyn, the lid, from 

an idea that the lid eventually became cleft or split. 

I. S. pennata. Hook, et Taylor, {pennated Schistostega'). 
Muse. Brit. ed. 1. — ed. 2. p. 30. t. 8. — S. osmundacea, Mohr. 

■ — Gymnostomum permatum, Hedw. St. Cr. v. 1. 1. 29 G. osmnn- 

daceum, FI. Brit. jo. 1161. E. Bot. t. 2213. — Mnitim osmun- 
daceum, Dicks. Cr. Ease. 1. 1./. 4. 

Moist banks in several parts of Devonshire : especially in the south 
of that county, Rev. J. S. Tozer. First discovered by Mr. Newberry 
in the road from Zele to S. Taunton church, near Oakhampton. At 
Tildersley and Worsley, Lancashire, Mr. W. Evans (formerly President 
of the Tildersley Bot. Society, and a correspondent of the late Dr. 
Withering) ; whence also specimens have been communicated to Mr. W. 
Wilson by Mr. John Martin, a zealous and accurate Botanist of Til- 
dersley. Roofs of the sandstone caverns, just beyond the Jews’ bury- 
ing-ground on the west side of the Gallow’s Hill in Nottingham forest. 
Mr. T. Jowitt. Entrance of a subterranean Gallery in Rowter rock 
nearWinster, Derbyshire. J. E. Bowman, Esq. Fr. Spring. — This curious 
and delicate little moss has a good deal the habit of the Fissidens 
groupe of the Dicrana. Stems reddish, scarcely half an inch long, ex- 
tremely slender. Leaves pinnated, decurrent, lanceolate, entii’e, with 
very lax reticulations. Capsule exceedingly small, sphserical, pale brown. 
Since the publication of the remarks on the lid of this plant, in the 2d 
edition of Muscologia Britannica, Mr. Bowman, and Mr. W. Wilson 
examined living specimens together, but were quite unable to find any 
trace of radiating fissures in the lid (as described by Hedwig), either 
before or after it had been dried. The latter gentleman has subse- 
quently remarked to me ; “ the operculum is the very thickest and 
the most sturdy that I ever met with in any Moss, filling up the mouth 
exactly like a bung, composed strictly of cells of an hexagonal form per- 
vading the thickness of the lid, and not unfrequently disposed so as to 


stand in rows from the centre to the circumference, so that when any 
part of the lid is obliquely placed, with respect to the e)'e,^ the partitions 
of the cells, in perspective, represent dark lines resembling radii; and 
this appearance is so constant when the lower or concave side of the lid 
is uppermost, in every part but that which may happen to be turned at 
right-angles to the line of sight, that it is no wonder that Hedwig and 
others believed in a fissile lid. The top of the columella always adheres 
to the lid, and it is not easy to remove it. I made several longitudinal 
sections in order to ascertain the texture of the lid, and always found 
it to consist of the spongy body lining the concavity, and, on its removal, 
an arch of pyramidal cells extending quite through the lid, without in- 
terruption, thus proving the non-existence of a peristome. — These sec- 
tions were allowed to dry under the microscope, and in an instant the 
spongy portion of the columella shrunk up and disappeared, the diameter 
of the lid became very much less : the concave side became plane, and 
the upper or convex one was increased in convexity ; the thickness not 
visibly altered, except so far as the spongy lining was in question. On 
the application of water the original shape was restored. I may add 
that when the Schistostega is in its infancy, it resembles a conferva with 
globular articulations ; — in this state it constitutes the “ shining mossf 
or “ golden-green lightf described by Mr. Bowman in the Mag. of Nat. 
Hist. (v. 3. p. 462.). Of this fact I am well assured, having carefully 
examined young half- developed plants possessing confervoid branches, 
connected with the base of the stem.” 

Subsect. III. Lid deciduous. Mouth of the capsule furnished 
with a peristome. Peristomi.i 

Div. I. Peristome single. Aploperistomx.^ 

8. Diphyscium. Mohr. Dipliyscium. 

Seta terminal. Capsule gibbous. Peristome single, forming a 
plicate membranous truncated cone. Calypira mitriform, (fMusc. 
Brit. t. 1.). — Name, twice, or tioo-fold, and (pudxri, a bladder, 

from the double membrane of which the capsule is composed. 
To me this appears to he -with great justice separated from 
Buxhaumia hy Mohr; and differing as it does in its foliage, as 
well as peristome, from that Genus, I cannot but be surprised 
that Schwaegrichen, in his Sp. Muse. Frondosorum, should 
have united them. 

1. D. foliosum, Mohi‘, (leafy Dipliyscium'). Mohr, Obs. Bot. 
p. 34. Hook, in FI. Bond. N. S. cum Ic. Drum. Muse. Scot. 
V. 1. n. 6. — Buxbaumia foliosa, Linn. Syst. Veget. p. 945. 
FI. Brit. p. 1148. E. Bot. t. 329. Dill. Muse. t. 32. y. 13. 

Woods, on banks and wall-tops, in alpine situations. Fr. Summer. — 
A minute plant, densely tufted. Stems none. Leaves small, ligulate 
and entire, dark-green, opaque, furnished with a strong nerve. Fruc- 
tification large in proportion to the size of the plant, enveloped by the 
perichaetial leaves, which are lanceolato-oblong, membranaceous, acu- 
minated, jagged at the extremity, having a strong, rigid, brown, excurrent 
nerve. Capside nearly sessile, ovate, oblique, gibbous. Calyptra mitri- 
form. Lid conical, acuminated. 

‘ fre;,, around, and the mouth. 

* a-reXtof, single, combined with the word perisfomi. 




9. Tetraphis. Hedw. Tetraplils. 

Sda terminal. Peristome single, of four equidistant, erect 
teeth. Calyptra mitriforin, furrowed. (^Musc. Brit. ed. 2. p. 32. 
t. 1.). — Named from and probably (paXog, in allusion to the 

four teeth or prominences at the mouth of the capsule. 

1. 1. . pelhicida, Hedw. (^pellucid Tetraphis'); stems elongated, 
leaves ovate acuminated, tliose of the perichajtium lanceolate, 
capsule cylindrical. Hedw. Sp. Muse. t. 7. f. 1. E. Bot. t. 1020. 
Hook, in FI. Bond. N. S. cum Ic. Muse. Brit. p. 33. t. 8. 

Generally found on decaying trunks of trees, sometimes on the ground, 
and mostly in hilly or subalpine countries. Fr. Spring. — Plant of a 
pale 3'ello\v-green colour and rigid habit, the roots densely tufted. 
Besides the male and female fructification (usually so called), there are 
plants terminated by cup-shaped receptacles, consisting of broadly-obcor- 
date leaves, in the centre of which are fixed by a short foot-stalk, small 
spherical bodies, exactly resembling the anthers of a Jungermannia. 

2. T. Brownidna, Grev. (JMr. Browvds Tetraphis') ; stems 
very short, leaves few linear slightly incrassated upwards, those 
of the perichaetium ovate obtuse, capsule ovate. Grev. FI. Edin. 
p. 230. Scot. Cr. El. t. 169. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 2. ?i. 13. 
3Iusc. Brit. ed. 2. p. 33. t. 8. — T. ovata, BIusc. Brit. ed. 1. 
Hook. FI. Bond. N. S. cum Be . — Tetrodontium Brownianum, 
Scfnvaegr. Suppl. v. 2. t. 129. — Bryum Broivnianum, Dicks. Cr. 
Ease. 4. t. 10. f. 16. — Orthotrichum Broivnianum, EL Brit. p. 
1269 — Grimmia Browniana, E. Bot. t. 1422. 

Rocks, particularly of sandstone, in several parts of England, Scot- 
land and Ireland. Fr. Spring. — A minute moss, of a rigid habit and 
deep-brown colour, differing indeed in habit from the preceding, as well 
as in its place of growth. The T. ovata of Hoppe is supposed by 
some to be the same species as the present, which, when growing on 
granite, is occasionally' seen without the linear leaves. 

10. Splachnum. Binn. Splachnum. 

Seta terminal. Peristome single, of 8 doid)le or sometimes 
16 geminate teeth mostly rellexed when dry. Capsule with an 
evident apophysis. Calyptra mitriforin, at length subdimi- 
diate, glabrous, without furrows. (^3Iusc. Brit. t. 1.) — Named 
from the Greek 1’aXa.y’)(yov, of Dioscorides, applied to some 
Lichen or other Cryptogamic plant. — This is a genus, no less 
elegant in the form and colour, than remarkable for the places 
of growth of the greater number of its species, namely on the 
dung of animals or on other animal substance, as bones, decayed 
woollen stockings, and hats. 

* Beaves acuminate. 

1. S. sphcericum, Linn. fil. {globe-fruited. Splachnum); leaves 
obovato-rotundate acuminate slightly serrated, apophysis ovato- 
globose wider than the capsule. Binn. fil. Meth. 3Iusc. t. \.f. 1. 




Iledio. St. Or. v. 2. t. 16. FI. Brit. p. 1174. E. Bot. t. 785. 
Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 2. n. 14. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 36. t. 9. — 
S. graeile, DicJis. Or. Fasc. 4. t. 10. y. 5. FI. Brit. p. 1174. 
Schwaeyr. Suppl. v. 1. p. 52. t. 15 — S. ovatum, Hedw. Sp. 
Muse. p. 54. t. 8. f. 4 — 6. Turn. Muse. Hih. p. 15. FI. Brit, 
p. 1172. E. Bot. t. 1590. — S. rtigosum, Dicks, (not E. Bot. ?) 

On the dung of animals, in subalpine countries, very abundant. 
Fr. Summer. — A variable specie.s in the length of the stems and setts. 

2. S. thiue, Dicks, (^slender Splachmmi); leaves obovato- 
acuminate serrated, apophysis obconical narrower than the 
capsule, columella exserted. Dicks. Or. Fasc. 2. t. 4. f. 2. 
FI. Brit. p. 1171. E. Bot. t. 1133. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 2. 
n. 15. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 37. t. 9.^ — S. serratum, Hediv. S]j. 
3Iusc. t. 8. f. 1 — 3. — Grimmia splacJmoides, FI. Brit. p. 1197. 
(not E. Bot.^ 

Scottish mountains, upon the ground and on turfy soil in very elevated 
situations. On Ben-Lawers, most abundant. Fr. Autumn. — The 
S. longicollum, (Dicks. Cr. Fasc. 4. t. 10.) Mr. Brown observes is a native 
of the N. W. coast of America, and was by mistake introduced into that 

3. S. mnioides, Linn. fil. (brown tapering Splachnum) ; leaves 
ovato- lanceolate much acuminated concave entire, apophysis 
obovate nearly as narrow as the capsule. 3Iusc. Brit. ed. 2. 
p. 38. t. 9. — «. minus ; of a deeper colour and with shorter 
stems. S. mnioides, Linn. fil. 3Ieth. 3Iusc. p. 6. Fledw. St. Cr. 
V. 2. t, 11. FI. Brit. p. 1169. E. Bot. t. 1539. Dnim. 3Iusc. 
Scot. V. 1. n. 14 — S. urceolatum, Dicks, and E. Bot. t. 2417. 
and FI. Brit. p. 1170. (not Hedw.) — S. urceolatum, jS. Wakl. 
Lapp . — /3. magus ; of a paler colour and with elongated stems. 
— S. fastigiutum, Dicks . — FI. Brit. p. 1171. E. Bot. t. 786. — 
S. Breiverianum, Hedw. St. Cr. v. 2. t. 38. — Dill. 3Iusc. t. 44. 
V. 5. 

Upon the ground in mountains. Fr. Summer. — The S. urceolatum is 
principally distinguished from this, by its obtuse and piliferous leaves. 

4. S. angustdtum, Linn. fil. (narrow-leaved Splachnum); 
leaves ovato-lanceolate much acuminated serrated, apophysis 
obovate somewhat narrower than the capsule, fruit-stalks shorter 
than the leaves. Lmn. Jil. 3Ieth. 3Iusc. p. 33. Hedw. St. Cr. 
V. 2. t. 22. FI. Brit. p. 1169. E. Bot. t. 1132. 3Iusc. Brit, 
ed. 2. p. 39. t. 9. 

On cow-dnng and half-decayed animal substances, rare. Most fre- 
quent, perhaps, among the great range of the Cairngorum and Braemar 
mountains, where it also grows on the turfy soil. Fr. Autumn. — This 
has a very peculiar habit, from the great length of the leaves and the 
shortness of the seta, which give it somewhat of a Phascum-Wke. appear- 

5. amprdldceum, Linn, (flagon-fruited Splachnum); leaves 
ovato-lanceolate acuminate serrated, apophysis inversely flagon- 
shaped twice as wide as the capsule. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1572. 
Hedtv. St. Cr. v. 2. t. 14. Ttmi. 3Iusc. Hib. p. 16. FI. Brit. 



[Splachmim . 

p. 1175. E. Bot. t. 144. Hobs. Hr, Mosses, v. 1. «. 11. Muse. 
Brit. ed. 2. p. 39. t. 9. — S. Turneriamim, Dicks. E. Bot. 1 1 16. 

Bogs, upon the ground and on the dung of animals, frequent in the 
south, where it is almost the only species : rare in the north, especially 
in Scotland. Pentland hills, Mr. Maughan. Isle of Arran, Dr. Bain- 
bridge. Near Ayr, Mr. James fVi/son. Hill near Helensburgh, Mr. 
Hopkirlc and Joseph Dalton Hooker. Forest of Glenmore, Arnott and 
Hook. ; but always in small quantity. Fr. Summer. — Fine specimens of 
this plant, with the perfectly flagon-shaped cajosides and long, graceful, 
delicately-coloured setce, are equalled by few mosses in beauty, and sur- 
passed perhaps by none, save the infinitely rarer Splachna, rubrum and 
luleum, of the North of Europe and America. 

** Leaves obtuse, or rarely acute. 

6. S. vasculosum, Hedw. (large-fruited Splaclmum); leaves 
rhombeo-rotundate, the nerve disappearing below tbe point, 

apophysis globose mucb wider than tbe capsule a. leaves 

obtuse. S. vasculosum, Hedw. St. Cr. v. 2. p. 15. Grev. FI. 
Cr. Scot. t. 179. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 40. Suppl. i. 1. — (3. leaves 
acTite. S. vasculosum, var. acutifolium, Grev. FI. Cr. Scot. t. 311. 
— S. rugosum, FI. Brit. p. 1173? E. Bot. t. 2094. 

Scottish mountains, at the sources of springs, principally among the 
Breadalbane mountains, bearing fruit on Ben More in the greatest pro- 
fusion. Clova. Mr. Drummond. Catlaw near Kinnordy. Arnott and 
Hook. Fr. Summer. — The leaves are almost equal in size to those of 
Bryum punctatum, of a pale green colour ; and the apophyses are the 
largest of any British Splaclmum, ^ossy , dark brown. 

7, S. Frcdicliidnum, Hedw. (fFrcelicliian Splaclmum'); leaves 

elliptical very obtuse, tbeir nerve disappearing below tbe sum- 
mit, apophysis obovate much narrower than tbe capsule, teeth 
of the peristome 16 geminate erect when dry. Hedw. St. 
Cr. V. 3. t. 40. Hobs. Brit. Mosses, v. 2. n. 12, (exotic 
specimens). Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. t. 9. — S. reticulatum, FI. 
Brit. p. 1177. E. Bot. t. 2507. — Dissodon Frcelichiamim, Grev. 
et Arn. Tent. Meth. Muse. Q. p. 122 Bryum reticulatum, Dicks. 

On Ben High, Aberdeenshire. Mr. Dickson. Fr. Summer. — In habit 
and in the remarkably obtuse leaves more allied to Splachnum scabrisetum, 
(Hook. Muse. Ex. t. 32.), Systylium splachnoides, Hornsch., and Weissia 
splachnoides, Schwaegr., than to the other species of the present Genus. 
Messrs. Greville and Arnott, observiiig that the teeth of the peristome 
in this groupe were erect (not reflexed) when dry, united them into one 
Genus, Dissodon. But these do not all agree in other respects in the 
configuration of the peristome. In S. Frcelichianum, although the teeth 
do not become reflexed, yet they are 16 and geminate, or 8 double teeth 
split through the middle, each single tooth too is destitute of a central 
line. Systylium, Dr. Hornschuch still considers sui generis. Weissia 
splachnoides Mr. Brown had previously called Cyrtodon, but rather as a 
subgenus, than a genus in itself; yet this, as most different in the nature 
of its peristome, I incline to retain ; though at the same time 1 must 
acknowledge that it would be more accordant to nature, and simpler 
in practice, to rank them all under Splachnum. 




11. CyrtodoNc Br. Cyrtodon. 

Seta terminal. Peristome single, of 16 equidistant, entire 
teeth, marked with a central line, incurved when dry. Capsule 
with an evident apophysis. Calyptra mitriform, at length sub- 
dimidiate, glabrous, without furrows. {Booh, in FI. Bond. N. S. 
cum Ic., and Gree. Scot. Cr. FI. t. 145, under the Genus Weis- 
sia ). — Named from xugrog, convex, and obuv, a tooth; in allusion 
to the incmwed peristome. 

1. C. splachmides, Br. {splachnoid Cyrtodon). Br. in Parry's 
1^^ Voy. App. p. ccxcix. — Dissodon splachnoides, Grev. et Arn. 
in Tent. Meth. Muse. 6 . p. 121. t. 13. n. 39 — 44. — Eremodon 
splachnoides, Brid. Bryol. Univ. v. 1. p. 234. — Weissia splach- 
noides, Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. p. 63. t. 17. Brum. Muse. Scot. 
V. 2. n. 33. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 76. t. 14. — Grimmia splach- 
noides, FI. Brit. p. 1197. E. Bot. t. 2164? — Splachnum lin- 
gulatum, Dicks. Cr. Fasc. 4. t. 10. f. 6. FI. Brit. p. 1177. 
E. Bot. t. 2095. 

Turf bogs, on the more elevated of the Scottish mountains. Fr. 
Aug. — Densely tufted ; whole plant of a dark lurid colour. Stems 
elongated. Leaves lingulate, rounded at their summits, the nerve disap- 
peai’ing below the top. Seta elongated. Capsule obovate ; apophysis 
obconical. Peristome of 16 subulate, incurved, equidistant teeth, of a 
full yellow colour, marked with a line down the middle, never splitting. 
Lid convex, acuminulate, when separated from the mouth of the capsule 
still frequently adhering to the top of the columella, which, as in all the 
splachnoid family, is very evident and exserted when the capsule 
becomes old and dry. 

12. CoNoSTOMUM. Linn. Conostomum. 

Seta terminal. Peristome single, of 16 equidistant teeth, all 
united at their summits. Calyptra dimidiate. {Muse. Brit. t. 1.) — 
Name, xovog, a cone, and <sropa, the mouth ; from the teeth meet- 
ing at the point so as to form a cone. 

1. C. horedle, Stv. {northern Conostomum^; stems elongated, 
leaves lanceolate acuminate carinate slightly toothed. Siv. in 
Schrad. Bot. v. 1. p. 24. t. 5. Drttm. Mtisc. Scot. v. 1. n. 71. 
Altesc. Brit. ed. 2. p. 42. t. 10. — Grimmia conostoma, FI. Brit, 
p. 1196. E. Bot. t. 1135. — Bryum tetragonum, Dicks. Cr. 
Fasc. 2. t. A.f 9. 

Summits of the Scottish mountains, not unfrequent. Fr. Aug. — 
A rigid plant, compactly tufted, with much of the glaucous hue °and 
general appearance of Barlramia fontana. 

13. Encalypta. Hedio. Extinguisher-Moss. 

Seta terminal. Peristome single, of 16 teeth. Calyptra cam- 
panulate, smooth, entirely enclosing the mature cajistde. {Muse. 
Brit. t. 2.) — Name, EvxaAuTrra?, covered hy a veil ; in allusion to 
tlie large calyptra which covers the capsule. 





1. ¥^. streptocdrpa, Hetlvv. {spiral-fruited Extinguisher-Moss); 
stems elongated, leaves elliptico-lanceolate somewliat obtuse 
t leir nerve not produced beyond the summit, capsule cylindri- 
cal spirally striated, calyptra toothed at the base. Hedw. Sp. 

i;. 61. Turn. Muse. Hih. p. 18. FI. Brit. p. 1182. 
E. uot. t. 2163. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 2. n. 20. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. 
/>. 62. t. 13 — Bryum eiliare, Dicks. — Dill. Muse. 43. / 71. 

Stony mountainous countries ; upon mortared walls. In fruit upon 
the walls ^ a bridge (since pulled down) in the grounds of the Duke of Dunkeld: near Lougli Bray, Ireland, Mr.J. T. Mac/cay: and 
m Derbphire, J. E. Bowman, Esq. Fr. July.— The largest of the 
genus; hence it may be distinguished, no less than by its rigid foliane, 
spirally twisted capsule, and, above all, by its deep red very long com- 
pact capillary teeth. The lid too is spirally striated, in which particu- 
lar, as well as m the leaves, this moss has an affinity with Tortida 

2. E. vulgaris, Hedw. {commxm Extinguisher- Moss); stems 
short, leaves oblongo-elliptical obtuse their nerve produced a 
little beyond the summit, capsule cylindrical smooth, calyptra 
entire at the base. Hedw. Sp. Muse. t. 60. Turn. Muse. Hih. 
jo. 17. FI. Brit. p. 1180. Drum. Muse. Brit. v. 1. t. 22. Muse. 
Brit. ed. 2. p>- 63. t. 13. — Leersia vulgaris, Hedw. St. Cr. v. 1. 
p. 28 — Bryum extinctorium, Linn. — E. Bot. t. 558. Dill. 
Muse. t. 45. f. 8. 

On banks, walls, and rocks, principally such as are calcareous; 
not common in Scotland. Fr. March. — Teeth short and lanceolate, 
exceedingly fugacious ; sometimes absent, according to Mr. Wilson, a 
minute toothed border only appearing. That gentleman also finds a 
variety with leaves having a blunt and rounded extremity, and an abbre- 
viated nerve. 

, 3. E. cilidta, Hedw. {fringed Extinguisher -Moss); stems more 

or less elongated, leaves oblongo-acimiinate their nerve produced 
considerably beyond the point, capsule cylindrical smooth, 
calyptra with a distinct fringe at the base. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. 
p. 63. t. 13. — a,, concolor ; leaves apiculate their points of the 
same coloiu-. E. ciliata, Hedio. Sp. Muse. #.61. Turn. Muse. 
Hih. p. 18. FI. Brit. p. 1181. E. Bot. t. 1418. Drum. Muse. 

Scot. V. 1. n. 23 — Leersia ciliata, Hedw. St. Cr. v. 1. t. 19 

Bryum extinctorium, /3. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1581. Dill. Muse, 
t. 45. f. 9. — (3. pilifera ; leaves much acuminated their points 
diaphanous, (teeth of the veil deciduous). E. alpina, E. Bot. 
t. 1419 — E. affinis, Hedw. Jil. in Web. et Mohr, Beitr. t. 4. 
Schwaegr. Suppl. v.l.p.bS. t. 16 — E. pilifera. Punch, Deiitschl. 
Moose, t. 8. n. 2. 

Not uncommon, both «. and / 3 ., on moist rocks in mountainous dis- 
tricts. Fr. Summer. — The fringe of the calyptra, in this species, is of as 
thick a texture as the calyptra itself, and apparently set on to it with a 
margin, thus not seeming to be a continuation of it. 

4. E. rhaptoedrpa, Schwaegr. {striated-fruited Extinguisher- 
Moss); stems more or less elongated, leaves oblong apiculate 


the points of the same colour, capsule cyliiulrical sulcated, 
calyptra ciliated at the margin, cilia deciduous. Schwaecjr. 
Suppl. V. \. p. 56. t. 16. Grev. Scot. Cr. FI. t. 163. Muse. Srit. 

€(1. 2. p. 64. Siqypl. t. 2 E. ciliata, y. rhaptocarpa, Muse. Brit. 

ed. 1. p. 36. 

Alpine mountains. Ben Bulben, Ireland, J. T. Machny, Esq. Scot- 
land, especially in the Breadalbane mountains. Fr. Summer. — Here the 
capsule is sulcated, and besides, the teeth, or cilia of the calyptra, seem 
to be the torn or lacerated margin of the calyptra itself, more thin and 
membranous than the rest, and hence more easily broken off ; so that 
the fringe often appears wanting, and is generally so figured. 

14. Weissia. Hedw. Weissia. 

Seta terminal. Peristome single, of 16, nearly erect, entire, 
equidistant teeth. Apophysis none. Calyptra dimidiate. {Muse. 
Brit. t. 2.) — Named in compliment to Frederic William Weis, 
author of a Cryptogamic Flora of Gottingen. — From this Genus, 
as it stood in the Muse. Brit., I have removed W. splachnoides, 
to Cyrtodon; and W. Templetoni, to Entosthodon. 

* Capsule drooping, gibbous. 

1. W. nuda, Hook, and Taylor, (naked Weissia); stems 
scarcely any, leaves ovato-lanceolate nerveless, capsule ovate 
cernnous gibbous on one side. Muse. Brit. ed. 1. y). 43. ed. 2. 

p. 77. t. 14. Hobs. Brit. Mosses, v. 1. n. 28 Conscinodon 

nudus, Brid . — Grimmia nuda, FI. Brit. p. 1197. E.Bot. 1421. 
Ttirn. Muse. Hib. p. 25 — Bryum nudum, Dicks. Cr. Fasc. 4. 
t. 10./. 15. 

On clayey soil in the north of England and Scotland, but rare. Fr. 
March. — This is a plant of a peculiar habit, of a reddish colour, and 
minute size. The annulus is large at the mouth of the capsule ; the 
teeth are broad at the base, and there cleft in the centre half-way up. 
Mr. Caley discovered it near Manchester, and Mr. Don by the side 
of the Tay, near Perth. 

2. W. nigrita, Hedw. (blachfruited Weissia'); stems elon- 
gated, leaves lanceolate aenminated nerved, capsule obovate 
arcuato-cernuous gibbous fiu-rowed, lid hemispherical obtusely 
pointed. Hedio. St. Cr. v. 3. t. 39. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 1. 
n. 27. 3Iusc. Brit. ed. 1. p. 78. t. 14 — Grimmia nigrita, FI. Brit, 
p. 1195. E. Bot. t. 1825 — Bryum nigritum, Dicks. — Catosco- 
pium, Brid. 

Moist banks in mountainous districts. Plentiful on Ben-y-gloe, near 
Blair in Athol. Fr. Aug. — This plant has a capsule still more'’ drooping 
erect following species, the capsules are nearly 

** Capsule erect, or cernuous from the curvature of the seta, 
equxd. Leaves ovate or lanceolate (nerved). 

3. W. elongdta, Hoppe and Hornsch. (elongated Weissia); stems 
elongated densely tufted, leaves closely imbricated lanceolato- 


ovate obtuse reticulated entire, nerve strong reaching nearly to 
the point, seta flexuose arched, capsule ovali-pyriform, lid coni- 
cal.— et Ilornsc/i. Mss.— Hook. Muse. Exot. t. 101. — 

Oreas elangata, Brid. Bnjol. Univ. v.hp. 382 Weissia com- 

pacta, Hornsch. et Hopp. PI. Alp. Exsiee. Dee. ii.”—W. Mieli- 
dwjeriana, Funek, Crypt. Ease. xxiv. n. 490. Hornseh. et 

^PP' Zeit. V. 2. p. 86. — W, Mieliehoferi /3. Sehwaegr. 
l^uppl. a. p. 47. t. cxiv. Flinch, Deutschl. Moos. p. 13. t. 9. 

liocks above Loch Callater, Aberdeenshire. Dr. Greville. Fr. 

Some tufts of this remarkable plant have been found in the station just 
mentioned: but destitute of fructification. In general appearance this 
moss resembles Bryum julaceuni; even the fruit, which 1 possess from 
the very unlike that of any other Weissia. The capsule is more 
oi less cernuous; but this is not owing to a curvature in the base of the 
fruit, but in the upper part of the seta. 

4. W. Starkeana, (^Starkean Weissia^; stems very short, 

leaves ovate with an excurrent nerve, capsule ovate erect, lid 
conical, teeth of the peristome subulate acute (mostly red). 
Hedic. St. Cr. v. 3. t. 23. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 79. t. 14.— 

Grimmia Starkeana, El. Brit. p. 1186. E. Bot. t. 1400 

Bryum minutum, Dicks. 

Banks and fields in the middle and south of Britain. Fr. Feb. — 
Teeth of the peristome connected by a common base. Wilson. 

5. W. off inis, Hook, and Taylor, (blunt-toothed Weissia); stems 
very short, leaves ovate with an excurrent nerve, capsule ovate 
erect, lid conical, teeth of the peristome short broad obtuse 
whitish. 3Iusc. Brit. ed. 1. p. 44. ed. 2. p. 79. t. 14. 

Fields and on gravelly banks. Fr. Jan.— The difference in the peri- 
stome of this plant from the last is most striking, and resembles that 
of W. trichodes in its more perfect state: yet in other respects it is 
hardly to be distinguished from W. Starkeana. 

6. W. lanceoldta. Hook, and Taylor, (lance-leaved Weissia); 
stems somewhat elongated, leaves ovate with an excurrent nerve 
almost piliferous, capsule ovate, lid obliquely rostrate. AIusc. 
Brit. ed. 1. p. 45. ed. 2. p. 80. t. 14. — Leersia lanceolata, Hedw. 
St. Cr. V. 2. t. 23. — Grimmia lanceolata, FI. Brit. p. 1186. 
E. Bot. t. 1408. — Encalypta lanceolata, Turn. 3Iusc. Hib. p. 19. 
— Bryum lanceolatum, Dicks. 

Moist banks. Fr. March. — Allied to the two preceding, but having 
a rostrate lid ; and to Gymnostomum truncalulum, especially the larger 
varieties of it ; but the leaves are more erect, more closely imbricated, 
and the apiculus is longer. Teeth of the peristome oblique, as in ]V. verti- 
cillata, separate to the base, sometimes split, as in Didymodon. ( Wilson.) 

7. W. latifolia, Sehwaegr. (broad-leaved Weissia); stems un- 
branched very short, leaves broadly obovate with a small acu- 
men concave imbricated sliining, the nerve reaching nearly to 
the point, capsule oblong cylindrical erect, lid rostrate. Sehwaegr. 
Suppl. V. 1. j)’ 64. t. 18. Grev. Scot. Cr. FI. t. 149. 3Iusc. 
Brit. ed. 2. p. 80. Suppl. t. 3. 



Mountains of Clova, Scotland, in the crevices of rocks, growing with 
Didrjmodon glaucescens, and Oxytropis campcstris ; Mr. T. Drummond. 
Fr. August. — The leaves of this rare moss are very broad and glossy, 
and so closely imbricated as to form a sort of bulb at the base of the 

*** Capsule erect, equal. Leaves linear or subulate (nerved). 

8. W. striata, Hook, and Taylor, (striated Weissia); leaves 
linear denticulate crisped when dry, capsule ovato-turbinate 
sulcate erect, lid obliquely subulate. Muse. Brit. eel. 2. p. 81. 
1. 15. — X. minor; leaves linear subidate subserrulate. W. striata, 
Muse, Brit. ed. 2. ]). 81. t. 15. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 1. n. 29. — 
Grimmia striata, Schrad. Diar. Bot. v. 2. p. 57. FI. Brit, p, 
1185. — W.fugax, Hedw. Sp.Musc. 1. 1.3, — W. Schisti, Scliwaegr. 
Suppl. p. 72. t. 80. (not E. Bot.) — Grimmia Schisti, FI. Brit. 
JO. 1185. — major; leaves broadly linear denticulate. W. denti- 
culata, Scliwaegr. Suppl. v. \. p. 15. t. 19. 

Moist banks and crevices of rocks in alpine countries. Fr. June. 

9. W. trichodes. Hook, and Taylor, (bristle-leaved Weissia); 

stems scarcely any, leaves subulato- setaceous entire, capsule 
ovate striated, lid rostrate. Muse. Brit. ed. 1. p. 45. ed. 2. p. 82. 
t. 15. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 1. n. 32. — Ggmnostomum trichodes, 
Mohr, Cr. Germ. — Moug. et Nestler, n. 7 1 1 Anictangium tri- 

chodes, Scliwaegr. Suppl. v. \. p. 33. t. 12. 

On granite rocks, moistened by the spray of a rivulet, near Dublin. 
Sandstone rocks near Henfield, Sxxsseyi, Mr. Boner. Greenfield, near 
Manchester, Mr. Hobson. Welsh mountains, rare, Mr. W. Wilson. Ben 
Buy, Argyleshire, and on Ben Nevis, Rev. Colin Smith. Fr. Feb. — 
There is a stout annulus present in this moss, within which and in an 
early stage there exists a membranous horizontal ring, which eventually 
splits into 16 short, and very obtuse teeth, becoming erect and after- 
wards reflexed over the mouth of the capsule. In habit, this minute 
plant is allied to W. pusilla and Gymnostomum tenue. 

10. w. cirrdta, Hedw. (curl-leaved Weissia); leaves broadly 
subidate crisped when dry, their margins recurved, capsule ovate, 
lid rostrate. Hedw. Sp. Muse. t. 12. f. 7. Hobs. Br. 3Iosses, 
V. 1. n. 31. 3Iusc. Brit. ed. 2. p. 82. t. 15. — Grimmia cirrata, 
FI. Brit. p. 1189. E. Bot. t. 235. — Grimmia Dichsoni, FI. Brit, 
j). 1189. E. Bot. t. 1420. — Mnium cirratum, Linn. — Dill. Muse, 
t. 48./ 42. 

On trees, thatched roofs, posts and rails ; chiefly, if not entirely, in 
the middle and south of Britain, often covering old paling, and especially 
the horizontal pieces, on the upper side, with small crowded cushion- 
like tufts. Fr. Spring. — Nearly allied to W. crispula, but distinguishable 
by its shorter, wider, carinate leaves, with recurved margins. 

11. w. tenuirostris, Plook. and Taylor, (slender-beaked 
Weissia); stems loosely tufted elongated, leaves linear-acuminate 
grooved flexuose waved and plane at the margin, nerve opaque, 
capsule subobliquely cylindrical, lid rostrate erect as long as the 
capsule. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. j). 83. Suppl. t. 3, (not good\ 



[ Weissia. 

Moist rocks; m fructification at Campsie, near Glasgow. About 
Povverscourt Waterfall, near Dublin, common, but barren. Fr. (fully 
ripe; April.— The stems are elongated, flaccid, loosely tufted, branched, 
blanches spreading. Leaves lax, spreading, one third of an inch long, 
linear-acummate, grooved, flexuose, entire, waved at the margins, 
winch are not at all recurved; their substance is rather thick, yet 
tender, composed of such minute cellules as to have no appearance of 
being reticulated, the nerve strong and reaching to the point. Fruit 
rare, beta scarcely an inch long, pale reddish-yellow, sometimes two from 
le same perichaetium. Capsule cyliiulrical or oblongo-cylindrical, each 
with Its side slightly unequal. Lid subulate, straight, two-thirds of the 
length of the capsule, reddish-yellow ; calyptra dimidiate. Peristome of 
lb equidistant, linear-subulate, somewhat torulose, red teeth, erect when 
dry, when moist forming a cone or arch over the mouth of the cap- 
sule. Ihe general habit of this plant is quite peculiar among the 
II eispte, having loosely entangled, spreading stems and remarkably 
naccid patent leaves, in these last particulars resembling TricJiosto- 
mum Barbula, Schwaegr.; and still more Tortula tortuosa. The 
peristome, however, is that of a Weissia. In some respects it approaches 
in the general form of the leaves and of the capsule, IV. curvirostra ; but 
that IS abundantly distinguished by its erect, bright red, wiry stems, its 
leaves much shorter and smaller, less waved, so distinctly recurved at 
the edges as to be margined : and above all by its lid, whose beak is far 
goiter, more obtuse and oblique in its direction. In April, 1831 , 
Di. Greville and myself gathered numerous specimens in the Campsie 
station, but the fruit was rare. 

12. W. curvirostra^ Hook, and Taylor, (curve-healied TJ^eissiay; 
stems elongated wiry (usually red), leaves patent linear-subu- 
late margined with the revolute edge, nerve strong, capsule 
ovato-cylindrical, lid shortly rostrate oblique, teeth of the 
peristome subulate erect. Muse. Brit. ed. 1. p. 46. ed. 2. 
p. 84. t. 1 4. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 2. n. 34. — W. recurvirostra, 
Hedw. St. Cr. V. 1. t. 7. — Grimmia recurvirostra, FI. Brit. 

p. 1190. E. Bol. t. 1438. — Bryum curvirostrum, Dicks. 

Dill. Muse. t. 48. y! 45. 

On sandy or gravelly moist banks. Fr. Sept.— Habit of a Tortula. 
The nerve is dark and strong, rendering the leaves peculiarly rigid. 

13. W. crispida, Hedw. {curled Weissia); stems elongated 
branched, leaves from a broad base lanceolato-subulate crisped 
when dry, their margins inemwed, capsule ovato-elliptical, lid 
rostrate. Bediv. Sp. 3Iusc. t. 12. f. 1 — 6. Drum. 3Iusc. Scot. 
V. 1, n. 28. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 84. t. 15. — Grimmia crispula. 
Turn. Muse. Hih. p. 28. FI. Brit. p. 1192. E. Bot. t. 2203. 

On rocks, especially in mountainous districts, abundant. Fr. May. — 
Around the setae the leaves form a sort of perichaetium. 

14. W. controversa, Hedw. {green-cushioned Weissia); stems 
short nearly simple, leaves linear-subulate crisped when dry, 
the margins involute, capsule ovato-elliptical, lid rostrate. Hedw. 
St. Cr. V. 3. t. 5. Drum. 3Iusc. Scot. v. 2. n. 35. 3Iusc. Brit, 
cd. 2. p. 85. t. 15. — W. microdus, Schivaegr. Suppl. v.l.p.77. 
— Grimmia controversa, FI. Brit. p. 1177. E. Bot. t. 1367. 



Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 27. — Bryum viridulum, Huds. — Brynm 

virens, Dicks. — Dill. 3Iusc. t. 48. 43. 

Banks, frequent. Fr. Spring. — See Mr. Wilsons remarks on the 
affinity of this plant with Gi/mnostomum microstomum, under that 

15. W.calcdrea, Hedw. ( Weissia); stems scarcely any, 
leaves erect from a broad base linear obtuse thick with a veiy 
broad nerve, capsule turbinate, lid rostrate. Hediv. Sp. Muse, 
t. 11./. 1 — 6. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 2. n. 30. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. 
p. 85. t. 15. — Grimmia calcarea, FI. Brit. p. 1177. Turn. Muse. 
Hib. i>. 25. — Bryum calcareum, Dicks. — E. Bot. t. 191. 

On the perpendicular faces of chalk cliffs in the south of England, 
which are rendered almost black with it. Fr. May. The short, upright, 
rigid leaves of this plant have a striking appearance, and resemble re- 
markably, in miniature, those of Polijtrichum aloides, to which also their 
dense texture assimilates them, their u[>per half consisting almost entirely 
of the broad nerve, which below is much narrower, passing gradually 
on each side into the dilated base. 

IG. W. rccurvdta, Hook, and Taylor, (recurved Weissia); stems 
scarcely any, leaves erect subulate, capsule broadly ovate, seta 
curved, lid rostrate. Muse. Brit. ed. \. p. 47. ed. 2. }y. 85. t. 15. 
Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 2. n. 36. — Grimmia recurvata, Hedw. St. 
Cr. V. 1. t. 38. FI. Brit. p. 1183. E. Bot. t. 1489. Turn. Muse. 
Hib. p. 24. — Bryum curvatum, Dicks. 

Rocks in the north of England, Wales and Scotland. Fr. June. — 
The fruitstalk of this plant, always arched when growing, or if moistened 
after being gathered, sufficiently distinguishes it from the following 

17. ly. pusilla, Hedw. (dwarf Weissiaf stems scarcely any, 
leaves subnlate erect, capsule pyriform, seta always erect, lid 
rostrate. Hedw. St. Cr. v. 2. t. 29. Muse. Brit. cd. 2. p. 86. 
t. 15. — Grimmia p?isilla, FI. Brit. p. 1184. E. Bot. t. 2551. 

On white limestone rocks, near Belfast, Mr. Templeton and Mr. 
Drummond. Youlgreave, Derbyshire, J. E. Bowman, Esq. Near Buxton, 
Mr. W. IVilson. Fr. iNIay. 

18. W. verticilldta, Schwaegr. (ickorled Weissia f stems elon- 
gated branched, leaves nearly erect with a strong 
nerve dotted, capsule ovate, lid conico-acuminate. Schwaegr. 
Suppl. V. \. p. 1\. t. 20. Muse. Brit, ed.^2. p. 86. t. 15. — 
Grimmia verticillata, Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 31. FI. Brit. p>. 1191. 
E. Bot. t. 1258. — Weissia capillacea, Schwaegr. — Bryum fasci- 
culatum, Dicks. — Bryum veriicillatum, Linn. — Dill. Muse. t. 47. 

On rocks among trickling water, not general. Fr. Aug. — This pretty 
IVeissia, of a delicately pale and bright green colour, has the lower part 
of its stems frequently covered with a white earthy incrustation, which 
is found on the plant, whatever be the nature of the rock whereon it 
grows, whether micaceous schist, as at the Dargle, Ireland, or sandstone, 
us in the south of Ireland, or on calcareous rocks as in Yorkshire, and 




d; r''’ 'Tilt, Scotland. The teeth of the peristome are 

slightly obhque at the first falling of the lid. (JVih.) 

7 ^ 0 ^ Hedw. {sharj)-pointed Weissia); stems branched, 

eaves subulato-setaceous snbsecund rigid canaliculate, capsule 
turbinate 1^1 rostrate. Hedw. Cr. v. 3. L 35. Drum. Muse. 

^ TIT 2. p. 87. t. 14. — Grimmia 

acuta Turn Muse. Ihb. p. 29. Fl. Brit. p. 1192. E. Bot. 

t. lb44.~JVezssia rupestris, Hedw. Sp. Muse. t. 14 Bryum 

acutum, Dicks. — B. splachnoides, Dill. Muse. t. 47. f. 34. 

■A.W Fr. Summer.— The leaves are remark- 

^ sh'ni'ig brownish-green, d'he capsule has a 
swellin at the base, somewhat resembling an apophysis. Small speci- 
mens of Dicranum fulyellum bear a slight resemblance to this m^oss, 
and m the fiist edition of Muse. Bnt., they were injudiciously confounded. 

15, Grimmia. Ehrh. Grimmia. 

Seta terminal. Peristome of 16 entire or perforated, rarely 
cleft, equidistant teeth. Cahjptra mitriform. (Muse. Brit. t. 2.) 
—Named in honour of Dr. F. C. Grimm, author of some 
bota,nical writings. — This genus bears the same relation to 
Weissia, that Trichostornum does to Didymodon : its essential 
distinguishing character residing in the mitriform calyptra. 
This is accomjianied by a peculiarity of aspect in the whole 
plant, Avhich is of a singularly lurid blackish-green colour, the 
leaves often tipped with diaphanous points. 

* F ruit sessile or nearly so. 

1 . G. apoedrpa, Hedw. (sessile Grimmia); stems branched, leaves 
ov'ato-lanceolate recurvo-jiatent their margins reflexed, tliose of 
the perichsetium having the nerve disappearing immediately 
below their summits, capsule ovate sessile, lid shortly rostrate. 
Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 65. t. 13. — a. nigro-viridis; leaves broad 
blackish-green. G. apocarpa, Hedio. St. Cr. v. 1. 1. 39. Turn. 
Muse. Hib. p. 20. FL Brit. p. 1200. E. Bot. t. 1134. Drum. 
Muse. Scot. V. 1. p. 26. — G. alpicola, Sivartz, Muse. Suec. t. 1. 
Hedw. Sp. Muse. t. 15. Fl. Brit. p. 1199. — G. rivularis, Brid, 
in Schrad. Joiirn. v. 5. t. 3. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 21. t. 2. /. 2. 
Schimegr. Supjil. v. 1. t. 23. Fl. Brit. p. 1200 G. gra- 
cilis, SeJnvaegr. Supjjl. v. \. t. 23. — G. apocaula, Hoffm Dill. 

Muse. t. 32. — j3. stricta; stem elongated, leaves nai-rower red- 
dish-bro’^vn. — G. stricta. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 20. t. 2. f. 1. 

a. On trees and moist places, as well as in alpine rivulets. — /3. rocky 
places in elevated mountains. Fr. Spring. — A very abundant and highly 
variable plant. The leaves have sometimes diaphanous points, at 
other times they are destitute of them. The var. stricta is the most 
remarkable state, with slender elongated stems and of a reddish brown 
colour. The columella is slender upwards. 

2. G. maritinm. Turn, (seaside Grimmia); stems short pul- 
vinate, leaves lanceolate acuminate nearly erect crisped when 



G nmmia.'\ 

dry? their margins recurved, those of the perichsetium with the 
nerve running beyond their summits, capsule ovate sessde, lid 
shortly rostrate. Turn. Muse. Hih. p. 23. t. 5. f. 2. FI. Brit, 
p. 1195. E. Bot. t. 1645. Drum. Muse. Scot.v. \. p. 25. ScJiwaegr. 
Suppl. V. 1. p. 95. t. 22. 3Iusc. Brit. ed. 2. jo. 66. t. 13.— G. al- 
picola, Wahl. 

On rocks by the sea-shore. Fr. March. — Wahlenberg is surely not 
correct in considering this as a var. of the preceding. It is very constant 
to its characters. In both the teeth of the peristome are often 
irregularly perforated. “ Columella adherent to the lid and thickened 
upwards.” Wils. 

** Seta exserted, curved or geniculated. 

3. G. saxicola, Schwaegr. (^sandstone GrimmicT); stems scarcely 
any, leaves linear-suhulate crisped when dry, seta geni- 
culated, capsule ovate, lid rostrate straight. Schwaegr. Suppl. 
V. 1. p. 82. t. 22. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 67. t. 13. Booh, in E. Bot. 
t. 2627. — Dicranum saxicola, Mohr . — Campylopus, Brid. 

On sandstone rocks, Blackdown, Sussex, rare ; Mr, Borrer. On 
granite rocks in the Dublin mountains. Fr. May. In size and general 
appearance, this can hardly, by the naked eye, be distinguished from 
Weissia tricliodes, or from W. recurvata. The crisped leaves, with the 
different nature of the perislorae and mitriform calyptra, multifid at the 
base, are, however, certain marks of distinction. 

4. G. pulvindta, Sm. {prey cushioned GrimmicF); stems short 
pulviuate, leaves narrow-elliptical their margins recurved, 
their points diaphanous piliform, seta emwed, capsule ovate 
striated, lid conical acuminated. E. Bot. t. 1728. Drum. Muse. 
Scot. V. 2. n. 26. — Dicranum pidvinatum, Swartz . — Turn. 
Muse. Hih. p. 78. El. Brit. p. 1214. Schivaegr. Suppl. v. 1. 
p. 189. — Fissidens pidvinatus, Hedio. Sji. PI. t. 40. — Bryum 
pidvinatum, Linn. — Dili. Muse. t. HQ.f. 65. 

On walls and rocks, frequent. Fr. Spring. — The teeth of the peri- 
stome are generally perforated or deeply cleft, rarely entire : but the 
plant ranks most unnaturally with Fissidens or Dicranum, where some 
authors have placed it. 

5. G. trichophylla, Grev. {hair-pointed Grimmiai); stems 
elongated loosely tufted, leaves lax waved lanceolate gradually 
tapering into a diaphanous point their margins recurved, 
seta flexuose and curved, capsule elliptical-ovate sulcate, lid 
rostrate. Grev. FI. Scot. Cr. t. 100. Drum. 3Iusc. Scot. v. 2. 
n. 27. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. ji. 68. Siqipl. t. 2.— Dicranum pulvi- 
natum, (3. Turn. Muse. Hib.p. 78. t. 3. f. 1.? 

Discovered by Dr. Greville on stone walls at the foot of Arthur s 
Seat, and since found in similar situations in many places, especially 
the Highlands of Scotland. Near Dublin, Dr. Scott and Dr . Stokes. 
N. Wales, Wilson. Fr. Apr. — With the teeth of a Grimmia (or only 
slightly perforated or split at the summit) this plant has the foliage and 
habit of Trickostomum. 




{mral-leaved Grimmia); 
stems elongated pulvmate, leaves lanceolate tapering into a dia- 
phanous hair-hke point erect when moist, spirally twisted 
\ leu diy, seta curved, capsule ovate smooth. Drum. Muse. 
Scot. V. 2. n. 29 Grev. FI. Cr. Scot. t. 203. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. 
6J. isiqipl. t. 2 — G. cenma, Bryol. Germ. v. 2. p. 174. t. 24. 

Jm Jo, 

hiotpr th-y and exposed ones, in the 

mghei mountains, both of Scotland and Ireland. Fr. Sent. We 

observe a dark central line in the teeth of this moss, and Dr. Greville 
inds some to be bifid or even trifid at the extremity. 

7. G tdrta, Hornsch. and Nees, (twisted-leaved Grimmia'); 
stems elongated exceedingly densely pulvinate of a very soft 
texture, leaves lanceolate acuminate the upper ones scarcely 
jnliferou^s, all of them remarkably spirally twisted when dry. 
Bryol. Germ. v. 2. p. 179. 22. f. 24.— G. torepmta. Hook, in 

Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 2. 28. Grev. Scot. FI. Cr. t. 199. 

Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 70. Suppl. t. 2. 

Dry rocks, at a considerable elevation on the Scottish, especially the 
Dreadalbane, mountains, plentiful, but always barren.— When dry, the 
tufts form finn rigid masses; when moist, the dichotomous stems are 
exceedingly soft and flaccid, so that they can scarcely be handled with- 
out falling down. They are of a rich deep brown colour, paler at the 
pomts. (}. spiralis differs from this in its more rigid texture when 
moist with longer diaphanous points to the leaves, which are torquate 
and of a blacker hue. ^ 

*** Seta exserted, straight. 

8. G. leucopliwa, Grev. (Jioary Grimmia'); stems rather short 
tutted, leaves elliptical very hoary with long piliferous points, 
seta a little longer than the leaves, capsule ovate, teeth of 
the peristome often bifid and perforated, lid rostrate short. 
Greiu m Wern. Trans, v. 4. cum Ic. Hobs. Brit. ^losses, v. 2. 

24. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 2. 7i. 30. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 70. 
l^uppl. t. 3. ^ 

On rocks of trap formation; King’s Park, Edinburgh, Robert Brown, 
Bsq. At Fau-head, Ireland, on basalt. Coast of Fife, Mr. Arnott. 
Br. Apr.— Allied to G. pulvinata, but the seta is straight and the cap- 
^ e smooth : thus it has the leaves of G. pulvinata and the fruit of 
G. ovata. This species seems hardly distinct from the South Ameri- 
can G. campestris {Hook. Muse. Ex. t. 129.) 

9. G. ovata, Web. et Mohr, (^ovate Grimmia^); stems more 
or less elongated, leaves lanceolate- subulate gradually produced 
into long diaphanous liair-like points their margins recurved, 
seta exserted, capsule ovate, teeth of the peristome often 
perforated and split, lid rostrate. Web. et Mohr, It. Suec. t. 2. 

Suppl. V. 1. p. 24. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 1. 
n. 24. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p.ll.t. 13 — Dicranum ovatum, Hedw. 
bt. Cr. V. 3. t. 34 — Dicranum ovale, Hedw. Sp. Muse. p. 140. 




FI Brit.'p. 1214. E. Bot. t. 2165. Tarn. Masc. Hib. p. 77 — 
Bryum ovale, Dicks. Cr. Fuse. 4. p. 14. 

Hocks, principally in alpine situations. Fr. June. 

10. G. Donidna, Sm. {Donian Grimniia); stems short, leaves 
lanceolato-subulate produced into long diaphanous hair-like 
points their margins incurved, capsule ovate, teeth of the peri- 
stome tpiite entire, lid shortly rostrate. FI. Brit. p. 1198. 
E. Bot. t. 1259. Hobs. Br. ^losses, v. 1. n. 27. 3Iusc. Brit, 
ed. 2. p. 72. t. 13. — G. sudetica? Schimegr. Suppl. v.l.t. 24. 

Alpine rocks. Fr, April. ( IVih.) Aug. — Alvva}'s much smaller than 
G. ovata, with the teeth of the peristome quite entire; nor have I ever 
seen any intermediate states. 

11. G. atrdta, Mielich. {black tufted Grimmia); stems elon- 

gated very compact, leaves dense erecto-patent linear-lanceo- 
late rigid obtuse slightly keeled destitute of hair-like points, 
capsule cylindrical, lid conical with a short somewhat oblique 
thick beak, teeth narrow-lanceolate (yellow) marked with a line 
or occasionally split. — Mielichoffer in Hoppe and Hornsch. PI. 
Select. — Hornsch. in Bot. Zeit. 1819. 85. Schwaegr. Suppl. 

V. 2. P. 2. t. 116. Hook. 3Iusc. Exot.v. 2. t. 100; (small speci- 
mens, but otherwise very characteristic). Bryol.Germ. v. 2.p.l64. 
t. 23./. 19; (capsules too short). Schwaegr. Suppl. II. P. 2. 
p. 59. t. 116 ; (good). 

Hocks above Glen Callater; Dr. Greville, 1830 Fr. (scarcely 
mature) Aug. — Hitherto I believe this very distinct Grimmia had only 
been found on the Alps of Saltzburg. The stems and thickened branches 
are very densely tufted. The leaves ai'e almost black, except the upper- 
most, which incline to green. The seta is rather thick, yellowish, orange- 
coloured at the base. Capsule truly, but broadly cylindrical. Lid with a 
short slightly inclined beak. Peristome pale yellow. 

12. G. xinicolor. Hook, {dingy Grimmia'); stems elongated 
slender rather loosely tufted, leaves lax erect from a broad base 
linear-lanceolate rigid obtuse keeled upwards destitute of 
hair-like points, capsule elliptical, lid with a subidate in- 
clined beak, teeth narrow-lanceolate (red) entire. Hook, in 
Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 2. p. 32. Grev. Scot. Cr. FI. t. 123. 
3Iusc. Brit. ed. 2. p. 72. Suppl. t. 3. — G. atrata, Hook, in Drum. 
Muse. Americ. n. 57. (not Mielich.') 

Abundant on the steep, almost perpendicular, face of an exposed rock 
above Bachnagairn, a hunting Lodge belonging to the Hon. D. Ogilvie, at 
the head of Clova, Angus-shire; Mr. T. Drummond. Fr. Aug. — Allied to 
the last, but truly distinct, although I had myself confounded the 
American specimens from Lake Superior, with the G. atrata. The 
whole plant is of a browner hue and more opaque, the stems are quite 
slender, the leaves erect, broader at the base, narrower and more keeled 
upwards. Capsule broader and shorter. Lid with a very slender, inclined 
beak, often half as long as the capsule- Teeth deep red, not marked 
with a line, nor cleft. From the stems, filiform barren branches fre- 
quently arise, clothed with minute imbricated ovate leaves. Calyptra 
mitriform, sometimes eventually dimidiate, as in some Trichostonia. 


ellipticum may be known by its more crowded 
spreading acuminated leaves, the glossy rigid more oval capsule, and its 

““ ““ 1 ”^ 

16 . Didymodon. Hedw. Didyniodon. 

^ Seta terminal. Peristome single, of 16 or 32 teeth approach- 
ing m pairs or united at the base. Calyptra dimidiate. (Muse. 

lit. t. 2.) Named from twin, and o^m, a tooth; from 

tlie approximation of tlie teeth in pairs, 

1. D. purpureus, Hook, and Taylor, {purj)le Didymodon'); 
stems scarcely branched, leaves lanceolate acuminate carinated 
tlieir margins recurved entire, capsule ovato-cyliiidraceous 
oblique substrumose furrowed when dry, lid conical. Muse. Brit. 
ed.U p. 65. ed. 2. p. 113. t. 20. Drum. Muse. Seot. v. 2. n. 49. 
—Dicranum purpureum, Hedw. Sp. Muse. t. 36. Turn. Mmc 

P: 1217. £'. Dot. t. 2262.— Z>. purpuras- 

ems, D. Celsu, and D. intermedium, Hedw D. strictum, Sm. 

D. papillosicm, Brid . — Triehostomum papillosum, Sm Bryum 

Celsit and Mnium purpureum, Linn, and Bryum papillosum, 
slrietum, tenue and hipartitum of Dicks, may confidently be re- 
ferred here. •' 

On the ground and on moist banks, most abundant. Fr. Spring — 
Variable as this plant assuredly is in its stems and foliage, it is very 
constant in the form of the fruit, by which it may always be known. 
The peristome is that of a Didymodon, but the pairs of teeth are con- 
nected by transverse bars. 

D. inelindtus, Sw. {inelirwd-fruited Didymodon); stems 
somewhat elongated, leaves bifarious from a sheathing base 
subulate, capsule ovate inclined smooth, lid conical. Swartz 
Muse. Suee. p. 28. Drum.. Muse. Seot. v. 1. n. bd.— Cymntodium 
mehnatum, Hediv. Sp. Musc.p. 58. — Grimmia inelinata, FI. Brit, 
p. 1196. E.Bot. t. 1824. — Swartzia inelinata, Hedw. St. Cr. 
V. 2. t. 27. — Bryum inclinatum, Dicks. 

Usually on mountain rocks ; but rai-e. On the sands of Barrie, near 
Dundee, growing with Weissia nigrita; Mr. Don. Fr. Aug.— The teeth 
are so broad in this species that were it not tor their approximation in 
pairs, we should certainly rank it with the JVeissiw. 

3. D. nervosus, Hook, and Taylor, {thick-nerved Didymodon); 
leaves obovate shortly apiciilate their nerve iiicrassated above, 
capsule ovate erect, lid shortly rostrate. Brit. ed. 1. p. QQ. 
cd. 2. j). 115. t. 20. — Grimmia atro-virens, E. Bot. t. 2015. 

On dry banks, especially in maritime situations in the south of 
England, Wales, and Ireland. Fr. Spring. — This species has wider 
leaves than its congeners and a nerve remarkably thickened upwards 
The 32 teeth approach in pairs, and are, as in B. purpureus, connected* 
by transverse bars. 

4. D . Jiexijolius, Hook, and Taylor, (^wavy -leaved Didymodon); 
stems more or less elongated, leaves erecto-patent oblongo-ovate 




flexuose strongly serrated at tlie point the margin recurved be- 
low, capsule erect cylindrical, lid rostrate. Muse. Brit. ed. 1. 
p. 66. ed. 2. p. 1 15. t. 20. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 2. n. 46. — 
Trichostomum flexifolimn, FI. Brit. p. 1246. E. Bot. t. 2490. — 
Bryum Jlexifolium, Dicks. Cr. Fuse. 3. 7. 

On sterile banks, moors, thatched roofs, and where heath has been 
burned ; not unfrequent. Fr. Spring. — A very distinct and well-marked 
British moss, always of a pale yellow-green colour. The D. squarrosus 
from Nepal almost exactly resembles this, except in being thrice 
its size. 

5. D. glaucesce7is, 4Yeb. et Mohr, (^glaucous Didymodon); 
stems rather short densely tufted slightly branched, leaves 
linear-lanceolate erecto-patent acute remarkably glaucous, cap- 
sule oblong erect, lid conico-rostrate. FI. Cr. Germ. p. 158. 
Grev. Scot. Cr. FI. t. 127. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 116. Suppl. 
t. 3. — Trichostomum glaucescens, Hedw. St. Cr. v. 3. t. 37. 
FI. Brit. p. 1245. E. Bot. t. 2381. 

Scottish mountains, very rare. Glen of the Dole, Clova, on rocks 
slightly covered with earth. Fr. Aug. — Distinguished at once by its 
glaucous-green hue. The peristome is long, red, consisting of 32 filiform 
teeth, placed in pairs. 

6. D. Brimtoni, Arn. (iT/r. Bruntoris Didymodoii); stems 
elongated pnlvinate branched, leaves lanceolato-subulate the 
margins slightly recurved scarcely serrated twisted when dry, 
capsule erect ovate, lid obliquely rostrate. Ar?i. Disp. Muse, 
p. 36. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 117. Suppl. t. 4. — D. ohscurus, 
Kaulf. — Schivaegr. Suppl. v. 2. p. 80. t. 125. Grev. Scot. Cr. 
FI. t. 193. — Dicranum Bruntoni, E. Bot. t. 2509. — D. poly- 
carpon, Muse. Brit. ed. 1. p. 57. Drwn. Muse. Scot. v. 2. n. 37. 
• Rocks, in alpine districts. Fr. June. — This has very much the habit 
of Weissia crisqmla; but the peristome is truly that of a Didymodon. It 
has been well illustrated in the beautiful Scottish Cr. Flora, by Dr. 
Greville, who finds it abundantly on the Pentland hills, as Mr. W. 
Wilson does at Aber, N. Wales. The latter observes a slight appearance 
of a struma at the bottom of the capsule. 

7. D. rigidulus, Hedw. {rigid-leaved Didymodon); stems 
elongated branched, leaves lanceolate carinate tapering up- 
wards to a narrow point the margins reflexed entire, nerve 
rigid running beyond the point, capsule oblongo-ovate erect, 
lid rostrate. Wils — Hedw. St. Cr. v. 3. t. 4. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. 
p. 117. t. 20. — Trichosto^num rigidulum, FI. Brit. p. 1238. E. Bot. 
A 2178. Tumi. Muse. Hih. p. 34. — T. lineare, FI. Brit. p>. 1240? 
F. Bot. t. 1598. — Bryum lineare and B. rigidulum, Dicks. 

Walls and rocks. Fr. Sept, to March. — Mr. Turner well observes 
that the foliage of this moss much resembles that of Torlula fallax: but 
the nerve is different, singularly rigid, of a brown colour (as well as the 
leaves themselves), and decidedly running out beyond the point of the 
leaf: thus the stems have a bristly appearance from the stiffness and 
sharpness of the foliage. Near Beaumaris Mr. Wilson has observed 
a var. with a cylindrical capsule. 


8. D. trifdrim, Sw. {three-ranked DUhjmodon); leaves rather 
distant somewhat trifarious lanceolate obtuse carinate with the 
nerve scarcely reaching to the point, capsule ohlongo-ovate 
erect, hd rostrate. Muse. Suec. p. 28. Brum. Muse. Scot. v. 2. 

^O—Swartzia trifaria, 
edw. bt. Cr. V. 2. t. 28 . — Cynontodium trifarium, Hedtv. Sp. 
^UUsc.— lricfiostomumtrifarium,Fl.Brit.p. \286.E.Bot. t. 1707. 
-—T. hnoides, FI. Brit. p. 1247. E. Bot. t. 2298. (not of Dicks.) 
Ddl. Muse. t. 47. f. 39. (according to Mr. Oglander). 

On moist banks. Fr Dec. and Jan.-This, it must be confessed, is 
ver} neaily allied to the last, and I have seen some plants so inter- 
mediate that 1 cannot pronounce with certainty upon them. It is best 
known by Its shorter, more patent, far less rigid, more obtuse, more 
distantly placed and somewhat trifarious leaves. 

9. B. crispulus, (obscure Didymodoji); stems short scarcely 
branched, leaves erect lanceolato-subulate with entire and 
slightly incurved margins channelled above concave and rounded 
at the summit, nerve suddenly indexed towards the apex and 

^current, capsule ohlongo-ovate erect, lid rostrate. Wils. 

Trichostomum crispulum, Bruch, in Un. It.—Didymodon recon- 
ditum, Wils. Mss. 

On maritime limestone rocks near Carneg Onnen and Tros-y-Marian 
Anglesea; and upon Ormeshead, Caernarvonshire, Mr. IV. TVitson. Fr. 
May and June.— Leaves brownish, widest at the base, tapering upwards' 
nerve reddish and opaque. Wils. * o t » 

10. D. brachydontius, Wils. Mss. (sharp-toothed Didymodon); 

stems short scarcely branched, leaves widely spreading linear 
with plane margins bluntish entire, the nerve excurrent and 
slightly recurved towards the apex, capsule oblong-ovate, lid 
rostrate, peristome very short. Wils. — Trichostomum brachy- 

dontium, Bruch, in Un. It. 

On maritime limestone rocks, near Carneg Onnen, and Tros-y-Marian 
Anglesea ; and upon Ormeshead, Caernarvonshire ; Mr. W. Wilso 7 i[ 
Fr. June. ‘ Stems erect, tufted, branched, about an inch long. 
Leaves much spreading when wet, slightly indexed and contorted when 
dry, lanceolato-oblong, blunt, with a strong and considerably excurrent 
nervfe, which is rather pellucid when the leaf is placed sideways under 
the lens ; margin plane, entire ; Jterve of uniform colour with the sub- 
stance of the leaf, which is composed of very minute cellules, of a lively 
green colour. Capsjde ovato-oblong. Fridtsialk pale green. 

The widely spreading, bright green, apiculate leaves and their closer 
texture; the broader capsule, pale fruitstalk, and the narrow appearance 
of the base of the leaf when dry, will serve to distinguish this from 
the D. crispulus, without inspection of the peristome, which it is very 
difficult to find. The broader blunt leaves and the excurrent nerve, 
with the pale white peristome, and perhaps the shortness of the lid suffice 
to keep it distinct from W. tenuirostris; and probably the flaccid spreading 
Stems, lax acuminated leaves, red somewhat torulose teeth of W. tenuf- 
rostris, may furnish additional characters. It is nearly allied to Trichos- 
tomum flexisetum of Bruch.” Wils. 

11. D. capilldceus, Schrad. (fine-leaved Didymodon); stems 




elongated ccespitose, leaves nearly distichous suhulato-seta- 
ceous, cajjsule erect ovato-cylindraceous, lid conical. Schrad. 
Spied, p. 64. Drum. Muse. Seat. v. 1. n. 52. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. 
p. 119. t. 20. — Sicartzia eapill. Hediv. St. Or. v. 2. t. 26. — 
Cfjnoydodium eapill. Hedw. Sp. Muse . — Triehostomum eapill. 
FI. Brit. p. 1236. FI. Bot. t. 1152. — Bryum eapill. Dielts . — 
(3. ithyphylla ; smaller, leaves shorter rigid more distichous. 
D. subulaturn, Sehkidir, Deutsehl. Moose, p. 65. t. 28. 

Banks and rocks in alpine situations; upon walls about Blair in 
Athol. Fr. Spring. 

12. D. longirostris ? Web. et Mohr, {long-beaked Didy- 
modoti); stems elongated loosely csespitose, leaves subulato- 
setaceous falcato-secund, seta incurved flexuose, capsule oblongo- 
cylindrical, lid rostrate. FI. Or. Germ.p. 156, and 463. — Cyno- 
dontium longirostre, Sehwaegr. Suppl. v. \. p. 211. A 29. 

Moist shady rocks in alpine situations, but always barren ; as on 
Ben-y-Gloe and Cairngoruin. Fr. — I introduce this plant with much 
hesitation under the above name ; because though the stems and foliage 
entirely accord with those of authentic specimens of D. longirostris ; yet 
the most important characters depend upon the fructification, which 
I have never seen on British individuals. 

13. D.heteromdllns, Hook, and Taylor, (curt’c-Zeat’erf Grhnmia^; 
stems rather short, leaves subsecund subulate, capsule ovato- 
cylindraceous, lid conical. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 119. Drum. 
Muse. Seat. v. 1. n. 51. — Weissia heterom. Hedw. St. Or. v. 1. 
t. 8. — Grimmia heterom. FI. Brit. p. 1194. E. Bot. t. 1899. 
Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 30. — |S. leaves more falcato-secund. D. 
homomallus, Hedw. Sp. Muse. t. 23. f. 1 — 7. — Grimmia liomo- 

malla, FI. Brit. p. 1194. E. Bot. t. 1900 Bryum Weissia, 


On the earth, especially in mountainous districts. Fr. Summer. — 
The reasons for considering the Weissia homomalla, Hedw. to be the 
same as our Didym. heleromallus, are given in the Muse. Brit. This 
species is remarkable for its crowded mode of growth, yellowish leaves, 
pale fruit-stalks, which latter become redder upwards, especially as the 
plant advances to maturity. 

14. D. pusillus, Hedw. {dwarf Didymodori); stems slender 
elongated, leaves erect rigid from a broad lanceolate base subu- 
late, capsule erect oblong, lid obliquely rostrate. Hedw. Sp. 
Muse. p. 104. Web. et Mohr, FI. Or. Germ. p. .-Trichos- 
tomum pusillum, Hedw. St. Or. z;. 1. t. 28. E. Bot. t. 2380. — 
Bryum pusillum. Dieks. 

“ Sandy ground,” Mr. Dickson, in E. Bot. Bank (since destroyed) 
three miles from Belfast, on the Dublin road; and in the garden of 
J. Templeton, Esq. near Belfast, Mr. Drummond. Fr. Spring. — The 
short upright rather rigid leaves, with their broad and lanceolate base, 
distinguish the present species from the preceding, than which it is 
much smaller. No certain station had been known of this rare plant, 
in Britain, till Mr. Drummond gathered the specimens now before us 
in Ireland. 



’ 1 ^* {cylindrical Didymodoii); stem short 

simp e, leaves from a broad base setaceo-capillary spreading on all 
sides flexuose, capsule cylindrical inclined, lid conical blunt.— 
Irichostomum cylindr. Hedw. Sp. Muse. p. 107. t. 24. f. 7—13. 
Wahl. Lapp. p. 322 .— Dicranum cylindricum, Web. et Mohr. 
Ditch bank, near Orange Grove, Belfast, Mr. Drummond. Fr. 
ov. Por the addition ot this species likewise to the British list, 
we are indebted to Mr. Drummond. It is entirely distinct from any 

other ot this country ; and bears fruit very sparingly in the station just 
mentioned. i a j j 

17. Trichostomum. Hedw. Fringe-Moss. 

Saa terminal. Peristome single, of 16 equal teeth divided to 
the base, or 32 placed together in pairs. Calyjdra mitriform. 
(^Musc. Hrit. t. 2.) — Named from a hair, and (Sto[j.x, the 
mouth, on account of the slender capillary teeth at the mouth 
of the capsule. 

* Fruitstalks curved. 

1. T. patens, Schwaegr. (^spreading Fringe-Moss); stems 
elongated procumbent, leaves lanceolate acuminate carinated 
their margins reem-ved, fruitstalks curved, capsule oblongo- 
ovate furrowed, lid rostrate. Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. p. 132. 
t. 37. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. \. n. 43. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 104. 
t. 19. (excl. var. /3.) — Dicranum patens, FI. Brit. p. 1213. 
E. Bot. t. 1900. — Bryum patens, Dicks. Cr. Fasc. 4. t. 4. f. 8. 
Dill. Muse. t. 17. f. 30. 

Rocks in mountainous regions, frequent. Fr. Summer. — The upper 
leaves are sometimes slightly piliferous at the points. 

2. T. ? fandle, Schwaegr. (cord-like Fringe-Moss); stems 
elongated ascending, leaves lanceolate acuminate carinated 
their margins recurved hair-pointed, fruitstalks curved, capsule 
oblongo-ovate furrowed, lid rostrate, teeth often cleft only 

at the point. Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. p. 150. t. 37 T. patens, 

13. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 104. 

Rocks, rather scarce. Argyleshire, Capt. Carmichael. Clova, Mr. T. 
Drimmond. Near Plymouth, and near Penzance, Rev. J. S. Tozer. Fr. 
Summer.— I agree with my valued correspondent last mentioned, that 
this is a very puzzling moss. That gentleman has shown the 2^cris- 
tome to be very different from that of T. patens, with which I had 
united it, and indeed that in many respects it is more allied to Grimmia 
trichophylla : but it is much stouter in all its parts and has the leaves 
more lax. 

** Fruitstalks straight. 

3. T. lanuginosum, Hedw. (tcoolly Fringe-Moss); steins elon- 
gated subpinnate, leaves lanceolato-subulate acuminate their 
long diaphanous points serrated, margins reciu-ved, capsule 
ovate, fruitstalks short on lateral branches, lid rostrate. Hedw. 
St. Cr. V. 3. t, 2. Turn. Muse. Hih. p. 38. FI. Brit. p. 1240. 



E. Bot. t. 1348. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 2. n. 44. Muse. Brit. 

ed.2.p. 105. t. 19 Bnjum hypnoides, «. Linn. — DilU Muse. t. 

47. f. 32. 

On mountains, abundant ; rare on heaths in the plains; as in Norfolk, 
Rev, James Layton . — The stems are sometimes a foot or more in length, 
and have an irregularly pinnated appearance. 

4. T. canescens, Hedw. Qioary Fringe-Moss^; stems elon- 
gated irregularly branched, leaves ovato-lanceolate their dia- 
phanous acuminated points sliglitly serrated, capsule ovate, teeth 
of the j^eristome v^ery long and filiform, lid subulate. Hedw. St. 
Cr. V. 3. t. 5. Turn. 3Iusc. Hib. p. 39. FI. Brit. p. 1242. 
E. Bot. t. 2434. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 1. n. 44. Muse. Brit, 
td. 2. p. 106. t. 19. Dill. Muse. t. 47. f. 27. B. — [3. with nume- 
rous short pinnated hranches. T. ericoides, Schrad . — Turn. 
Muse. Hib. p. 28. FI. Brit. p. 1241. E. Bot. t. 1991. Schwaegr. 
Suppl. V. 1. t. 38. — Bryum ericoides, Dicks. Cr. Fuse. 4. p. 14. 
— B. hypnoides, y. Linn. — Dill. Muse. t. 47. f. 31. 

On heaths and stony places in mountainous countries, frequent. Fr. 
Winter and Spring. — The /3. though very different at the first aspect, 
can scarcely be considered otherwise than as a var. of the present, 
having numerous short pinnated branches. 

5. T. lieterostichum, Hedw. (serrated hoary Fringe-Moss^; stems 
elongated branched, leaves ovato-lanceolate their diaphanous 
points slightly serrated, capsule cylindrical, teeth of the peri- 
stome rather short, lid rostrate. Hedw. St. Cr. v. 2. p. 25. 
Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 37. FI. Brit. p. 1239. E. Bot. t. 1347. 
Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 106. t. 19 — Bryum. lieterostichum, Dicks . — 
Dill. Muse. t. 47 .f. 27. A. and F. and G. 

On stones, in mountainous districts. Fr. Spring.— Similar as are the 
stems and foliage of the present plant to the last, yet i\ie fruit is very 
different, the capsule being much narrower and longer, the teeth are 
shorter and almost resemble those of a Dicranum, but are more deeply 

6. T. microedrpum, Hedw. (small-fruited hoary Fringe-Moss^; 
stems elongated branched, leaves lanceolate their diaphanous 
acuminated points slightly serrated, capside OA'ate, teeth of the 
peristome rather short, lid rostrate. Hedxc. Sp. Muse. t. 23. 
/. 8 — 12. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 40. FI. Brit. p. 1243. E. Bot. 
t. 1440. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 2. n. 45. 3Iusc. Brit. ed. 2. p. 107. 

I'h — Dill. Muse. t. 47. f. 29. — T. sudetieum, Funck, Deutsch. 
Moose, t. 18. 71. 15. Drum. Muse. Atner. v. 1. n. 129. 

On rocks. Fr. March. — Sometimes all the tips of the leaves are 
coloured; and when that is the case and the plant is small, it corresponds 
probably with Mr. Turner’s Dicranum acicularc, y. Whether our plant 
be that of Hedwig, 1 am doubtful ; for the capsules figured in the Sp. 
HIusc. are almost elliptical. The T. microcarpum of Funck, and of Driim- 
mond’s Americani, v. 1. n. 129, is certainly another species: 

and their T. sudetieum is our microcarpum. 




ft Leaves never diaphanous at their points. 

7. 1. aciciddre, Beauv. ((loj'k Mo^mtain Frmge~Moss^; sterna 
elongated branched, leaves lanceolate obtuse serrulate at the 
points their nerve vanishing before the snnnnit, capsule oblong, 
lid rostrate. Hooh. Scot. P. II. p. 35. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 1. 
n. 46. Muse. Prit. ed. 2. p. 107. t. 19. — Dicranum ucicuJare, 
Hedw. St. Or. V. 3. t. 33. Turn. Muse. Hih. p. 67. FI. Brit. 
^.1212. E. Bot. t. 1978. — Trich. riparium, Web. et Mohr. — 
Bill. Muse. t. 46. y. 25, and 26. B. 

On wet rocks, frequent. Fr. Spring. — Tins moss has the leaves 
singularly obtuse, and when growing in the water almost black. Some- 
times the foliage is second. The T. riparium, figured in Schwaegr. Sujypl. 
V, 1. t. 39, seems scarcely different from this. 

8. T. fascicular e, Schrad. (beardless hoary Fringe-Moss'); stems 
elongated branclied, leaves lanceolate entire their summits never 
diaphanous their margins recurved, capsule ovato-oblong, lid 
rostrate. Schwaegr. Suppl. v. \. t. 38. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 39. 
FI. Brit. p. 1243. E. Bot. t. 2005. Brum. Muse. Scot. v. 1. 
n. 47. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 108. t. 19. — Bryum hypnoides, 

Linn. — Bill. Muse. t. .f. 28, and t. 46.^1 26. C. 

On rocks, in mountainous districts, Spring. — Stems from 1 — 3 

inches long, with acute entire leaves of a yellowish-green colour, by which 
it is readily distinguished from the preceding ; as it is by the want of the 
diaphanous serrulated points from T. caneseens and its allies. 

9. T.polyphyllum, Schwaegr. (many -leaved Fringe-Moss); stems 
tufted branched, leaves lanceolato-subulate their margins re- 
curved serrated above very much crisped when dry, capsule 
oblong, lid rostrate. Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. t. 39. Brum. Muse. 
Scot. V. 1. n. 49. Muse. Brit.ed. 2. p. 108. t. 19. — T. cirratum, 
FI. Brit. p. 1239. — Bicranum polyphylluni, E. Bot. t. 1217. 
— Bryum polyph. Bicks. — Bill. Muse. t. 48. y’- 41. 

Walls and rocks, in alpine districts. Fr. Spring. — This is a plant 
very distinct from all others of the genus ; its leaves are long and 
narrow and remarkably crisped when dry. It forms dense rounded 
tufts, generally of a dark green colour, and loves to grow on the per- 
pendicular sides of stone-walls especially of trap. The capsules are 
numerous, light pale brown; the teeth bright red, connected in fili- 
form pairs. 

10. T. elUpticum, Hook, and Taylor, (elliptical Fringe-Moss); 

stems short nearly simple, leaves lanceolate acuminate straight 
their nerve broad their margins plane, capsule elliptical, lid 
rostrate. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 109. t. 19. Brum. Muse. Scot. 
V. 1. n. 48. — Bicranum ellipticum, Turn. Muse. Hib. p.l&. t. 6. 
FI. Brit. p. 1213. E. Bot. t. 1901. Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. 47. 

— Grimmia elliptica, Arn. Bisp. Muse. p. 2\. 

Alpine rocks, Ireland, and more frequently in Scotland. Wales, Mr. 
IV. Wilson. Fr. Spring. — The capsules of this moss have a very neat 




and polished a|)pearance. The teeth are broad, often cleft, as in some 
Dicrana, which the peristome in other respects resembles. 

18. Glyphomitrion. Brid. Glyphomitrion. 

Seta terminal. Caps, without an apophysis. Peristome 
single, of 16 teeth approximated in pairs, reflexed when dry. 
Calyptra furrowed, covering the whole capsule, entire or rarely 
cleft on one side and laciuiated. — Named from yXvipu, to scidp- 
ture, and a little mitre, on account of the furrowed 


1. G. Daviesii, Brid. (il/r. Davies' Glyphomitrioii). Schivaegr. 
Suppl.v. 3. t. 113. Hook, and Grev. in Ed. Journ. of Sc. v. 1. 
p. 131. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 110. t. 13. — Grimmia Daviesii, 
Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 24. — Eiicalypta Daviesii, E, Bot. t. 1281. 
— Griffithia Daviesii, Br. in Linn. Tr. v. 12. p. 575. 

On rocks, generally near the sea, particularly in Wales and Ireland. 
Rocks at Kilpatrick on the Clyde, Mr. T. Drummond. Fr. March. — 
Stems about half an inch in height, tufted, resembling small plants of 
Trichoslomum polyphyllmi. Leaves lanceolato-acuminate, carinate, en- 
tire, of a dark brownish-green colour, much crisped when dry, those of 
the perichcetium broad and convolute. Capsule turbinate, beautifully 
smooth and regular in its form, brown. Lid shortly conical, with a 
rather long and sharp beak. — This moss is peculiar to the British Isles. 

19. Dicranum. Hedw. Fork-moss. 

Seta terminal (except in D. adiantoides and D. taxifoliumi). 
Peristome single, of 16 bifid, equidistant teeth. Calyptra mitri- 
form. {Muse. Brit. t. 2.) — Named from a jlesh-hook or 

fork, from the resemblance of its forked teeth to that instru- 
ment — The first division of Dicranum, with distichous leaves, 
does indeed form a natural groupe or genus, hut possessing 
no character in the fructification. 

A. Leaves hifarious (Fissidens, Hedw.) 

1. D. hryoides, Sw. {lesser pinnated-leaved Fork-moss); seta 
teiTuinal, leaves of the perichaetium resembling those of the 
stem. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 88. t. 16 — u. stem short simple, 
capsule erect. D. hryoides, Sw. 3Iusc. Suec. t. 2. /. 4. FI. Brit, 
p. 1232. E. Bot. t. 625. Turn. Muse. Hib. t. 53. Drum. 
Muse. Scot. V. 2. n. 38. — Fissidens hryoides, Hedw. St. Cr. v. 3. 
t. 29 — Hypmim hryoides, Linn. — Dici\ virididum, Sw. Muse. 

Suec. t. 2. /. 3. El. Brit. p. 1230. E. Bot. t. 1368 Bryum 

viridulum, Linn — Dicks. Cr. Ease. 1. t. 1. /. 5. — Fissidens 
exilis, Hedw. Sp. Muse. t. 38. f. 7 — 9. — /3. stem elongated some- 
what branched, capsule erect. D. osmundioides. Turn. Muse. 
Hib. p. 55. FI. Brit. p. 1233. E. Bot. t. \m^.—Fissidms 
Osmund. Hecho. Sp. Muse. t. 40. J, 7 — 11. — F. asplejiioides , 
Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. P. IT. p. 8. Brid. Meth. Muse. p. 190, 
{and of the same author , according to Mr . Arnott, F.elegans, Thun- 




hcrgii, dicarpos and acacioidcs). — Hypnum asplenioides, Dichs. 
Cr. Fasc. 2, t. 5. jC 5. — y, stem short simple, capsule inclined. D. 

taynarindifolium, Turn. 3Iasc. Hib. p. 55. FI. Brit. p. 1231 

F. hicurvus, Schwaegr. Suppl. t. 49. — Fissidens tamarindifoUus, 
crispus, loy/gifolius and linearis, Brid.—F. palmatus, Hedto. St. 
Cr. V. 3. t. 30. A. ? 

Moist banks and in woods, frequent. |3. frequent on moist rocks. 
Fr. Winter. A very variable plant ; from which the D. osmiindioides 
of authors does indeed at first sight appear to be distinct ; for the stems 
are elongated, branched, almost erect with yellowish foliage : yet I see 
no reason to consider it other than as a variety; though in this opinion 
I am at variance with most Museologists, especially the continental 
ones. ^ r_he .structure of the leaves in this and the remaining species of 
this divivsion is highly curious, aiKl totally unlike that of any other moss 
with^ which I am acquainted. Besides being vertical, their upper half 
(taking the nerve for the line of separation) is from the base beyond 
the middle composed of two lamellae, the lower part of which embraces 
the stem, while the rest often embraces a portion of the leaf placed im- 
mediately above it. 

The moss vrhich engaged Mungo Park’s attention so much in Africa 
as to revive his drooping spirits when sinking under fatigue, is this 
species ; as I have ascertained by means of original specimens given to 
me by his brother-in-law, Mr- Dickson. 

2. D. adiantoides, Sw. (^Adiantuyyi-like Fork-Floss'); seta lateral, 
perichaetial leaves ovate slig-htly convolute pointed. Sw. FIvse. 
Suec. p. 31. Turn. FIusc. Hib. p. 57. FI. Brit. p. 1234. Hobs. 
Brit. Mosses, v. 2. n. 34. Druni. Muse. Scot. v. 1. n. 32. FIusc. 
Brit. ed. 2. p. 90. t. 16. — Fissidens adiantoides, Hedw. St. Cr. 
V. 3. t. 36. Schwaegr. Sujjpl. v. 1. P. II. p. 10. Brid. Fleth. 
p. 191, together with F. grandifiorus of the same author and 
F. dubius, Beauv. — Hypnum adiant. Linn. — E. Bot. t. 264. — 
Dill. Muse. t. 34. f. 3. 

Moist banks, wet pastures and bogs. Fr. Spring.— Zcarci nearly 
lanceolate, more or less serrulate at the point. The base of the setce is 
surrounded by a remarkably scaly perichcetium, whose leaves are very 
unlike those of the stem, being ovate, concave, convolute, nerveless, ex- 
cept at the revolute point, which is flattened and its edge vertical. 
These are inserted on the side of the stem, and from below the peri- 
chaetium reddish roots are thrown out, exactly as in the following species, 
from which it scarcely differs but in the situation of the fruit, and of 
which Wahlenberg considers it a variety. 

3. D. taxifolium, Sw\ ( Yew-leaved Fork-Floss); seta arising' 

from the root, perichaetial leaves ovate sheathing convolute 
pointed. Siv. Muse. Suec. p. 31. Turn. Fhysc. Hib. p. 56. 
FI. Brit. p. 1233. Hobs. Br. Flosses, v. 1. n. 35. Drtiyn. FIusc. 
Scot. V. 1. n. 31. FIusc. Brit. ed. 2. p. 91. 16. — Fissidens 

taxif. Hedw. Sp. FIusc. t. 39. Sclaoaegr. Suppl. v. 1. P. II. 
p. 10. — Hypnym, Linn. — E. Bot. t. 416. — Dill. Fhisc. t. 34. 


Moist banks. Fr. Winter. 




B. Leaves inserted on all sides of the stem. 
a. Leaves destitute of nerve, 

4. D. glducum, Hedw. (ivhite Fork-Moss'); stems branched 
fastigiate, leaves lanceolate straight nerveless entire, capsnle 
ovate cernnons, lid rostrate. Hedw. Sp. Muse. p. 135. Schu'aegr. 
Suppl. V. 1. ]). 187. t. 48. Turn. 3Iusc. Hib. p. 73. FI. Brit, 
p. 1216. E. Bot. t. 2166. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 1. n. 36. Muse. 
Brit. ed. 2. p. 92. t. 16. — Bnjum glaucum, Linn. — Bdl. Muse, 
t. 46. yi 20, and t. 83. f. 8. 

Boggy woods and heatlis, frequent ; rare in fruit. Fr. Spring. — The 
colour and reticulation of the leaves of this plant resemble those of the 
Genus Sphagnum. 

h. Leaves furnished with a nerve. 

* Leaves apiculate or piliferous. 

5. D. latifolium, Hedw. (broad-leaved Fork-Moss); stems 
short, leaves oblong concave entire apiculate or piliferous, cap- 
sule erect ovato-oblong, lid rostrate. Hedw. St. Or. v. 1. t. 33. 
Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 79. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 2. 7i. 32. Muse. 

Brit. ed. 2. /?. 92. t. 16 Triekostomum latif. Sehivaegr. Su])pl. 

V. 1. p. 145. — T. piliferum, E. Bot. t. 2536. — Desmatodon latif 
Brid. Bryol. — Bryum piliferum, Dieks. 

Banks in Ireland; 4 miles from Dublin on the road to Woodlands, 
Luttrelstown, Dr. Taylor. Near Aberfeldy, Scotland, Mr. Dickson, 

chiefly in mountainous situations. Fr. . — Sometimes the nerve 

is so far produced beyond the point of the leaf and so diaphanous as to 
render the latter truly piliferous. 

** Leaves not apietdate. 
f Nerve very broad. 

6. D. longifolium, Hedw. (long-leaved Fork-Moss); stems 
elongated, leaves very long subulato-setaceous falcato-secund 
serrulate their nerv^e very broad, capsule oblongo-ovate nearly 
erect, lid rostrate. Hedw. St. Or. v. 3. t. 9. Sehwaegr, Sxippl. 
V. \.p. 176. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 93. t. 16. 

Wet rocks, Glenmalur, Ireland, Dr. Taylor. On Ben Voirlich and 

Ben-y-gloe, Scotland. Fr. . — The leaves of this moss are remarkably 

long and slender and furnished with a nerve which occupies nearly their 
whole breadth. I am not aware that its fruit has been found in Britain. 

7. D. eervieiddtiun, Pledw. (red-necked Fe/rk-Moss); stems 
short, leaves lanceolato-subulate entire subsecund their nerve 
very broad, capsule ovate subcernuous strumose, lid rostrate. 
Hedw. St. Or. v. 3. t. 37. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 64. FI. Brit, 
p. 1220. Hobs. Br. Mos.<;es, v. 1. «. 37. Sehwaegr. Suppl. v. \.]J. 
193. E. Bot.t. 1861. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 1. n. 37. Mtisc. Brit, 
ed. 2. p. 93. t. 16. — D. pusillu7n, Hedw. St. Or. 7\ 2. t. 29. 
I'l. Brit. p. 1219. E. Bot. t. 2491. Sehwaegr. Suppl, v. 1. 


p. 193.— Z). Jlavidwn, ScJucaecjr. Sappl. v. 1. p. 192. t. 45 

n. uncinatum, FI. Brit. p. 1207. E. Bot. t. 226J .— Z>. 
deticum, Schicaegr. Suppl v. 1. p. 175. t. Ab.~Bryum uncina- 
tum, cervicidatum and parvnlum, Bichs Oncophonis, Brid. 

Bogs and moist banks, sides of drains, &c. Fr. June.— This is 
a small nioss of a yellowish colour, covering with its dense, tufts the 
1 ack sod of turf-bogs ; but Mr. Wilson finds in Cheshire a moss twice 
the size of this, having the habit of I), heteromallum, but the remarkably 
broad nerve to the leaf of the true D. cerviculatuni. 

8. Ty. Jlexuosmn, Hedw. (zigzag Fork-Moss^; stems nearly 
simple rigid, leav^es lanceolato-subulate much acuminated stz’aight 
their nerve very hroad, seta flexuose, calyptra fringed at the 
base, capsule ovate at length striated, lid rostrate. Hediv. Sp. 
Muse. t. 38. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 74. E. Bot. t. 1491. 
FI. Brit. p. 1229. Hobs. Br. Mosses^ v. 1. n. 38. Schivaegr. 
Suppl. V. 1. p. 189. Muse. Brit. p. 94. t. 16. — Bryum jiexuosum, 

Linn — Thysanomilrion fiex. Am. Disp. Muse. p. 33 Campy- 

lopus fiex. Brid. — Bryum immersum ami B. fragile, Bichs . — 

nigro-viride ; stems elongated blackisli-green, leaves often 
piliferous. Campylopus pilfer , Brid. — Sphagnum, alpinuni, 
Linn.— Bill. Muse. t. Al.f. 33, and t. 32. /. 3. 

On turf-bogs and wet rocks. /8. in alpine situations. Fr. Winter. — 
This is a highly variable species, when growing in the plains having short 
stems and pale yellow leaves, which are so fragile as frequently to be 
found broken off and lying upon the tuft in considerable quantities, look- 
ing at first sight not unlike the dimidiate calyptra; of the genus — and 
hence the Bryum fragile of Dicks. The alpine .state of the plant is 
sometimes 4—5 inches in length, usually of a blackish colour, with 
diaphanous points to the leaves, rarely bearing fructification. Specimens 
with falcate leaves have been gathered near Killarney by Mr. Wilson. 

f f Nerve narrow. 

* Capsule with a struma. 

9. D. Virens, Hedw. (gi'een spur-fruited Fork-Moss); stems 
elongated, leaves from a broad sheathing base subulate their 
margins recurved crisped when dry pointing in all directions, 
capsule smooth oblongo-cylindrical subcernuons strnmose, lid 
rostrate. Hedw. St. Cr. v. 3. t. 32. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 69. 
FI. Brit. p. 1406. E. Bot. t. 1462. Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. 
p. 194. Brum. Muse. Scot. v. 2. n. 41. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 95. 
t. 17. — Oncophorus, Brid. 

Marshy places upon the more elevated mountains of Scotland, espe- 
cially on Ben Lawers. Ireland, Dr. Scott. Fr. June. — British speci- 
mens differ from continental ones by having longer and entire points to 
the leaves. 

10. B. Schrebei'idnum,1Ae:^\v. (Schreberian Fork-Moss); stems 
rather short simple tufted, leaves squarrose from a very broad 
sheathing base suddenly subulate crisped when dry, capsule 
ovate subcernuons, struma distinct, lid rostrate curved. Hediv. 




Sp. Muse. p. 144. t. 33. Sclmaegr. Suppl. v. 1. /;. 179. Grev. 
Scot. Cr. FI. t. 116. 3Iusc. Brit. ed. 2. p. 95. Supjil. t. 3. 

Uj)on clayev soil, in an old neglected road in Glen 1 ilt at the loot of 
Ben-y-gloe; GreviUe, Arnott, and Hooker, 1822. Fr. Aug.— This has 
the mode of growth of D. varium and the squarrose foliage of D. sqnarro- 
stim; but the whole plant is much smaller, the leaves narrow with re- 
markably broad sheathing bases, and the cagsule has a distinct struma. 

11. D. stnimiferum, Ehrli. (^struniose Fork-Moss^; steins 
elongated, leaves from a broad sheathing base subulate entire 
their margins plane crisped wlien dry, pointing in all directions, 
capsule furrowed oblougo-ovuite subceruuous strumose, lid ros- 
trate. Ehrli, Crypt. 11.1 A. FI. Brit. p. 1298. E. Bot. A2410. Drum. 
Muse. Scot. V. 2. 11 . 42. Sclmaegr. Suppl. v. 1. p. 194. 3Iusc. 
Brit. ed. 2. ji. 96. t. 17. — Fissidens strumifer, Hedw. St. Cr. 
V. 2. t. 32. — Bryiim inclinans, Dicks . — Oncophorus, Brid. 

Marshy places, in alpine situations. Fr. Autumn. — Allied to 
Z). virens ; but the margins of the leaves are not recurved, and the 
capsule is shorter and deeply fiirrowed. 

12. D. polycdrpon, Ehrli. {inany -headed Fork-Moss^; stems 
elongated branched, leaves patent pointing in all directions lan- 
ceolato-suhulate their margins recurved flexuose suhserrulate 
crisped when dry, capsule oblongo-ovate nearly erect furrowed 
when old, struma inconspicuous, lid rostrate. EJirh. Crypt, 
n. 84, {according to Sniitli). FI. Brit. p. 1227. E.Bot. t. 2269. 
Sclmaegr, Suppl. v. \. p. 179. Muse, Brit. ed. 2. p. 96. t. 18. — 
Fissidens polycarpus, Hedw. St. Cr. v. ‘2,. A 31, {not good.^— 
Oncophorus, Brid. 

Alpine rocks, rare. Ben High, Aberdeenshire, Mr. G. Don. Fr. Aug. 
— Were it not for the obscure struma and the narrow recurved margin 
of the leaves, I should be inclined to reduce this plant to D. strumifenim : 
indeed I have seen some specimens so intermediate that I have scarcely 
known to which I ought to refer them. 

13. D. falcatum, Hedw. {sichle-leaved Fork-3Ioss); stems 
nearly simple, leaves long lanceolato-suhulate falcato-secund 
nearly entire, capsule ovate suheernnous strumose, lid rostrate. 
Hedw. Sp. 3Iusc. t. 32. f. 1 — 7. FI. Brit. p. 1208. E. Bot. 
t. 1989. Sclmaegr. Suppl. v. \. p. 190. Hobs. Br. 3Iosses, v. 2. 
n. 33. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 1. n. 36. 3Iusc. Brit. ed. 2. p. 97. 
t. 17 . — Bryuni longifolium, Dicks . — Oncophorus, Brid. 

Alpine rocks. Fr. June. — Allied toZ). heteromallum ; but it is more 
rigiil, the leaves more falcate and there is an evident struma. Mr. Wil- 
son was struck with the sooty hue of the calyptra of this species, on the 
summit of Ben Lawers. This 1 have often obseiwed, and have always 
attributed it to the effect of the snow which covers the plant even 
during a great portion of the summer, in those elevated regions. 

14. D. Stdrkii, Web. et Mohr, {Starkian Eork-3Ioss^; 
stems somewhat branched, leaves hinceolato- subulate falcato- 
secund entire, capsule oblongo-ovate suberect strumose, lid ros- 
trate. Web. et 31ohr, FI. Cr. Germ, E. Bot. t. 2227 . Sclmaegr. 


V. 1. p. 194. t 4G. Brum. Muse. Scot. v. 1. n. 35. 
Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 97 . t. 17. — Oncophorus, Brid. 

_ Alpine rocks. Fr. July. — Similar in many respects to the preced- 
ing ; but generally larger, sometimes 4 or 5 inches long, with a longer 
cnpmle. There is, too, a perichcBlium whose leaves are convolute, as in 
jJ, scojmrium. 

** Capstde without a struma. 

lo. T). Jlavesceyis, {yelloioish Borh-Moss^; stQm%hrai\e\iQd, 
leaves long- lanceolate serrulate pointing in all directions crisped 
when dry, capsule oblong erect, lid rostrate. E. Bot. t. 2263. 

/ Brum. Muse. Scot. v. 2. n. 40. Muse. Brit. 

ed. 2. p. 98. t. 17 — B. gracilescem, Web. et Mohr Schwaegr. 

Suppl. V. p. 180. t. 46 — Bryum jiavesceris, Bicks. 

On wet sand, under the rocky banks of rivers. Fr. Ana. 

16. D. squarrosum, Schrad. (drooping-Ieaved Forh-Moss^; 

stems somewhat branched, leaves from a broad sheathing base 
lanceolate obtuse recurved and patent directed to every side 
msped when dry, capsule ovate subcernuous, lid rostrate. 
Schrad. Journ. 1802. Turn. Muse. Hih.p. 69. FL Brit. p. 1225. 
Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. 182. t. 47. E. Bot. t. 2004. Hobs. 

Brit. Mosses, v. 1. «. 39. Brum. Muse. Scot. v. 1. «. 41. 31 use. 
Brit. ed. 2. p. 98. t. 17 — Bryum palustre, Bicks . — Oncophorus, 
Brid. — Bill. 3Iusc. t. 46. f. 24. 

Wet spong}^ plains, in rocky alpine situations ; bearing /rKi/ (July) 
rarely, and usually in sandy deposits by the sides of streams ; as in the 
Dublin mountains. Dr. Taylor; and Castle Kelly Glen, Ireland, Wik. ; 
m the Isle of Skye, &c. Fr. August. — Some authors arrange this with 
the strumiferous Dicrana (^Oncophorus, Brid.); but to me the struma is so 
obscure that I think the plant ranks more naturally in the present 
group. Mr. Wilson, too, observes that there is no real struma, only 
the appearance of one, from the shrinking of the capsule, when dry, be- 
low the middle. 

17. D. pellucidum, Sw. (pellucid Fork-3Ioss'); stems branclied, 
leaves lanceolate their margins slightly waved serrated rather 
obtuse pointing in all directions, capsule ovate subcernuous, lid 
rostrate. Sw. 3Iusc. Suec. p. 35. Turn. 3Iusc. Hih. p. 68. 
FI. Brit. p. 1223. E. Bot. t. 1346. Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. 
p. 181. t. 48. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 1. n. 40. Brum. 3Iusc. Scot. 

V. \. n. 42. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 98. t. 17. — Bryum pellucidum, 
Linn. — Bill. Muse. t. 46. f. 23. 

Sides of streams and rivers. Fr. Nov. — The more ovate, shorter, 
somewhat truncate and decidedly inclined crt/WM/c,?, furnish the principal 
distinction between this plant and D.Jiavescens. 

18. D. spurium, Hedw. (spurious Fork-3Ioss); stems elon- 
gated, leaves ovate concave erecto-patent directed to every side 
the upper ones lanceolate serrulate, capsule oblong curved, lid 
rostrate. Hedw. St. Cr. v. 2. t. 20. FI. Bril. p. 1222. Schivaegr. 
Suppl. V. 1. p. L79, 3Iusc. Brit. ed. 2. p. 99. t. 17. 




Bogs, Yorkshire, Air. Teeschile. Kimiordy, Scotland, C. LycH, Esq.; 

always sterile. Fr. . — The teelh of the j)eristome of this and 

some other Z>itr«wa have sometimes 3 segments. 

1 9. D. crisptcm, ITedw. {curl-leaved Fork-Moss) ; stems 
short, loaves from a sheathing' base setaceous nearly distichous 
flexuose recurved crisped when dry, capsule ovate erect, lid 
witli a long beak. Hedw. St. Cr. v. 2. t. 33. Turn. Muse. Hd>. 
}). 65. FI. Brit. j}. 1207. E. Bot. t. 1151. Schwaegr. Siippl. 
V. \.p. 179. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 1. n. 38. Hobs. Br. Mosses, 
V. 2. n. 34. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 100. t. 17. — Bryurn vaginale, 

Moist banks. Fr. Nov. — In size and general appearance, this is al- 
lied to 1). Schrebetiamim ; but that has shorter and broader leaves, an 
inclined capsule and shorter lid. 

20. D. jiagelldre, Hedw. {upright-fruited Fork-Moss); stems 
branched, leaves subulate their margins plane subserrated more 
or less crisped when dry, capsule cylindrical nearly erect equal, 
lid with a very long beak — ». leaves falcato-secund. D.ji tgel- 
lare, Hedw. St. Cr. v. 3. t. 1. FI. Brit. p. 1206. E. Bot. 
t. 1977, {left-hand figure). — (3. leaves directed to every side. 
D. Scottiemum, Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 75. t. 6. f. 1. FI. Brit, 
p. 1226. E. Bot. t. 1391, and t. 1977, {right-hand figure, as 

Jlugdlare). Hobs. Br. Alosses, v. 2. n. 35. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. 
p. 100. t. 18. — D. montanum, 'Hedw. Sp. 3Iusc. p. 145. t. 35. 
J. 8 — 13? FL Brit. p. 1228. — D. strictum, Schicaegr. Suppl. 
t. 43. V. l.p. 188. 

Among rocks, in mountainous situations, especially in the South of 
Ireland, where Mr. Wilson finds both «. and /3. Near Llanberis 
Lake Mr. W. Palgrave has detected /3. At Glengariff, Wils. Near 
riymouth. Rev. J. S. Tozer. Fr. Sept.— Mr. Wilson has found the I). 
Scolliauuiii with leaves so decidedly falcate that I have no hesitation in 
considering that state of the plant to be the true 1). flagellare of Hedw.; 
but with us it is far less common than that with the leaves directed 
to all sides and which are usually crisped when dry. I have, however, 
restored the older name of fledwis;. 

21. D. unduldtum, Hhrb. {waved-lenved Fork-3Toss); stems 
elongated, leaves nearly plane lanceolate attenuate serrulate at 
the points transversely waved, capsule cylindraceous cernnous, 
lid with a long beak. Ehrh. Crypt, {not of Schrad.) Turn. 
3Iusc. Hib. p. 59. FI. Brit. p. 1203. E. But. t. 2260. Drum. 

3Iusc. Scot. V. 1. 71. 34. 3Iusc. Brit. ed. 2. p. 100. t. 18. 

D. polyseturn, Sw — Scimaegr. Suppl. v. \. p. 165. t. 41. 

Woods and rocks. Fr. Aug.— From the large perichceiia of this 
moss, 2, 3 and sometimes as many as 7 seta: arise 'I'he transverse un- 
dulations of the leaves become much more evident when the plant is 
dry than in a recent state. 

22. D. scopdrium, Hedw. {Broom Fork-Moss); stems elon- 
gated, leaves narrow subulate canaliculate secund, capstde cylin- 
draceous arched cernuous, lid with a long beak. 31usc. Brit. 





ed. 2./). 104 — «. vulgaris; stems elongated robust, leaves slightly 
falcato-secund. D. scoparium, Hediv. Sp. Muse. p. 126. FI. Brit. 
p>, 1201. Turn. Muse. Ilih. p. 58. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 1. 
n. 41. Brum. Muse. Seot. v. 1. n. 33. SeJneaegr. Suppl. v. 1. 
p. 163. t. 42. — Bryum seoparium, Linn. — E. Bot. t. 354. Dill. 
Muse. t. 46. j. 16. — /3. majus ; stems more elongated, leaves 
more falcate and larger. D. majus, Turyi. Muse. Hib. p. 58. 

E. Bot. t. 1490. Selnvaegr. Suppl. v. 1. p. 163. t. 40 y.fusees- 

eens; smaller in every part, leaves subsecund narrower some- 
what crisped when dry. D.fuseeseens, Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 60. 
FI. Brit. p. 1204. E. Bot. t. 1597 — D. eongestum, Sehwaegr. 
Suppl. V. 1. p. 168. 42. — D. longirostre, Sehieaeqr. Suppl. v. 1. 

p. 170. t. 44. 

Woods and hedges. — y. principally in mountainous countries. Fr. 

Most authors consider the three varieties above noticed as distinct 
species ; but I must confess myself unable to draw any decided line of dis- 
tinction they are seen to pass gradually into each other, both in British 
and foreign individuals; and the species is met with in almost every 
quarter of the globe. The cnjosule'm a, is often cylindrical and elongated, 
less drooping ; but at other times it is as short and as much inclined as 
in /3 and y. 

23. D. vdriuw, Hedw. (variable Fork-Moss^; stems short, 
leaves narrow hastato-lanceolate, capsule ovate, lid rostrate. 
Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 102. t. 17. — x. viride ; leaves generally 
pointing in all directions lanceolate green, capsules suheernuous. 
D. varium, Hediv. St. Cr. v. 2. t. 34. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 65. 
FI. Brit. p. 1209. E. Bot. t. 1215. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 1. 
n. 42. Brum. Muse. Seot. v. 1. n. 39. Sehwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. 
p. 174 — D. rigididum, Sw. Muse. Suee. t. 3. /. 7. Hedw. Sp. 
Muse. t. 32. Sehwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. p. 174. FI. Brit. j). 1211. 
— D. eallistomum, FI. Brit. p. 1211. — Bryum eallist. Dicks. — 
/3, rufeseens ; leaves subsecund lanceolato-suhulate reddish, cap- 
sules erect. D. rufeseens. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 66. E. Bot. 

t. 121%.-— Bryum rifeseens, Dicks — Dill. Muse. t. 50. f. 59 

y. luridum ; leaves subsecund subulate of a liu’id colqur, cap- 
sules suheernuous. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 102. 

Moist banks. Fr. Winter. — In the rufescent variety the leaves are 
more pellucid and more reticulated than in x . : — but the var. y. partakes 
of the character of the two others. 

24. D. heteromdllum, Hedw. (silky -leaved Fork-Floss'); stems 
branched, leaves subulate falcato-secuud nearly entire, capsule 
ovate suheernuous, lid Avitli a long beak. Hedw. St. Cr. v. 1. 
t. 26. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 61. FI. Brit. p. 1204. E. Bot. 
t. 1272. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 1. n. 43. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 1. 
n. 40. Selnvaegr. Suppl. v. 1. p. 173. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. 
p. 103. t. 18. — (D. orthocarpum, D. curvatum and D. interrup- 
tum of Hedw. Sp. Muse, can scarcely be distinguished from this). 
— Dill. Muse. t. ¥l .f. 37 and 38. 

Shaded, especially sandy banks, frequent. Fr. Oct. Nov . — Leaves 
deep and bright green. Setce and co 2 )sulcs red-brown. 




25. D. suhuldtum, Hedw. (awl-leaved Fo7'k-3Ioss^; steins 
branched, leaves from a broad slieathing’ base siibnlato-setaceous 
seciind entire, capsule ovate subcernuous, lid with a long beak. 
Hediv. Sp. Muse. t. 34. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 63. FI. Brit, 
p. 1206. E. Bot. t. 1273. Sehwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. p. 173. Brum. 
Mxisc. Scot. V. 2. n. 39. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 103. t. 18. 

Moist banks. Mr. Drummond finds it not unfrequently upon the 
Highland mountains. Fr. Autumn. — Closely resembling the preceding ; 
but having a remarkably broad and sheathing base to the leaves. 

26. jy.fulvellum, Sin. (tawny Fork-Moss^; stems rather short 
thickly tufted simple, leaves subulato-setaceous scarcely secund 
those of the pezdehsetium convolute, seta hardly longer than 
the leaves, capsule ei’ect turbinate fuiTOwed when old, lid conico- 
rosti’ate. FI. Brit. p. 1209. E. Bot. t. 2268. Grev. Scot. Cr. 
FI. p. 188, (excelle^it). Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 103. Suppl. t. 3. — 
Bryumfulvellum, Dicks. Cr. Fuse. A.t. W. f. 1. 

Highlands of Scotland. Ben More, Dicks. Ben Nevis, Mr. Borrer, 
Rev. C. Smith. Ben Lawers, Grev. and Hooker. Clova mountains, not 
unfrequent, Drummond. Summit of Snowdon, Dr. Taylor. Fr. Autumn. 
— This is a very distinct species, with much of the habit of llTissia 
acida. The peristome is bright red, the teeth bifid or cut into segments 
of various lengths, and sometimes perforated with clefts. 

20. Tortula. Hedw. Sci*ew-moss. 

Seta terminal. Peristome single, of 32 spirally twisted teeth, 
united moi-e or less at the base into a tizbular membrane. Ca- 
lyptra dimidiate. (Muse. Brit. t. 2.) Named fi-om tortus, 
twisted, in allusion to the natime of the peristome. 

* Leaves thick and rigid. 

1. T. enervis. Hook, and Greville, (nerveless I'igid Screio- 
3Ioss); stems very short, leaves few lingulate very obtuse con- 
cave nerveless rigid the margins involute, lid conico-acuminate 
rather shorter than the oblong capsule. Hook, et Greville in 
Brewst. Journ. v. 1. pt. 288. 3Iusc. Brit. ed. 2. p. 32. Suppl. t. 2. 
— T. rigida, FI. Brit. p. 1249. E. Bot. t. 180. Sehwaegr. Suppl. 
V. 1. j7. 118. — Barhula rigida, Hedw. St. Cr. v. 1. p. 63. t. 23. 

Walls and clay banks, near Yarmouth. Stiblington, Kent, Rev. J. 
M. Berkeley. Fr. Dee. 

2. T. hrevhostris. Hook, and Greville, (short-beaked rigid 
Screw-Moss); stems very short, leaves few rotundato-elliptical 
very obtuse concave nerveless rigid the margins involute, 
lid conical scai'cely beaked half the length of the oblong cap- 
sule. Hook, et Grev. in Brewst. Journ. v. \. p. 289. t. 2. 3Iusc. 
Brit. ed. 2. p. 33. Suppl. t. 2. Grev. Scot. Cr. FI. v. 6. t. 33}. 
— T. rigida, Funck, Deutschl. 3Ioose, t. 13. 

On an old wall near Edinburgh, D. Stewart, Esq. Fr. Winter. 

3. T. rigida, Tui*n. (Aloe-like rigid Screio-AIoss) ; stem very 
shoi't, leaves few linear incurved submuci’onulate grooved nerved 


M USCI - A C llOCA IIPJ - PE 11 1 STOW I . 


ligid the margins involute, lid rostrate about half the length of 
the oblong cajisule. Turn. Muse. Rib. p. 43. Hobs. Br. Mosses, 
V. 1. n. 21. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 53. f 12. Grev. Seot. Or. FI. 
V. 6. t. 348 . — Bryum rigidum, Uuds — Dill. Muse. p. 49./ 55. 

On day-banks, in the South-East of England. Wall-top, near Dublin, 
iJrummond. Fr. Nov. — The peristome of this moss is shorter and less 
twisted than that ot most otlier Fortulai ; hence Mougeot and Nest- 
lei have published it as a Frichostomum, and under the appropriate 
specific name of T. aloides. 

** Leaves more or less membranous. 

•f* PeriehcBtiul leaves eonvolute, sheathing. 

4. T. eonrolida, Sw. {convolute Screw-Moss'); stems rather 
short, leaves oblongo-lanceolate acute their margins plane those 
of the perichaetium remarkably involute, capsule oblong, lid 
rostrate. Siv. Muse. Suec. FI. Brit. p. 1253. E. Bot. t. 
2382. Turn. Muse. Rib. p. 149. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 2. «. 19. 

Drum. 3Iusc. Scot. v. 1. ti. 23. 3Iusc. Brit. ed. 2. p. 54. f. 12 

Barbula convoluta, Hediv. St. Or. v. \. p. 87. i. 32. Schwaegr. 
Suppl. V. \. p. 127. — Bryum convolutum, Dicks. — Dill. 3Iusc. 
t. 48./ 44. 

Banks and upon turf-walls; not uncommon in the north. Fr. 
Spring . — The setcB are pale-coloured, like those of Bidymodon paltidus ; 
the \yhole foliage is of a yellowish hue, and the perichcetial leaves are 
strikingly convolute. 

5. T. revoluta, Brid. {revolute Screw-3Ioss^; stems short, leaves 
lanceolate acute their margins remarkably revolute those of the 
perichaetium sheathing involute, capsule oblong, lid rostrate 
shorter than the capsule. Brid. in Schrad. Journ. 1800. Drum. 
3Iusc. Scot. V. 2. n. 22. 3Iusc. Brit. ed. 2. p. 54. t. 12. — T. 
nervosa, E. Bot. t. 2383. — Barbula revoluta, Mohr. — Schwaegr. 
Suppl. V. 1. p. 127. t. 32. — jS. obtusifolia, Sclnvaegr. Suppl. v. 1. 
t. 31. 

Banks and sandy places. Fr. Spring. 

f f Leaves uniform. 

6. T. murdlis, Hedw. {wall Screw-Moss); stems mostly short, 
leaves patent narrow oblong the margins recurved, the nerve 
strong running out into a hair-like point, capsule oblongo-cylin- 
drical, lid conical acuminate. — *. vidgaris ; leaves carinated 
tipped with a long white hair-like point. 7'. muralis, Hedw. 
Sp. 3Iusc. p. 123. Turn. 3Iusc. Hib.p. 50. FI. Brit. p. 1257. 
E. Bot. t. 2033. Hobs. Br. 3Iosses, v. 2. n. 16. Drum. 3Iusc. 
Scot. V. 2. n. 24. 3Iusc. Brit. ed. 2. p. 55. t. 12. — Barbula 
muralis, 3Iohr. — Schwaegr. Suppl. v. l.p. 132. — Biyum murale, 
Linn. — Ddl. 3Iusc. t. 45. / 14 — j8. brevipila ; leaves nearly 
plane scarcely piliferous. 3Iusc. Brit. ed. 2. p. 55. — Barbula 
(Bstiva, Web. et 3Iohr, Or. Germ. p. 207. — /3. cuneifolia, Funch, 
Deutschl. 3Ioose, t. 15./. 12. 




On walls and stones, very frequent. Fr. April. — An annulus is 
present at the mouth of the cnjjsiile of this species. 

7. T. rurdliSf Sw. (^great hairy Screw-Moss) ; stems elon- 

gated, leaves ovato-oblong keeled patent recurved, the nerve 
ending in a long point, capsnle cylindrical erect slightly curved, lid 
subulate, louver half of the peristome tubular as far as the 
middle. — a. vulgaris; leaves rather acute, the hair-like points 
generally scabrous. T. ruralis, Sw. 3Iusc. Suec . — Turn. Muse. 
Jlib. p. 50. FI. Brit. p. 1254. E. Bot. t. 2070. Sc/nvaegr. 
Suppl. V. 1. p. 137. t. 34. Hobs. Br. 3Iosses, v. 1. 22. Drum. 

Muse. Scot. V. 2. n. 18. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 56. — Syntrichia 
ruralis, Brid. — Barhula ruralis, Hedw. Sp. Muse. p. 121. — 

Bryum rurale, Linn Dill. Muse. t. Ab.f. 12. — (3. loevipila; leaves 

more obtuse contracted in the middle, hair-like point generally 
smooth. Suntrichia loevipila, Brid. — Schwaeqr. Suppl. 2. P. 1. 

66. t. 120. 

Roofs of houses, especially such as are thatched with straw ; on walls 
and on the ground, rarely on trees. /3. On clay-slate, near Truro, Rev. 
J. S. Tozer. Fr. April. — Mr. Lyell finds in Hampshire and Mr. Wil- 
son at Finlarig, Perthshire, a variety growing on trees (especially the 
Sycamore), in which the nerves are gemmiferous, the gemma: clothing 
the upper-side of the nerve, near the middle of the leaf, of a roundish 
or oblong form, green, reticulated; the nerve, however, is by no means 
so dilated as that of the gemmiferous Gymnostomum ovatum. 

8. T. suhuldta, Hedw. (aicl-sliaped Screic-Moss) ; stems 
very short, leaves erecto-patent oblongo-lanceolate apiculated 
the margin plane,' capsule cylindrical erect slightly curved, lid 
subulate, peristome tubular almost to the extremity. — a. leaves 
acuminated. T. subulata, Hedw. Sp. 3Iusc. p. 122. t. 27. Turn. 
Muse. Hib. p. 44. FI. Brit. p. 1255. E. Bot. t. 1101. Schwaegr. 
Suppl. V. 1. p. 135. t. 38. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 1. n. 23. Drum. 

Muse. Scot. V. 2. n. 21. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. yj. 57. t. 12. 

Barbula subul. Moug. et Nestl. n. 126. — Syntrichia subul. 
Mohr. — Bryum sxdmkdum, Linn. — Dill. 3Iusc. t. 45. f. 10. — 
/3. leaves oblong obtuse with a mucro. 

Banks and sliady places, abundant. /3. New Forest, Hants ; C. Rycll, 
Exq. Fr. Dec. — The leaves are somewhat succulent, pellucid and reti- 
culated in their lower half, curled when dry. 'The peristome is a bright 
red twisted tube, the teeth, or cilia, free only at the end, where they form 
a twisted tuft. 

9. T. unguiculdta. Hook, and Taylor, (Bird's-clmv Screw- 
3Ioss) ; stems elongated branched, leaves oblongo-lanceolate 
subcarinated obtuse apiculated their margins slightly recurved, 
capsule oblongo-ovate, lid long rostrate. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. 
p. 58. A 12. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 1. n. 24. Drum. Muse. Scot. 
V. 2. n. 25. — Barbula unguiculata, Hediv. St. Cr. v. 1. t. 23. 
Schicaegr. Suppl. v. 1. p. 123. Dill. Muse. t. 48. f. 48. 49. — 
Barbula acuminata, Hedw. Sp. Muse. p. 117. t. 26. Schicaegr. 
Suppl. V. \.p. 123. — Tort. acum. Sw. — Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 47. 
FI. Brit. p. 1250. E. Bot. t. 1299.— 7’. aristata, FI. Brit. 




p. 1261. B. Bot. t. 2393.— r. harhata, FI Brit. p. 1260. 

E. Bot, t. 2391 — T. humilis, Turn E. Bot. t. 1663 Bar- 

hula apiculata, Hedio. Sp. Muse. p. 117. t. 26. Schwaegr. 
Su])pl. V. 1. p. 122 — Tort, ericetorum, El. Brit. p. 1258. E. 
Bot. t. 249.5. — Barhula lanceolata, Hedw. Sp. Muse. p. 119. 
t. 26. — B. strieta, Hedio. Sp. Muse. p. 119. t. 26. Sehwaegr. 
Suppl. V. 1. j). 122. 

Banks and hedges, very frequent. Fr. Winter. — A variable plant 
assuredly, and growing in almost every soil and situation. 

10. T. stelldta, Sm. {stellated Serew-Moss') ; stems very 
short tufted, leaves oblongo- ovate or ovate rather concave 
subopaque rnucronulate furnished with a strong brown nerve. 
FI. Brit. p. 1254. E. Bot. t. 2384. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 58. 

12. — Bryum stellatum, Diehs. Cr. Fuse. 2. t. 6, (excluding 
the synonyms.) — Barhula agraria, Hedw. Sp. Cr. v. 3. t. 6. 
Sehwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. j)- 129. 

At the borders of fields and the margin of rivulets, Scotland, Dickson. 

Fr. ? As it has been ascertained that Mr. Dickson’s plant is 

the same as a well-known one from the West Indies, is it not possible 
that he may have taken a specimen from that country for one gathered 
in Scotland ? 

11. T. euneifolia, Torn, {wedge-shaped Serew-Moss^; stems 
scarcely any, leaves very broad obovate slightly concave pellu- 
cid the nerve running out into rather a strong mucro, capsule 
oblong, lid with a short beak, cilia of the peristome united at 
the very base. Turn. Muse. Hih. p. 51. El. Brit. p. 1257. 
E. Bot. t. 1510. Muse. Brit. ed. 'H. p. 59. t. 12. — Bryum eunei- 
folium, Dieks. Cr. Ease. 3. 

Banks and sandy fields ; particularly common near Torquay and about 
Tor-point, Devonshire. Frequent also in Corovrall, Rev. J. S. Tozer. 
Cove of Cork, Wilson. Fr. Feb. 

12. T. tortuosa, Hedw. {frizzled Mountain Serew-Moss'); stems 
elongated branched, leaves patent linear-subulate keeled waved, 
crisped when dry, capsule cylindrical, lid with a long beak. 
Hedw. Sp. Muse. p. 124. Turn. Muse. Hih. p. 58. Hohs. Brit. 
Mosses, V. 2. n. 17. Drum. Muse. Seot. v. 2. n. 19. Muse. Brit, 
ed. 2. jo. 59. t. 12. — Barhula tortuosa, Sehioaegr. Suppl. p. 129. 
t. 33. — Bryum tortuosum, Linn. — Dill. Muse. t. 48. f. 40. 

Rocks, especially in limestone districts. Fr. July. — Nearly allied to 
this, is the Barhula inclinata, Schwaegr. ; but its stems and leaves are 
short, the latter more erect and the capsule is more curved. 

13. T, fdllax, Sw. { fallaeious Serew-Moss); stems elongated 
branched, leaves lanceolate acuminate keeled patent or recurved 
the margins reflexed, capsule oblong, lid with a long beak. 
Muse. Brit. p. 60. t. 12. — a. stems about an inch high, leaves 
recurved. T. fallax, Swartz, Muse. Suee. p. 40. Turn. Muse. 
Hih. p. 48. FI. Brit. p. 1252. F. Bot. t. 1708. Hohs. Brit. 
Mosses, V. 2. n. 18. Drum. Muse. Seot. v. 2. n. 20. — Barhula 
fallax, Hedw. St. Cr. v. 1. p. 24. Sehwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. p. 127. 




— Tortula imberhis, FI. Brit. p. 1261. E. Bot. t. 2329. — T. 
ungiiiculata, Tarn. Masc. llih. p. 47. FI. Bril. p. 1251. 
E. Bot. t. 2316. (not Bediv.) — Bill. Muse. t. 48. f. 46, 47. — 
/3. stem two or three inches high, leaves longer and patent. 
Brijuni linoides, Dicks. Or. Fasc. B.t. 8. f. 3. — Barhula linoides, 

Brid. (not Tortula linoides, E. Bot.^ y. stem half an inch 

high, frnitstalks elongated. Barhida hrevicaulis, Schwaegr. 
Suppl. V. 1. p. 126. t. 32. 

Walls, banks and in fields among grass. Fr. June, July. — This is 
indeed a highly variable plant ; the dwarf specimens growing in dry 
fields can scarcely be recognized as the same with the luxuriant ones 
inhabiting the moist banks of rivers. The leaves are usually consider- 
ably recurved when moist; in the var. /S., they are longer and sharper 
than in the other states of the plant. 

14. T. gracilis, Hooker and Grev. (slender Screw-Moss); 
stems elongated somewhat branched, leaves lanceolato-acnmi- 
nato erect rigid when dry very straight the margin recurved, 
capsule oblongo-ovate, lid rostrate very short. Hooker and Grev. 
in Breiost. Joiirn. v. \. p. 300. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 64. 61. 

Suppl. t. 2 — Barbida gracilis, Schwaegr. Suppl. p. 125. t. 34. 
— ^.viridis ; stems stouter and leaves somewhat wider, the latter 
a little patent green. T. brevifolia, FI. Brit. p. 1259. E. Bot. 
t. 2553. 

Scotland, Dicks., Drummond, fi. Durham and Northumberland, Mr. 

Winch, Near Cork, Mr. James Drummond. Fr. ? Nearly allied 

to T. fulla.v, but a slenderer plant, with leaves that are far more rigid, 
more erect, and very straight, when dry appressed to the stem. Colour 
brownish-green. Perhaps the var. ji. might with more propriety be 
referred to the preceding species. 

21. CiNCLiDoTUS. Beauv. Lattice-Moss. 

Seta (very sharp) terminal. Peristome single, of 32 filiform 
at length twisted teeth, anastomosing at the base. Calyptra 
mitriform. (Muse. Brit. t. 1.) — Name, x.iyXida>Tog, latticed: from 
the anastomosing teeth or cilia. — Mr. Wilson has observed that 
at the moment when the lid is removed, the teeth of the peri- 
stome are scarcely inclined, certainly not twisted ; although 
they afteiAvards become so. 

1. C. fontinaloides, Beauv. (Fountain Lattice- Moss). — Beauv. 
Prodr. p. 28. and 32. Hobs. Brit. Mosses, v. 2. n. 15. Drum. 
Muse. Scot. V. 1. n. 50. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 51. 11. — Tri- 
chostomum fontinaloides, Hedio. St. Or. v. 3. p. 36. t. 14. Turn. 
Muse. Hib. p. 41. Schwaegr. Sujypl. v. \. p. 160. FI. Brit. 

p. 1248 — Fontinalis minor, Linn. — E. Bot. t. 557 F. alpina, 

Dicks. Or. Fasc. 2. p. A. f.\. Bacomitrio?i, Brid. — Dill. 3Iusc. 
t. 33./. 2. 

On stones and wood, in streams of water. Fr. Apr. — Plant from 4 
6 inches long, branched, dark lurid green, with the habit of a Tri- 




chostomum. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, acuminated, margined, entire, 
waved, crisped when dry ; nerve strong. Perichcetial leaves nearly as 
long as the fruit, much acuminated. Capsules nearly sessile, often on 
very short branches, but terminal, oblong, smooth. Lid conico-acu- 
ininate. Calyplra sometimes split on one side. Peristome red, teeth or 
cilia very slender, rigid. 

22. PoLYTRiCHUM. Linn. Hair-Moss. 

Seta terminal. Peristome single, of 32 or 64 short equidis- 
tant incurved teeth-, their summits united to a horizontal mem- 
brane, closing the mouth of the capsule. Calyptra dimidiate, 
small. (^Musc. Brit. t. 1.) — Named from TroXvg, many, and doi^, a 
hair, in allusion to the calyptra being generally invested with a 
dense mass of hairs, which are indeed the ‘■’■Jila sueculenta ” of the 
flower, carried up by the calyptra. — A very natural Genus. 
Leaves mostly rigid, resembling those of an Aloe in miniature : 
the nerves more or less distinctly lamellated or striated. 

* Calyptra naked. (Catharinea, JEhrhl) 

1. P. undulatum, Hedw. (iindulated Hair-Moss^; leaves mem- 
branous lanceolate waved the margins plane toothed denticulate 
the nerve winged, capsule cylindrical curved, lid subulate. 
Hedw. St. Cr. v. 1. j). 16, 17. Turn. Muse. Hih. p. 91. FI. Brit, 
p. 1382. E.Bot. t. 1220. Schwaegr. Siippl. v. l.p. 330. Hobs. 
Brit. Mosses, v. \. n. 1 3. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 2. n. 20. AIusc. 
Brit. ed. 2. p. 43. t. 10. — Bryum undulatum, Linn. — Dill. Muse, 
t. 46. /. 1 8. 

Moist shady bunks and in woods, frequent. Fr. Oct. 

2. P. hercynicum, Hedw. {Hercynian Hair-Moss); leaves 
lanceolate rigid entire their sides involute, their nerve broad 
impressed with furrows, capsule oblong suberect, lid conical. 
Hedto. St. Cr. v.\. p.U>. FI. Brit. p. 1381. E. Bot. t. 1209. 
Schicaegr. Suppl. v. \. p. 329. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 44. t. 10. 

On elevated mountains, abundant. Fr. July. — fhe leaves are, as it 
were, intermediate in texture between the preceding and following 

** Calyptra covered with succident filaments. 

Leaves entire, their margins involute. 

3. P. piliferuni, Schreb. (bristle-pointed Hair-Moss); leaves 
lanceolato-subulate their margins involute entire terminating in 
a pellucid liair-like point, capsule ovate obtusely quadrangular 
furnished with an apophysis, lid conical. Schreb. FI. Lips.p. 74. 
Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 82. FI. Brit. p. 1375. E. Bot. t. 1 199. 
Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. p. 313. Hobs. Br. Alosses, v. 1. n. 14. 
Drum. 3Iusc. Scot. v. 2. n. 17. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 44. t. 10. — 
P. commune, y. Linn. — Dill. 3Iusc. t. 54. f. 3. 

Heathy places, frequent. Fr. Stems short, bare of leaves 

at the base 



4. P.junipermum, Willd. {Janiper-Ieaved Hair-Moss); loaves 
lanceolato-subulate their margins involute entire tlieir points 
acuminate coloured subserrated, capsule ovate obtusely quad- 
rangular, furnished with aii apopliysis. Willd. FI. Berol . — 
Hediv. Sp. Muse. t. 18. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 82. FI. Brit, 
p. 1375. E. Bot. t. 1200. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 1. n. 15. 
Drum. Muse. Seat. v. 1. n. 17. Sehuxiegr, Buppl. v. 1. j). 309. 
3Iuse. Brit. ed. H. p. 45. t. 10. — /3. gracilius; P. strietum, Menz. 
in Linn. Trans, v. 4. t. l.f. 2. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 83. E. Bot. 
t. 2435. — P. alpestre, Hoppe. — Sehwaegr. Sujgjl. v. 1. p. 310. 

t. 97.— P. affine, Funeh, Deutsehl. Moose, t. 54. B. n. 3 P. 

eommune, j3. Linn — Dill. Mv^c. t. 54./ 3. 

On heaths and on wall-tops that are covered with earth. /3. on 
mountains. Fr. Spring. — 'Wiq P. stiictum of the excellent is 

indeed a more elongated and slenderer plant than the usual state of 
P. jitniperinum ; but the P. alpestre of Hoppe and Schwaegriclien is 
e.xactly a connecting link. — It will be seen by the essential character 
how closely this species is allied to the preceding. 

5. P. septentrionale, Sw. (iiortliern Hair-Moss); leaves linear- 
subulate obtuse their margins especially towards the top invo- 
lute subserrulate, capsule ovate subangulate, apophysis obsolete, 
lid conical acuminate. Siv. Muse. Suee. t. 9.f 18. Selncaegr. Suppl. 
V. 1. 313. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 2. n. 14. 3Iuse. Brit. ed. 2. 

p. 46. — P. sexangulure, Hoppe. — E. Bot. t. 1906. 

Summits of the highest Scottish Alps. Fr. Aug. — \ts fructification is 
exceedingly rare and only found on the Cairngorum mountains; 
Greville, Arnott, Hooker. Plentiful there in 1830, which had been a 
yeiy wet season (^Greville). — The leaves are very obtuse and much 
incurved, semicylindrical. Setts very thick and succulent. Capsule 
scarcely angular. It is a very alpine and a very arctic moss. 

f f Leaves serrated, their margins jfiane. 

6. P , eommune, L. (common Hair-3Ioss); stems elongated, 
leav'cs patent linear-snbulate their margins plane serrated as 
^^ell as the points of the keels, capsule oblongo-quadrangular 

with an evident apophysis, filusc. Brit. ed. 2. p. 47. t. 10. 

a. yuccafolium ; steins a span or more high, leaves with their 
niargins of the same colour, capsule acutely quadrangular, apo- 
physis very distinct. Linn.—Hedw. Sp. filusc. p. 88. FI. Brit. 
2>. 1372. E. Bot. t. 1197. Sehwaegr. Suppl. v. \. jj. 314. Hobs. 

Br. ALosses, v. 1. n. 16. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 2. n. 16. P re- 

nwtijolium Sehwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. p. 320.— P. yuccoefol'ium, 

Lhrh — Dill, filusc. t. 54. f. 1. — atienuatum ; stems 3 4 

mclies high, leaves shorter tlieir margins pellucid, capsule ob- 
tusely quadrangular, apophysis indistinct. P. attenuatum, filenz 
in Lmn. T vans. v. 4. t. 6. /. 2. Turn. AIusc. Hib. p. 84. FI 
Bnl p 373. E. Sot t. 1 198._7>. HedJ. Sp. Mmc. 

t. 1 J. t 1. Sehwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. p. 315.— P. graeile, filenz. in 

P' 85. E. Bot. 

t. ib27 . — 1 . longisetum, Sw. 3Iusc. Suee. t. 8. f. 6 P. aur- 





antiaciim, Hoppe, and P. pallidisetuni, Punch, Deutschl. Moose, 
f. 56./. 10. 

Heaths ami woods in sandy soils, both in wet and dry situations. 
Fr. June. — The stems, in all the states of this plant, (and they are very 
numerous, though I have considered only two worthy of particular 
notice), are simple or only branched very low down, and among the 
roots. Va7'. a,, is found from a span to a foot in height, with the 
leaves very patent, often recurved, long and narrow, their margins 
scarcely diaphanous. In /3. the «^^»i.?do not often exceed 3-d inches; 
the leaves are rather less patent than in and of a shorter and broader 
figure, with their margins whitish and diaphanous. In both the leaves 
are equally decidedly serrated. 

7. P. alpinum, Linn, (^alpine Hair-Moss'); stems elongated 

branched in a fascicnlated manner, leaves patent subulato-lan- 
ceolate their margins plane serrated as well as the points of the 
keels, capsule oblique snbovate with a distinct apophysis. 
Linn. Sp. PL p. 1503. Hedw. Sp. 3Iusc. t. 19. Turn. Muse. 
Hib. p. 85. FI. Brit. p. 1377. E. Bot. t. 1905. Schwaegr. 
Suppl. V. 1. p. 317. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 1. n. 17. Drum. 
Muse. Scot. V, \. n. 16. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. yj. 48. t. 11. — P. syl- 
vaticum, Menz. in Linn. Trans, v. 4. 7. f. 6 — P. arcticum, Sw. 

Muse. Suec. t. 8. f 17. 

Frequent upon the earth, in alpine situations ; rare in the low ground, 
as at Llyn Ogvven, by the Shrewsbury road, N. VVales. IVils. Fr. July. 

8. P. urnigerum ; stems elongated branched, leaves erecto- 
patent lanceolate acute their margins plane serrated, capsule 
erect cylindrical destitute of au apophysis. Linn. Sp. Pl.p. 1573. 
Hedw. Sp. Musc.j). 100. t. 22./. 5 — 7. Turn. 3Iusc. Hib. p. 86. 
FI. Brit. p. 1377. E. Bot. t. 1218. Schioaegr. Suppl. v. 1. 

318. Hobs. Br. 3Iosses, v. 1. n. 18. Drum. Muse. Scot.v. 1. 
n. 15. Muse, Brit. ed. 2. p. 49. 

. Sandy places, on banks and by the sides of streams, especially in 
mountainous countries. Rare in the plains, yet abundant on banks at 
Gillingham, Norfolk; Z). Turner, Fsq. Fr. Isov. Leaves singulaily 
glaucous (reddish only through age.) 

9. P. a, hides, Hedw. (dwarf long-headed Hair-3Ioss); stems 
usually short, leaves linear-lanceolate obtuse their margins plane 
serrated principally at the extremity and at tlie summit of the 
keels, capsule nearly erect cylindrical, apophysis none. Hedw. 
St. Cr. V. L t. 14. Turn. 3Iusc. Hib. jn 88. FI. Brit. p. 1380. 
E. Bot. t. 1619. Sclnvaegr. Suppl. v. 1. p- 322. Hobs. Br. 
Mosses, V. 1. n. 18. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 2. 7i. 19. M^isc. Brit, 
ed. 2. p. 49. t. 11. — P. rubellum, Menz. in Linn. Trans, v. 1. 
t, 7. f. 3. Turn. Muse. Hih. p. 87. FI. Brit. p. 1381. E. Bot. 
t. 1389. — Milium pohitrichoides, (3. Linn. Sp. PL p. 1577. — 
DHL Muse. t. 55. f 7. — 13. Dichsoni ; seta very short, stems 
branched with innovations. P. Dichsoni, Turn. Muse. Hib.p. 90. 
t. 10. f. 2. E. Bot. t. 1605. 

Sandy moist banks and in shady woods, common. Fr. Dec.-— The 
r ritbeihim of Mr. Menzies has the stems elongated, sometimes hall an 




inch in length. The var, /3. has the stems branched with innovations, 
each bearing a very short seta, which gives the plant a remarkable 

10. P. nanim, Hedw. (divarf round-headed Hcdr-Moss^; 
stems short, leaves linear-lanceolate obtuse their inarg'ins and 
the summit of the keel serrated principally at the extremity, 
capsnle nearly erect siihglobose. Hedw. St. Or. v. 1. /. 13. Turn. 
Muse, 89. FI. Brit.p. 1379. E. Bot. t. 1625. Schwaegr. 

Suppl. V. 1. p. 324. Hobs. Br. 3Iosses, v. 1. n. 20. Drum. 

3Tusc. Seot. V. 2. n. 20. 3Iusc. Brit. ed. 2. jo. 50. t. 11 P. sub- 

rotundum, 3Ienz.~Fl. Brit.p. 1378. E. Bot. t. 1624.— P. ini- 

miluni, Sio. 3Iusc. Suec. t. 9. / 19. Hedw. Sp. 3hwc. t. 2\ 

Ddl. 3Iusc. t. 55. f. 6, 

Moist sandy banks, frequently with P. aloides. Fr. Dec.— It will be 
seen that this differs in no particular from the preceding but in its 
rounded capsule. ° 

(^See Entosthodon and some Orthotricha in Diploperistomi.) 

II. Peristome double. Diploperistomi.* 

A. Internal peristome composed of distinct tetth or cilia, (in En- 

tosthodon obsolete.^ 

23. Entosthodon. Schwaegr. Entosthodon. 

Seta terminal. Peristome double? the outer of 16 remote 
arising from within the mouth of the capsule, horizontal 
and slightly oblique; the inner obsolete or wanting. Capsule pyri- 

^rm, with an apophysis. Cahjptra dimidiate, inflated below. 

JN anted from xoithin, and o'hm, a tooth, on account of the 

Hisertion of the peristome, 

1 . E. Templetini, Sdnyaegr. (Mr. nm 2 ihton's EntoModon). 
Sclnraegr. Sup,,!. % p. U t. U3.-.Fu,u,ria Ten,pU,om, E. Bot. 
t. 20^4:. Hexssia Templetoni, 3Iusc. Brit. ed. 1. « 42 ed 2 
p. 77 f. 14. Hooh. in FI. Bond, cum Ic. Hobs. Br!3Iosses, v. 2. 

Moist banks m a tenacious soil, in many parts of Ireland the West 
of Scotland and Wales, Wdson. Near Kilmun, Arg^Sil; Ip G 

fri^Tl' suggestion of my intelligent and’ accurate 

f iend Mr. Milson, who has seen, though very imperfictly, tLes of ^ 
douWe peristome m some Welsh specimens, I place this^lant in the 

‘ Funaria, with which it has a very ^reat 
affinity, especially with the F. Fontainesii. The leaves are ovatodS- 

fhp narrow, pyriform (including the apophysis ) 

the M nearly plane. I have never seen more than a single perfstonm 
and that has appeared to me to arise from the inembrane^linino the’ 
capsule, whose mouth is not oblique as in Funaria. " 

24. Funaria. Schreb. Cord-moss 

«f 16 

the outer CmZZ‘"" °f *» ‘l>» *feth of 

• Capsule pyriform, its mouth oblique. Calyptra 

Sj-rX.i);, ilovhlf, ant] 'rzeitrrpua, the peri.sfome. 




iiiHated below. Brit. t. 2.) — Named from funis, a cord; 

because in dry Aveatber the seta of the common species becomes 
twisted, and indeed constitutes an excellent hygrometer. 

1. F. hygrometrica, Hedw. {liygrometric Cord-Mossf leaves 
very concave ovate apicnlated entire, nerve excm'rent, seta 
curved flexnose. Hedw. Sp. Muse. p. 172. Turn. Muse. Hib. 
p. 105. Hobs. Br. 3Iosses,v. 1. n. .52. Drum. Muse. Seot. v. 1. 
u. 54. Schwuegr. Suppl. v. 1. P. II. p. 75. Muse. Brit. cd. 2. 
p. 121. t. 20. — Mnium hygromelricum, Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1575. 
— Bryuni hygrom., E. Bot. t. 342. 

OKI walls and buildings, heaths, moors, and in woods, particularly 
where any thing has been burnt. Hence it is called La Chorbonnicre 
in France. Fr. May. — Mr. Wilson observes that a red corrugated 
border to the mouth of the cai)sule is constant and peculiar to this 

2. P. Midde^ibergii, Turn. (Z)r. Muhlenberg' s Cord-Moss^; 
stems short, leaves concave ovate suddenly acuminated serrated, 
the nerve disappearing below the point, seta straight. Turn, 
in Arvn.of Bot. v. ’ll. p. 198. E.Bot.t. 1498. Sehwaegr. Suppl. 
V. \. P. II. p. 78. t. 66. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 122. t. 20. 

Subalpine countries, among rocks and in a limestone soil ; most fre- 
quent in the south of England and Ireland. Fr. Apr. May. 

3. F. hiberniea, Hook. {Irish Cord-Moss); stems elongated, 
leaves plane ovato-lanceolate gradually acuminated serrated, the 
nerve disappearing below the point, seta straight. Hook, in FI. 
Bond, cum Ic. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 122. t. 20 — F. Muhlen- 
bergii, Mohr. — Punch, Deutschl. Moose, t. 27. n. 2. 

On the roof of a thatched cottage at Blarney, near Cork, Ireland ; 

Mr. James Drummond. Fr. ?— Although this has longer stems 

and setw, more distantly placed, plane and more elongated and gradually 
acuminated leaves; yet it may be only a var. of the preceding, depend- 
ing upon the place of growth for its characters. 

25. Zygodon. Hook, and Taylor. Yoke-lMoss. 

Seta terminal. Peristome double: the outer of 16 ap- 
proaching in pairs ; the inner 8 or 16 cilia lying horizontally. 
Calyptra dimidiate, smooth. {Muse. Bnt. t. 3.) — Name, (^vyoc, 
a yoke, and a tooth ; from the teeth being placed in pairs. 

1. Z. conoideus. Hook, and Taylor, {lesser Yohe-Moss); leaves 
acute, cilia 8. Muse. Brit. ed. 1. /4. cd. 2. j). 123. t. 21. 

Scinva.egr. Suppl. v. 2. t. 136. Hobs. Br. Alosses, v. 1. n. 33. 
Amphidium pulvinatum, Sturm, Deutschl. FI. {with a figure). 
Flinch, Deutschl. Moose, t. 22. n. 1. — Gagea compacta, Baddi — 
Mnium conoideum, FI. Brit, p)- 1345. E. Bot. t. 1239. — Bryum 
conoideum, Dichs. Cr. Fuse. 4. t. 11./. 2. Turn. Muse. II ib. 
p, 1 12. — Gymnoccphalus conoides, Sehwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. F. II. 
j}. 87. 

On trees, rare: in the West of Scotland, particularly at Inverary, 
where it was discovered by Mr. Dickson. Orange Grove, near Belfast, 



ATr. Templeton. Frequent in Ireland on the Hasel, and sometimes on 
tlie Ash : also in Anglesea, Wilson. Near Manchester, Air. Hobson. Fr. 
Jan. — This plant grows in small lax tufts; the stems nearly half an inch 
high. Leaves erecto-patent, between ovate and lanceolate, [)lane or 
slightly keeled, entire, dotted as in Gymnostomiim viridissimum, the 
reaching to the point. Capsule narrow, obovate, striated. Lid ros- 
trate. — 1'he Rev. Colin Smith showed me this plant in great abundance 
upon trees at Inverary, growing with Gymnostomuni viridissimum. 

26. Orthotrichum. Heclio. Bristle-Moss. 

Seta teriniiial. Peristome mostly double : tlie outer of 16 
teeth approaching- in pairs ; the mner of as many cilia lying- 
horizontally (sometimes wanting-). Cahjptra mitriform, silicate, 
more or less hairy. (^AIusc. Prit. t. 2.) — Name, straight, 

and Sg/g, a hair ; from the circumstance of the calyptra being 
generally clothed with hairs. — This is a very peculiar and natu- 
ral genus, yet very difficult to he defined by words, on account 
of the varied nature of tlie peristome : and, in almost all, the 
leaves are so similar, that except by the fruit the species are 
scarcely distinguishable. 

* Peristome single. 

f Capsule immersed. 

1. O. mpiddtum, Hoffm. {single-fringed sessile fruited Pristle- 

AIoss); leaves ovato-lanceolate erecto-patent, when dry erect 
straight rigid, capsule nearly sessile furrowed for its whole 
length, calyptra somewhat hairy at length quite glabrous. 
Hoffm. Germ. v. 2. p. 26. Schivaegr. Suppl. v. \. P. II. p. 35. 
t. 55. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 2. n. 5\. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. 125. 

t. 21. — O. anomalum, FI. Brit. p. 1267. E. Bot. t. 1423 

O. nudum, FI. Brit. jJ. 1268. E. Bot. t. 1325 O. strangida- 

tum, Beauv. — Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 2. p. 33. t. 54. 

Hocks and trunks of trees. Fr. A^r.— Plant of a rigid habit, dark 
colour and scarcely exceeding an inch in height ; the leaves are remark- 
ably straight, obtuse, with a strong and reddish nerve. Capsule deeply 
furrowed. Calyptra very slightly hairy, 

ft Capside exserted. 

2. O. anomalum, Hedw. {anomalous Bristle-moss^; stems 
erect, leaves ovato-lanceolate erecto-patent straight when dry, 
teeth 8 geminate, calyptra slightly hairy. Hed^c. St. Cr. v. 2. 
t. 37. Turn. Muse. Hih. p. 94, Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. P. II. 
p. 37. Drum. AIusc. Scot. v. 2. n. 50. Hohs. Br. Mosses, v. 2. 
n. 43. AIusc. Brit. ed. 2. p. 126. t. 21. — Bryum striatum, B. 
Linn.~Dill. Muse. t. 55. f 9. 

Rocks and walls. Fr. Apr. — Stems scarcely an inch in height. 
Leaves, when dry, of a tawny brown. Capside tuberculated, ( Wils.) Teeth 
ot the perustoine arched when moist, inclined or erect (never recurved) 

when dry. Hedwig appears to have confounded this plant with O. 


31 U S C l - A C K O C A R PI - PE R I STO M I . [ Oii hot rich u m. 

3. O. Dncmmondii, Hook, (A/r. DrammomV s Idristle-moss'); 

stems creeping, leaves narrow-lanceolate crisped when dry, 
capsule elongato-clavate deeply furrowed, calyptra very hairy. 
Hook, in Grev. Scot. Cr. FI. t. 115. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 1. 
n. 69. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. 126. Suppl. t. 4. 

Trunks of trees, especially Birches, in alpine glens in the West of 
Scotland. On a Fir tree, on Turk Mountain, Killarney. Wits. First 
diseovered by Mr. Drummond. Fr. Aug. — A beautiful species, in some 
respects resembling O. crispum, but differing, even at first sight, by 
having the branches in the circumference of the tufts decidedly creeping ; 
and still further distinguished by its single perwfojHc, which consists of 
16, white teeth, distinct at the base, but united in pairs at the extremity, 
spreading horizontally or slightly deflexed. 

** Peristome double. 

-j- Capsule immersed. 

4. O. affine, Schrad, (^pale straight-leaved Bristle-moss'); 
stems erect, leaves erecto-patent flaccid broadly lanceolate, 
capsule deeply furrowed, teeth of the peristome 8 geminate, 
cilia filiform, calyptra slightly hairy. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. ^9. 127. 
t. 21. — X. majus ; stems elongated, calyptra especially above 
hairy. O. affine, Schrad. Spied, p. 67. FI. Brit. p. 263. E. 
Bot. t. 1323. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 96. Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. 
P. II. t. 49, (as O. striatum.) Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 2. n. 45. — 
Dill. Muse. t. 55. /. 10. — ,S. pumilum ; stems very short, 
calyptra glabrous. O. pumilum, Sw. Muse. Suec. t. 4. f. 9. 
FI. Brit. p. 1264. E. Bot. t. 2168. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 98. 
Schwaegr. Suppl. v. \. P. II. t. 50. 

Trunks of trees and old pales, common. Fr. Aug. 

5. O. rupincola, Funck, {Rock Bristle-moss); stems erect or 
procumbent, leaves suberect straight rigid broadly lanceolate, 
capsule furrowed above, teeth 16 patent, calyptra very hairy. 
Funck, Deuischl. Moose, t. 35. f. 23. Grev. Scot. Cr. FI. t. 105. 
Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 1. n. 57. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. ^.127. Suppl. 
t. 4. — O. striatum, Davies' Welch Bot.” 

Rocks and stones, rarely upon trees, in alpine districts. Fr. June. — 
This has a singularly rigid habit. It is more luxuriant than 0. affine, 
having a broader capsule, a very deciduous inner peristome while the 
outer one is erect, never deflexed, and the cahjptra is more hairy. 

6. O. didphanum, Schrad. {diaphanous-pointed Bristle- 
Moss); stems erect very short, leaves lanceolate acuminate 
diaphanous at the points, calyptra slightly hairy. Schrad. 
Spied, p. 69. FI. Brit. p. 1265. E. Bot. t. 1324. Schwaegr. 
Suppl. V. 1. p.Ql.t. 55. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 1. n. 55. Drum. 
Muse. Scot. V. 1. n. 59.— 0. aristatum, FI. Brit. p. 1265. Turn. 
Muse. Hib. p. 100. t. 9. f. 2. 

'frees, walls and old pales, especially near the sea. Fr. Feb. — 
Readily distinguished by the diaphanous points of the leaves. Teeth 16, 
not approximated in pairs. 



7. O. rivuldre, Sm. (I'iver Bristle- Moss); stems procumbent, 
leaves broadly lanceolate obtuse, cilia setaceous, calyptra 
glabrous. FI. Brit. p. 1266. Turn. Muse. Hib, p. 96. t. 8. 
E. Bot. t. 2188. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 2. ?i. 46. Brum. Muse, 
Seot. V. 2. n. 36. Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. P. II. p. 31. Muse. 
Brit. ed. 2. p. 128. ^ 21. 

Rocks, in streams. Fr. Aug. — Two or three inches long, of a dark 
lurid-green colour. Leaves very obtuse. Cdia very slender and arising 
troin the sides of the teeth. 

8. O. striatum, Hedw. {common Bristle- Moss) ; stems erect, 

leaves lanceolate patent straight when dry, capsule ovate 
smooth, cilia torulose, calyptra slightly hairy. Hedw. St. Cr. 
V. 2. t. 3. /. 9? FI. Brit. p. 1263. E. Bot. t. 2187. Turn. 
3Iusc. Hib. p. 95, {excl. var. (3.) Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 1. n. 56. 
Brum. Muse. Scot. v. 1. n. 56. Scliwaegr. Suj)pl. v. 1. P. II. 
p. 29. t. 54. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. 128. t. 21. — BUI. Muse. t. 55. 

Frunks of trees. Fr. June. — Stems frequently as tall as in O. Lyell'n. 
The inner peristome is very peculiar, it is broad, pale-coloured, and com- 
posed of moniliform joints, usually arranged in single rows, but not 
unfrequently having other joints attached to their sides, llere, too, 
they arise from an inner inembrane to the capsule, as in Hypmim. 

9. O. Lyellii, Hook, and Taylor, {Mr. LyelTs Bristh-Moss); 
stems erect elongated, leaves linear-lanceolate subundulate 
carinated very acute crisped when dry, capsule oblong furrowed, 
cilia filiform, calyptra very hairy. Muse. Brit. ed. 1. p. 76. 
ed. 2. p. 129. t. 22. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 2. n. 47. Brum. Muse. 
Scot. V. 2. n. 57. 

First discovered on trees in the New Forest, Hants, by C.Lyell, Fsq. 
since ascertained to be not unfrequent throughout Britain, especially in 
subalpine regions. FV. Aug. — Readily distinguished from the preceding 
by its long, narrow and crisped leaves, and sessile fruit. The inner 
peristome is, too, very different, red, not moniliform, and arisingfrom the 
side of the teeth. Hedwig has probably confounded the two species, as 
well as the following, but they are truly distinct. 

ft Capsule exserted. 

— p Cilia 8. 

10. O. speciosum, Nees, {showy Bristle-Moss); stems erect, 
leaves ovato-lanceolate acuminate patent scarcely recurved at 
the margins and point, capsule slightly furrowed, teeth of the 
peristome 8 at length separating into 16 and reflexed, calyptra 
hairy. Nees ab Eseid). in Sturm, Beutschl. FI. ? — Punch, 
Beutscld. Moose, t. 34. f. 23. Brum. Muse. Scot. v. 2. n. 55. 
Grev. Scot. Cr. FI. t. 137. 3Iusc. Brit. ed. 2. p. 130. Sujgjl. 
t. 4. — O. striatum, Hedw. St. Cr. v. 2. t. 36. /. 1 — 3. ? 

On trees and stones, Scotland. Near Montrose, Mr. Reid. Near 

Forfai, Mr. Drummond. Fr. ? — The colour of the foliaf^e is 

rcddisli-brown. ° 


M USCl-ACROCAllPi-PE K 1 STOM I . [OrLhotrichum. 

11. O. Hutehmsia:, Sin, (^Miss Hutchins Bristle-Moss); steins 
erect, leaves lanceolate erect rigid, capsule clavate furrowed, 
calyptra very hairy. E. Bot. t. 2.'323. Hobs. Br. Mosses^ v, 2. 
n. 44. Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 2. P. II. p. 138. Drum. Muse. 
Scot. V. 2. n. 33. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 131. t. 21. 

On rocks in alpine situations, in England, Scotland and Ireland : 
first discovered in the latter country by Miss Hutchins, near Bantry. 
Fr. May. — This has the capsule of O. crispum, but the foliage more re- 
sembling that of 0. anomalum, of a blackish-brown colour, and as erect 
when dry as it is when moist. Seta often twisted. Pci'istome with its 8 
teeth, when recurved, deeply and regularly cleft down the middle. 

12. O. Ludwigii, ltiri(\.(^Ludwigicm Bristle-Moss'); stems creep- 
ing, leaves erecto- patent narrowly lanceolate crisped when dry, 
capsule pyriform smooth furrowed only at the extremity, mouth 
extremely contracted, calyptra remarkably hairy, Brid. Muse. 
Supjjl. p. 26. Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. P. II. j). 24. t. 51. 
Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 2. n. 52. Grev. Scot. Cr. PI. t. 133. 
Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 132. Suppl. t. 4, — Splachnum Wulfe- 
nianum, Schwaegr. Stcppl. v. 1. /j. 46. t. 14. 

Frequent on young oaks, in subalpine glens, in various parts of Scot- 
land. Fr. Aug. — The capsule may distinguish this, at first sight, from 
every other Orthotrichum. The mner fringe of the peristome is exceed- 
ingly fugacious. 

13. O. crispum, Hedw. (curled Bristle-3Ioss); stems erect, 
leaves lanceolate subulate much crisped when dry, capsule 
oblongo-clavate furrowed, teeth of the peristome 8 geminate 
patent reflexed, calyptra very hairy. Hedw. St. Cr. v. 2. t. 35, 
Sp. Muse. t. 162. Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. P. II. p. 23. FI. 
Brit. p. 1266. E. Bot. t. 996. Hobs. Br. 3Iosses, v. 1. n. 54. 

Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 1. n. 58 Bryum striatum, Linn . — 

Dill. Muse. t. 55. 11. 

Abundant on trees j rarely found upon walls and stones. Fr. Aug. 
— The leaves of this common and well-marked species of the genus 
are frequently infested with a small brown parasite, the Conferva 

4--(- Cilia sixteen. 

14. O. pulchellum, Sm. (elegant Bristle-3Ioss); stems creep- 
ing short, leaves narrow-lanceolate crisped when dry, teeth of 
the peristome 16 approaching in pairs patent (red), calyptra 
almost glabrous plaited at the base. E. Bot. t. 1787. Hobs. Br. 
Mosses, V. 1. n. 57. Drum. 3Iusc. Scot. v. 1. n. 55. 3Iusc. 
Brit. ed. 2. p. 134. A 21. 

On trunks of trees ; particularly in subalpine countries. Fr. May. 
— This is an exceedingly beautiful species and well deserves the name 
which Smith has given it. The capsule, Mr. Wilson observes, is very 
generally tuberculatcd. 




B. Internal peristome formed of a membrane more or less divided 

into laeinicB. 

27. Bryum. Linn. Thread-Moss. 

Seta terminal. Peristome double : tlie outer of 16 teeth; the 
inkier of a membrane cut into 16 equal segments, Avitb filiform 
processes frequently placed between them. Calyjdra dimidiate. 
{Muse. Brit. t. 3.) — An ancient name of Dioscorides, given by 
Dillenius to this Genus and its affinities. 

1. Capsules sidcated. (INInium, Brid. not Sm.^ 

1. B. androgynum, Hedw. {narrow-leaved Thread-Moss'); 
stems nearly simple, leaves lanceolate serrated their margins 
recurved, capsule nearly erect cylindrical sulcated, lid conical. 
Hedw. Sp. Muse. p. 178, Turn. Muse. Hih. p. 113. Muse. Brit, 
ed. 2. p. 193. t. 28. — Mnium androgynum, Linn — E. Bot. 
t. 1328. FI. Brit. p. 1344. — Gymnoeephalus androgynus, 
Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 2. jj. 87. Dill. Muse. t. 31. y. 1. 

In woods and on banks. Fr. ? very rare. — Surface of the leaf 

papillose. The colour pale green. The male flowers, as Hedwig calls 
them, form a granular head, terminating an elongated and almost leafless 
portion of the stem : but these assuredly are gemma2 and quite different 
from the anthers (so called) in other mosses, which Mr. Wilson finds 
mixed with the pistils. Hence the name is peculiarly applicable, 
tliough Linnmus could not have understood it in this sense. 

2. B. palustre, Sw. (^Marsh Thread-Moss'); stems much 
branched, leaves lanceolate obtuse entire their margins revo- 
lute, capsule ovate oblique sulcated, lid conical. Swartz, Muse. 
Suec. — E. Bot. t. 391. Turn. Muse. Hih. j). 113. Hobs. Br. 
3Iosses, V. 1. 71. 97. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 1. ?i. 97 — 3Iniu77i 
palustre, Lirm. — Hedw. Sp. fliusc. p. 188. Schwaegr. S?tppl. 
V. 1. P. IT. p. 122. FI. Brit. p. 1346. 

Bogs, frequent. Fr. June. — Habit of the last, with leaves of the 
same texture; but the plant is much larger. Male flowers (of Hedw.) 
discoid. These are besides powdery or granulated heads on elongated 
naked stems or branches, similar to those of the preceding species : but 
here, they are looked upon as gemmce. The inner peristome of both 
lias a pair of cilia between each of the segments, and these segments are 
cleft from the base almost to the extremity. 

2 . Capsules smooth (piot sulcated). 
a. Teeth of the outer peristome shorter than the mner. 

(Meesia, Hedic.) 

3. B. trichodes, Linn, (capillary Thread- 3Ioss); stems some- 
Avliat branched, leaves linear obtuse entire reticulated, capsule 
narrow-pyriform curved subcermious, seta very long. Linn. 
FI. Brit. p. 1350. E. Bot. t. 1517. Hobs. Br. 3Iosscs, v. 2. 
7t. 74. Druni. il/»sc. Scot. v. 1. )t. 98. 3Iuse. Brit. cd. 2 




2>. 195. t. 28. — Meesia uliginosa, Hedw. St. Cr. v. 1. t. 1, 2. — 
Meesia minor, Brid. — Bill. Muse. t. 48. /. 58. 

Highland mountains, in wet places. Fr. Aug. — Stems an inch or 
more long. Leaves erecto-patent, canaliculate; strong, disappear- 

ing below the point, colour a deep yellow-green, shining. 

4. B. triquetrum, Turn, {long -stalked Thread- 3Ioss^; stems 
elongated branched, leaves lanceolate carinate acute serrated 
reticulated, capsule jjyrifbrm erecto-cerunons, seta exceedingly 
long. Turn. Muse. IJib. qi. 1 15. E. Bot. t. 2394. Muse. 
Brit. ed. ‘H. p. 195. A 28. — Mnium triquetrum, Linn. — Meesia 
longiseta, Hedw. St. Cr. v. 1. t. 22. — Biplocomium longisetum, 
Web. el Mohr. 

On the borders of some Lake in the north of Ireland, (?) Br. Scott. 
Fr. ? 

5. B. dealbdtum, Dicks, {pale-leaxwd Thread- Moss'); stems 
short, leaves lanceolate acute plane reticidated serrated at the 
points, capsule pyriform nearly erect. Bicks. Cr. Ease. 2. 
p. 5. f. 3. El. Brit. j). 1350. E. Bot. t. 1571. Turn. Muse. 
Hib. p. 115. Brum. Muse. Scot. 2. n. 88. Muse. Brit, 
ed. 2. p. 196. t. 28 — Meesia dealbata, Sw. Muse. Suec. t. 5. 
f. 10. Hedie. Sp>. Muse. t. 41. /. 6 — 9. 

Boggy mountains and low grounds, not common. Fr. Summer. — 
The outer teeth are longer in proportion to the inner than in the other 
species of this division, and their points are less obtuse. 

b. Teeth of the outer peristome as long as the inner. 

* Leaves witho^^t any thickened margin. 

■j- Nerve of the leaf not reaching to the point. 

6. B. fddeeum, Schrad. {slender -branched Thread- Moss) ; 
stems branched, leaves closely imbricated broadly ovate con- 
cave entire obtuse, nerve reaching nearly to the point, capsule 
obovato-cylindraceous pendulous. Schrad. Spied, p. 70. FI. 
Brit. p. 1357. E. Bot. t. 2270. Muse. Brit. cd. 2. p. 197. 
t. 28. Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 2. P. II. t. 195 — B. argenteum, 
B. Linn. — Schwaeqr. Suppl. v. 1. P. II. p. 188. — Bill. 3Iusc. 
t. 50. /. 63. 

Sides of streams, moist rocky banks, and sandy places, in alpine 
districts. Fr. Nov. — This is a very beautiful moss ; with rather tall 
slender stems, of a yellowish-green colour, and glossy. It has been 
strangely confounded by continental Botanists with B. argenteum. 

7. B. crudum, Hnds. {transparent green Thread-Moss); 
stems simple, leaves rigid lanceolate erect the upper ones the 
narrowest and longest all of them plane serrulate, the nerve 
disappearing below the summit, capsule oblongo-subpyriform 
cernuous. Huds. Angl. p. 491. E. Bot. t. 1604. El. Brit. 
]). 1361. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 130. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 2. 
91. 76. Brum, Muse. Scot. v. 2. ??. 80. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. 

p. 198. t. 28 Milium crudum, Linn. — Hedw. St. Cr. v. 1. 

t. 37. — Bill. Muse. t. 51. y! 70. 




Banks and in the crevices of rocks, in mountainous countries. Fr. 
July. — The stems have a singular appearance, from the leaves, which be- 
come gradually longer towards the extremity and are of a shining yellow- 
green, not changing their direction when dry. — “ The cajisule is always 
crooked.” Wils. 

8. B. cdrimim, Liiin. (^soft-leaved Thread-Moss') ; stems 
simple, leaves lanceolate reticulated slightly serridate at the point, 
nerve disappearing below the summit, capsule ohovate pendulous. 
Linn . — Turn. Muse. Hib. p.Wd. FI. Frit, p. 1352. E. Eot. 
t. 360. Hobs. Fr. Mosses, v. 1. n. 99. Muse. Frit. cd. 2. p. 
198. t. 29. — F. delicatuliun, Hediv. St. Or. v. 1.^. 30. — F. pul- 
chellum, Hediu. St. Or. v. 3. t. 38. F. ? Schivaegr. Suppl. v. 
1. P. II. y;. 91. Fill. Muse. t. 50. /. 69. 

Banks. Fr. April. — Stems rarely exceeding 2 — 3 lines in length, 
often bearing innovations, more frequently throwing out sterile shoots 
from among the roots. The leaves are pale, destitute of the bright green 
of their congeners, and exhibiting, under a microscope, comparatively 
large reticulations. 

9. B. albicans, Wald, (^pale-leaved Thread-Moss); stems 
branched, leaves ovate acute the upper ones lanceolate sub- 
denticulate reticulated the margins plane, nerve disappearing 
below the summit, capsule pyriform pendulous. Wald, in 
Web. et Mohr, Or. Germ. p. 280. Frid. Fryol. Univ. v. 1. 

p. 656. — Fryum Wahlenbergii, Schwaegr. St/])pl. v. 1. P. II. 
t. 70. (not Flinch, Feutschl. Moose, p. 47. t, 29.) — Mnium 
albicans, Wahl. Lapp. p. 353. — Hypnum Wahlenbergii, Web. 
et Mohr, Or. Germ. p. 280. 

Angus-shire, C. Lyell, Fsq. In a ravine, Cam-y-neunt, near Aber, 
North Wales, Mr. Wilson. Fr. Apr. — This has the capsules of B. tur- 
binatum, as its discoverer well observes, with leaves more like those of 
B. carneum : they are, however, considerably broader. Mr. Wilson 
thought it might be the little-known B. annotinum of Hedw. : — and in- 
deed its leaves have a considerable similarity in shape to those of Hed- 
wig’s figure, {Sp. Muse. t. 43.) ; but the capsules are much broader. — 
This species has probably been confounded with B. turbinatum and may 
not be uncommon. Schwaegrichen’s figure is very characteristic. 

10. B. Ludwigii, Spreng. [Ludivig’ s Thread-Moss); stems 
ascending or erect branched with annotinous shoots, leaves 
ovate rather obtuse the upper ones lanceolate rather distinctly 
reticulated subserrated concave the margins plane, nerve dis- 
appearing below tlie summit, capsule oblong pendulous. Spreng. 
31 SS. Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. P. II. p. 95. t. 68. Punch, Feutschl. 
3Ioose, t. 29. n. 9. 

Clova mountains, at a considerable elevation, in sandy places where 
water has stood ; Arnott, Drummond, Greville, Hooker. This was found 
in considerable plenty in Clova, in ] 824. Fr. Sept, scarcely mature. 
— It grows upon the ground in exposed situations in large compact tufts, 
and has a peculiar aspect, by which it is more easily distinguished than 
by words. The shoots of two, three, or more years rise, one upon the top 
ot another, the upper ones only bearing perfect and green foliage ; they are 
reddish. Leaves, when dry, glossy, scarcely twisted, obtuse, broad, con- 


cave, of a thin texture with a strong nerve disappearing below the sum- 
mit. Capsule oblong, approaching to oval, slightly contracted at the 
base. This moss agrees well with the specimen of B. Ludwigii in 
Funck, and with the figure in Schwaegrichen. 

11. B. argenteum, Linn, (silvery Thread-3Ioss); steins 
branched, leaves closely imbricated broadly ovate suddenly and 
sharply acuminated snbserrulate v^ery concave, the nerve dis- 
appearing below the point, capsule ovato-pyriform pendulous. 
Linn. Sp. PL p. 138G. Turn. Muse. Hih. p. 122. FI. Frit, 
p. 1358. E. Eot. t. 1602. Hobs. Er. Mosses, v. 1. n. 98. Drum. 
Muse. Seot. V. 2. n. 90. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 199. t. 29. Dill. 
Muse. t. 50. f. 62. 

On the ground, and on walls and roofs of houses, very common. Fr. 
March. — This plant has, as its name implies, a very silvery hue, the 
upper portion of the leaves being scariose and white, while the lower 
part is green. The acuminated points, especially when dry, are patent 
and resemble hairs. 

12. B. Zierii, Dicks. (Zie7'io,n Thread-Moss'); stems branched, 
leaves closely imbricated more or less broadly ovate acuminate 
very concave reticulated entire, nerve running nearly to the 
point, capsule clavate_ cernuous. Diehs. Cr. Fuse. 1. t. 4. f. 
10. Hed^v. Sp. Muse. t. 44. f. 1 — 4. Firn. Muse. Hih. p. 
123. FI. Brit. p. 1356. E. Bot. t. 1021. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 
2. 71. 91. Muse. B7'it.ed. 2. p. 199. t. 29. 

Mountains of England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland. Fr. July. 

Nerve of the leaf 7'eaehing to the pomt or heyo7id it. 

13. B. pyrif6r7ne, Sw. (pear-f7'uited Thread-3Ioss); stems 
slightly branched, leaves subulato-setaceous flexuose serrated 
their nerve very broad, capsule pyriform pendulous. SuKU’tz, 
Muse. Suec. — Hobs. Br. ^losses, v. 2. w. 75. 3Iusc. Brit. ed. 2. 
p. 196. t. 28. — B. au7'eum, T7irn. Muse. Hib. p. 118. FI. Brit. 

p. 1348. E. Bot. t. 389 Webe7-a pyrifo7'77iis, Hedw. St. Cr. 

V. \. t. 3. — M7iiu77i py7'iforme, Lbm. — Dill. 3l7isc. t. 50. f. 60. 

Rocks, especially of sandstone. Not unfrequent on garden-pots, 
especially in stoves and green-houses. F’r. June. — This differs from all 
other Bjya in the remarkable shape of its leaves, which are almost wholly 
composed of nerve, except at the base, and there deeply serrated. The 
ca27S7iles nnd setce are a bright orange colour when mature. 

14. B. capilldre, Linn, (greater 77iatted Thread-Moss); stems 

short, leaves obovate twisted when dry entire their nerve pro- 
duced into a hair-like point, their margins slightly thickened, 
capsule oblong pendulous. Li7i7i. Sp. PI. p. 1586. 3Iusc. 

Hib. p. 120. FI. Brit. p. 1387. E. Bot. t. 2007. Schivaegr. 
Siippl. t. 74. Hobs. Br. 3Iosses, v. 2. 7i. 78. D 7 71771 . 3Tusc. Scot. 
V. 2. 71 . 93. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 200. t. 29. — B. annothnun, 
E. Bot. t. 1 862, (the fructified specimens). — B. stellare, E. Bot. 
t. 2434. Dill. Muse. t. 50. f. 67. 




Heaths, rocks, walls, &c. Fr. May.— Readily distinguished from the 
following by its obovate leaves, twisted when dry, their nerve extendetl 
into a long liair-like point, and by the greater length of its eapsule. 

15. B. ceespittlinm, Linn. (lesser matted Thread-Moss'); stems 
sliort, leaves ovate acuminated entire or very obscurely serrated 
at the points their margins slightly recurved, the nerve reaching 
to or beyond the point, capsule ovali-pyriform pendulous. 
Linn. Sp. PI— Turn. Muse. Hih. p. 120. FI. Brit. p. 1354. 
E. Bot. t. 1904. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 1. n. 100. Dill. Muse, 
t. 50. f. GG. — (3. minus. B. bicolor, Dielts. Or. Ease. 4. p. 1 6. 
Dim. 3Iusc. Bib. t.U.f.2. FI. Brit. p. 1358. E. Bot. IGOl. 

Banks, walls and roofs of houses, very frequent. Fr. May. — That 
this most common of mosses is very variable, every one will allow, who 
has been accustomed to examine it in different situations, and under 
different circumstances ; and the German Botanists, es|)ecial!y, seem to 
me to have unnecessarily raised these varieties into species. These 
have been mentioned in the Muscologia Britanniea. I had, indeed, 
there, though with a mark of doubt, included the B. Wahlenhergii of 
Mohr, (B. nlbieans, Wahl.): but that plant 1 am now disposed to keep 
distinct and to place near B. eanieum. 

IG. B. turbindtum, S\v. (turbinate Thread-3Ioss); stems short 
branched with innovations, leaves ovate acuminate nearly en- 
tire their margins slightly recurved, the nerve running beyond 
the points, capsule elongato-pyriform pendulous. Swartz, 
3Iuse. Suec. p. 49. FI. Brit. p. 13GG. E. Bot, t. 1572. Hobs. 
Br. 3Iosses, v. l.n. 101. Drum. 3Iuse. Scot. v. 2. n. 94. Schwaegr. 
Suppl. V. 1. P. II. jy. 19. 3Ime. Brit. ed. 2. j)- 202. t. 29. — 
3Inium turbinatum, Hedw. St. Or. v. 3. t. 8. — Bryum interrup- 
tum, FI. Brit. p. 13G3. E. Bot. t. 2371 ? — B. nigricans, Dicks. 
— FI. Bril. p. 13G3. E. Bot. t. 1528. (To this list of syno- 
nyms are added, in 3Iusc. Brit., B. boreale, pullescens, pallens, 
longisetum and Schleicheri f Pohlia inclinata and Webera inter- 
media of Schwaegr. and B . Jlagellare, Funck.) — Dill. 3Iusc. t. 51. 
/ 74. 

Wet, sandy and stony places, especially in mountainous countries. 
Fr. July. — This, too, is a moss very difficult to be defined in words; it 
borders, on the one hand, upon B. cwspilitium, and, on the other, upon B. 
ventricosnm. It is best distinguished from them by its pyriform capsule. 

17. B. nutans, Schreh. (silky pendulous Thread-3Ioss); stems 
short, leaves erect lanceolate acuminate serrated above, 
nerve reaching to the point, capsule oblongo-pyriform pendu- 
lous. Schreh. FI. Lips. p. 81. Turn. 3Iusc. Hib. j). 117. FI. 
Brit. p. 1347. E. Bot. t. 1240. Hobs. Br. 3Iosses, v. 1. n. 107. 
Drum. 3Iusc. Scot. v. 1. n. 99. 3Iusc. Brit. ed. 2. p. 204. t. 29. 
— Webera nutans, Hedw. St. Or. v. 1. t. 4. — Bryum compac- 
tum, E. Bot. t. 1257 ? — B. Wahlenbergii, Funck, Deutschl. 
3Ioose, (^not Schwaegr.) — Dill. 3Iusc. t. 50./. Gl. 

Walls, in rocky places and on heaths. Fr. May. — The leax'cs 
are yellow-green, glossy, narrower upwards on the fertile shoots, all 
nearly linear on the barren ones. Seke bright oran<re-red when mature. 



at which period, especially when dry, the capsules are far more pyriform 
than when younger. 

18. B. elongdtum, Dicks, (long-neched Thread-Moss); stems 

short, leaves erect elong-ato-lanceolate acuminate serrated, nerve 
reacliing to tlie point, capsule elongato-clavate inclined (rarely 
drooping). Dichs. Or. Fuse. 2. 8. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 114. 

FI. Brit. ]j. 1349. E. Bot. t. 1003. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 1, 
n. 102. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 1. n. 100. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. 
p. 204. t. 30. — Pohlia elongata, Hedw. St. Cr. v. 1 . t. 36. — 
Pohlia minor, Schivaegr. Suppl. v. 1. P. II. t. 64. — Webera 
ulpina. Flinch. — Bryurn longicoUum, Siv. Muse. Suec. t. 6. 
/. 13. — B. cylindricum, Dichs. Or. Fasc. 4. t. 11./ 4. FI. Brit, 
p. 1351. 

Mountains, especially in the clefts of rocks and in caves. Fr. July. — 
Allied to B. crudum, and the foliage is equally rigid and glossy, but the 
capsule is very different. The peristome is that of a Pohlia ; that is, the 
inner peristome wants the intermediate cilia. 

19. B. alpinum, Linn. (I'ed alpine Thread-Moss); stems 
elongated rigid branched, leaves closely imbricated erect lance- 
olate somewhat obtuse subserrulate at the apex the margins 
revolute, nerve reaching to the points, capsule ohlongo-ovate 
pendulous. — Linn. Mant. v. 2. p. 309. Turn. 3Iusc. Hib. 
j). 125. FI. Brit. p. 1358. E. Bot. t. 1263. Schvoaegr. Supjil. 
V. 1. P. II. t. 73. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 2. n. 79. Muse. Brit, 
ed. 2. p. 205. t. 28 — Dill. Muse. t. 50. f. 64. 

Low, moist, exposed rocks, in subalpine countries ; common. Fr. June. 
— This species is readily known by its densely imbricated erect leaves, 
of a deep shining pur[)Ie colour. 

20. B. ventricosum, Dicks, (swelling Bog Thread- Moss); 
stems elongated branched with innovations, leaves oblong 
acuminated scarcely serrulate the margins recurved, nerve 
reaching beyond the point, capsule ohlongo-ovate pendulous. 
Dichs. Or. Fasc. \. p. A. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 126. FI. Brit, 
p. 1365. E. Bot. t. 2270. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 1. n. 103. 
Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 205. t. 30 — B. bimum, Schreb . — Turn. 
Muse. Hib. p. 127. FI. Brit. p. 1368. E. Bot. p. 1518.—^. 
cubitale, Dicks. Or. Fasc. 2. t. 5. FI. Brit. p. 1364. E. Bot. 

t. 2554 — Mniuni pseudo-triquetrum, Hediv. St. Or. v. 3. t. 7 

Dill. Muse. t. hi. f. 72. 

Marshy ground, in alpine and subalpine countries, and in the moist 
crevices of rocks. Fr. July. — Stems 2 — 4 inches or more higli, includ- 
ing the innovations wliicli are copious, often of a deep brown or reddish 
colour, of which the foliage partakes to a degree. The leaves are gene- 
rally erecto-patent, the nerve reddish, the margins revolute, the base more 
or less decurrent. 

21. B. demissum, Hook, (club-fruited Thread-Moss); stems 
very short branched, leaves ovate cuspidato-actiminate reticu- 
lated, their nerve excurrent, seta arched, capsule curved and 
pyriform, the mouth oblique. Muse. Evof. v. 2. f. 99. Grev, 




Scot. Cr. FI. t. 92. — Mecsia demissa, Hoppe and Hornsch. — 
Funck, Deutschl. Moose, t. 28. n. 4. 

Rocks, upon Craigalleacli and other mountains of the Breadalbane 
range, always in much elevated and very exposed situations. Fr. Aug.- 
A distinct and highly beautiful moss, inhabiting several remote alpine dis- 
tricts in Europe, but apparently no where abundant. 

22. B. roseuni, Sclireb. (p'osaceovs Thyme Thread-Moss^; 

leaves spreading obovato-spatliulate acute serrated waved, 
nerve reaching to the point, capsule ohlongo-ovate pendulous. 
Schreh. FI. Lips. p. 84. Turn. Muse. Bib. p. 132. FI. Brit, 
p. 1370. E. Bot. t. 2395. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 2. w. 76. Drum. 
Muse. Scot. V. 2. n. 92. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. 200. t. 29.— 

Mnium roseum, Hedw Schioaegr. Suppl. v. 1. P. II. p- 135. 

—Dill. Muse. t. 52. / 77. 

Banks and on heaths, particularly in sub-mountainous countries. Fr. 
(rare) Nov. — This fine species, wiih the following (except E. Tozeri), 
form a natural groupe, ( Mnium of Schwaegr. not of Sfn. nor Brid.) dis- 
tinguished by their large lax lurid or deep green foliage, and their barren 
stems which are often creeping. The inner peristome is of a firm and 
rigid texture. The present and the following species have perhaps the 
largest leaves of any British moss; and these are collected on the top 
of the stem where they spread out horizontal!}'. 

** Leaves with their margins evidently thichened. 

23. B. liguldtum, Schreh. (long-leaved Thyme Thread-Moss^; 
stems elongfited, leaves undulate Ungulate reticulated their 
margins thickened denticulate, the nerve reaclung a little be- 
yond the point, capsule ovate pendulous, lid conical. Schreb. 
FI. Lips. p. 84. FI. Brit. p. 1371. E. Bot. t. 1449. Hobs. Br. 
3Iosses, V. 1. n. 105. Drum. 3Iusc. Scot. v. 2. n. 96. 3Iusc. Brit, 
ed. 2. p. 207. t. 30. — B. undulatum. Turn. 3Iusc. Hib. p. 
133. — 3Iniuni undid. Hedw. — 3Inium serpyllifolium, 5. Linn. 
— Dill. 3Iusc. t. 59. y. 76. 

Moist banks and in woods, common. Fr. Apr. — This is one of the 
largest and handsomest of all mosses. Many bright-coloured setcc fre- 
quently arise from the same point. When the seUe are numerous, some 
of the outer ones are axillary. ITUs. 

24. B. punetdtum, Schreb. (dotted Thyme Thread -3Ioss^; 
stems elongated, leaves obovato-rotundate very obtuse reticu- 
lated their margins thickened entire, the nerve distappearing 
below the summit, capsule ovate pendulous, lid shortly rostrate. 
Schreb. FI. Lips. p. 85. Turn. 3Iusc. Hib. p. 132. FI. Brit, 
p. 1368. E. Bot. t. 1183. Hobs. Br. 3Iosses, v. 1. n. 104. 
Drum. 3Iusc. Scot. v. 2. n. 45. 3Iusc. Bril. ed. 2. p. 207. t. 30. 
— 3Iniurn punctatum, Hedw. — 3Inium serpyllifolium, a. Linn . — 
Dill. 3Iusc. t. 53. f. 81 . — (3. aquaticum ; leaves larger longer more 
succulent the margins scarcely thickened. 

Boggy places, particularly among the roots of Alders and by the sides 
of rocky streams. /3. Clova, Air. Drummond. On Catlaw, Kinnordy, 
Angus-shire ; Arnott, Haoiccr. Fr. April. — The leaves of the var. p. 
are of a softer greener texture and more succulent than in «. 




25. B, rostrdlum, Sclirad. {lovg-healml Thyme Thread- Moss); 
stems elongated, leaves broadly ovate reticulated tlieir margins 
thick obtuse denticulated, nerve reaching a little beyond the 
point, capsule ovate pendulous, lid rostrate. Schreb. Spied, 
p. 72. FI. Brit. p. 1369. E. Bot. t. 1475. Drum. Muse. Scot. 
V. 2. n. 97. Muse. Bnt. ed. 2. 208. t. 30. — Mnium rostratum, 

Schtvaeyr. Supjjl. v. 1. P. II. p. 136. t. 79. — Dill. Muse. t. 53. 
/. 80. 

Moist shady places, in subalpine countries. Yorkshire, Bev. J. 
Dalton. Near Bangor, Angicsea, and Cotteral Clough, Cheshire ; Mr. 
W ilson. Fr. May. — The sc/te are 1 — 5, sometimes 7 (ilfr. JVilso?i), from 
the same point. 

26. B. marginatum, Dicks, (thick-edged Thyme Thread- 
Moss); stems elongated, leaves ovate acute reticulated their 
margins thickened serrated, nerve reaching a little beyond 
the point, capsule ovate (or oblong) pendulous, lid shortly 
rostrate. Dicks. Cr. Ease. 2. t. 5. f. 1. Turn. 3Iusc. Hib. p. 129. 
FI. Brit. p. 1362. E, Bot. t. 1493. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 2. 
n. 98. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 208. t. 31. — B. serratum, Schrad . — 
Mnium serratum, Schwaegr. Suppl. ^7. 1. P. II. t. 78. 

Woods and shaded banks, in the North of England, Wales and Ire- 
land. Not unfrequent in Scotland. Fr. June. — When seen under a 
microscope, the margins and nerve of the leaf are of a deep blood colour 
and the calyptra is of a red or orange hue. No one has studied this 
groupe of Mosses more successfully than the Rev. Mr. Dalton of Croft, 
and to him I am indebted for much information respecting the various 
species of it. 

27. B. hornum, Schreb. (Swan’s-7ieck Thyme Thi'ead-Moss); 
stems elongated, leaves lanceolate acute reticulated their 
margins thickened denticulate, nerve generally disappearing 
below the summit, capsule oblongo-ovate pendulous, lid hemis- 
pherical mucronulate. Schreb. FI. Lips. p. 83. Turn. Muse. 
Hib. p. 128. FI. Bril. p. 1360. E. Bot. t. 2271. Hobs. Br. 
Mosses, V. 1. n. 106. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 2. 7i. 100. 3Iusc. 
Blit. ed. 2. />. 209. t. 31. — Mnium hornum, Linn. — Dill. Muse, 
t. 51. /. 71. 

Marshy places and in wet woods. Fr. Apr. — The whole plant is of 
a lurid yellowisli-green colour, the leaves very narrow, the lid hemi- 
spherical with a short point. The perforation of the calyplra and its 
adhesion to the seta below the capsule, as in Timmia cucxdlata, is a 
common occurrence in this species. 

28. B. cuspiddtum, Schreb. (jwinteddeaved. Thyme Thread- 
Moss); stems elongated, leaves obovate acumimdate reticu- 
lated their margins thickened denticulated iii the upper half, 
nerve running beyond the point, seta mostly solitary, capsule 
ovate pendulous, lid coiiico-hemisphserical obtuse. Schreb. FI. 
Lips. p. 84. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 131. FI. Brit. p. 1368. 
E. Bot. t. 1474. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 2. n. 99. 3Iusc. Brit, 
ed. 2. p. 209. t. 31. — Mnium cuspidatum, Hedw. — Sclncaegr. 




SnppL V. 1. P. II. p. 132. Hedw. Sp. Mmc. t. 45. /. 5, G, 8? 
— Dill. Muse. t. 53. f. 79. A — L, 

Woods and on wet banks, in shady situations. Fr. Apr. — Smaller than 
the last, and more lax, with creeping shoots, which, as Mr. Dalton ob- 
serves, take root at the extremity : leaves broader and of a softer tex- 
ture. Stems an inch or an inch and a half high. {Inner peristome 
curiously perforated.) JFils. 

29. B. affine, Brid. {many-stalhed Thyme Thread-Moss'); stems 
elongated, leaves broadly elliptical acuminulate reticulated their 
margins thickened denticulated to the very base, the nerve 
reaching to or beyond the point, set«! aggregated, capsule ob- 
long pendulous, lid conical with a mucro. Brid. Mant. Muse, 
p. \l9.—3[nium affiyie, Blandov, AIusc. Exsicc. III. n. 133. 
Schtvaegr. Suppl. v. 1. P. II. p. 134. Funch, Deutschl. Moose, 
t. 33. 71. 12. — Mnium C7ispidaticm, Hedw. Sp. Altisc. 1. 45. /I 7. 
(and f. 5, 6 , 8?) — 3l7imni serpyllifolium, (3. cuspidahim, Linn, 
{excl. Syn. Dill.f. 79. A— L.)— Dill. 3Lm. t. 55. /. 79, 31. 
{specimen from Vaillant.) 

Wood near Over, fertile ; also with abortive pistils on a hedge-bank 
at Little Farm near Over, Cheshire. Mr. Wilson, 1828. Wood at Mil- 
denhall, Suffolk, bearing fruit abundantly in the dark recesses. F. K. 
Eagle, Esq. Fr. Apr. May. — Twice the size of the former and truly 
distinct from it by the characters above given. It appears to have been 
found, for the first time in England, by the two very able Botanists just 
mentioned, and nearly at the same period. In the Suffolk station it bears 
fruit most copiously in a fir plantation : but the capsules seldom become 
perfectly ripe, partly, as it would appear, on account of the drought, and 
partly because they are the favourite food of hares and rabbits. The 
dark lurid colour of the foliage, Mr. Eagle observes, is very striking, but 
the young shoots are of a light green. 

30. B. Tozeri, Grev. {mbnde diaphanous Thread- 3Ioss); 
“stems short simple erect, leaves remote spreading obovate entii-e 
cuspidate margined loosely reticulated, the nerve disappearing 
beyond the middle, capsule droojiing somewhat pear-shaped, lid 
convexo-conical.” Grev. Scot. Cr. El. t. 285. 

Clay banks by the river Dart, Devonshire, Rev. J. S. To7cr. Fr. 

'1 . — I am indebted to Mr. Tozer for specimens of this moss, which 

he finds very sparingly indeed, and I can bear testimony to the accuracy 
of Dr. Greville’s figure and description. 1 have arranged this species 
here on account of the decidedly thickened margins of the leaf ; but its 
affinity is far removed from the present division ; yet I cannot say to 
which it is most allied. The very lax reticulation of the leaves, taken in 
conjunction with their form, the turbinate caj>side and small size of the 
plant, are quite peculiar. The foliage is of a reddish hue, especially the 
margins and nerve. 

28. Timmia. Hedw. Timmia. 

Seta terminal. Peristome doydAQ : t\\e outer oi teeth ; the 
hiner a plaited membrane, cut into 32 equal cilia, variously 
united at the base by transverse bars and frequently cobering 
at the points, Calyptra dimidiate. {3Iusc. Brit, Suppl. t. G.) 





Named in honour of J. C. Timm, a German, and author of 
a Flora Megapolitana. 

T . megapolitana, Hedw. (Mcchlenburg Timmia.^ — a. cap- 
sule inclined. T. megapolitana, Hedw. St. Or. v. 1. 31. Schwaegr. 
Suppl. V. 1. P, II. p, 84. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. j). 191. Suppl. 

^ > mieidlata, (the veil persistent on the seta). Mich. Am. 
V. 2. p. 304. — 3’ capsule cernuous. T. austriaca, Hedw. Sp. 
Muse. p. 176. t. 42. f. 1 — 7. Schwaegr. Suppl.v. 1. P. II. p. 84. 

Rocks on the banks of the Islay, above Airly castle, Angus-shire ; dis- 
covered by Mr. Drummond in 1824 : always barren. This grows in 

dense tufts, 3 — 4 inches high, erect, slightly branched, brown below, 
green above. Leaves linear-lanceolate, erecto-patent, plane or some- 
what recurved at the margin, serrated, slightly carinate, with a strong 
nerve reaching to the point, crisped when dry. Capsule oblongo-obovate. 
Lid hemisphaerical, slightly mammillate. — The American state of the 
plant is remarkable for having the seta passing through the fissure of the 
caJyptra, which then remains attached to it. 

29. Bartramia. Hedw. Apple-INIoss. 

Seta terminal. Capsule suhglobose. Peristome double : the 
Older of 1 6 teeth ; the inner of a membrane divided into 1 6 
bifid segments. Calyplra dimidiate. {AIusc. Brit. t. 3.) — Named 
in compliment to John Bartram, an American Botanist and 

* Seta elongated, straight. 

1. ^.pomiformis, Hedw. (common- Apple-AIoss^ ; leaves patent 
subulate strongly serrated twisted tvlien dry, the nerve reach- 
ing to the summit. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 144. t. 23. — *. minor ; 
stems short, leaves flexuose. B. pomiformis, Hedw. Sp. Muse, 
p. 164. FI. Brit.p. 1340. E. Bot.t. 998. Turn. Muse. Hih. p. 
108. Schwaegr. Suppl. v. l.P. II. p. 145. t. 58. Hobs. Br. Mosses, 
V. 1. n. 60. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 1. n. 65. — B. crispa, Sw. 
— Bryum pomiforme, Linn. — Dill. Muse. t. 44./. 1. (3. major ; 
stems much elongated branched, leaves longer crisped especially 
when dry. Hooh. in FI. Lond. cum Ic. — B. crispa, Brid. Muse. 
V. 2. P. III. t. \. f. 4. E. Bot. t. 1526. Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. 
P. II. p. 146. t. 59. 

Heaths and dry banks, p,. Principally in subalpine countries. — Fr. 
Apr. May. 

2. B. ithypkylla, Brid. (straight-leaved Apple-Moss^; stems 

short, leaves rigid erecto-patent subulato-setaceous almost en- 
tire, the nerve lialf-w^ay up passing into the substance of the 
leaf, straight wdien dry, seta much elongated. Brid. Muse. v. 
2. p. 1. t. 6. E. Bot. t. 1710. Schivaegr. Suppl. v. \. P. II. p. 
51. 60? Hobs. Br. Alosses, V. 2. n. bS. Drum. Muse. Scot. 

V. 1. n. 66. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 145. t. 23. 

Dry banks, in mountainous situations. Fr. Spring. — Stems tufted, as 
in all of this genus. Distinguished from the preceding by its straight 




rigid leaves and their more glaucous colour. These leaves are scarcely 
at all serrated and only so towards the extremity ; and the nerve, when 
it reaches the middle, dilates and unites with the substance of the leaf, 
which hence becomes thick and rigid, remaining nearly as straight when 
dry as it is when moist. 

3. B. gracilis, Fldrke, {slender Apple-Moss'); stems elon- 
gated, leaves recurvo-patent lanceolate canaliculate serrated, 
seta lateral from innovations. Fldrke in Schrad. Journ. — FI. Brit, 
p. 1341. E. Bot. t. 1826. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 1. n. 70. 
Miisc. Brit. ed. 2. p. 146. t. 23.—^. (Ederiana, Sw.—B.CEderi, 
Schicaegr. Suppl. v. 1. P. II. p. 49. t. 50. 

Rocks, in alpine districts. Fr. June. — In this and other species of 
the genus, there is often an appearance of the seta being lateral, from 
innovations of the stems, which are from 1 — 4 inches in length, erect. 
Leaves short, patent and recurved when wet. 

4. B. fontana, Sw. {Fountain Apple-Moss); stems fastigiate, 

leaves closely imbricated rigid erect broadly ovate or lanceo- 
late acuminate nearly plane serrated, seta lateral from innova- 
tions. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. 146. t. 23. — x. major; stems from 

3 — 6 inches in height, leaves broadly ovate acuminate. B. 
fontana, Swartz, in Schrad. .lourn . — Turn. Muse. Ilih. p. 107. 

Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 1. «. 61. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 1. w. 68. 
Schwaegr. Sttppl. v.\. P. II. p. 61 . — Mnium fontanum, Linn . — 

Hedw. Sp. Muse Bryum fontanum, E. Bot. t. 390. Dill. Muse. 

t. 44. f. 2. — jS. marchica; stems from half an inch to an inch 
long, leaves lanceolate acuminated. B. marchica, Sw . — 
Schicaegr. Suppl. v. 1. P. II. p. 59. E. Bot. t. 2074. — Mnium 
marchicum, Hedw. St. Or. v. 2. t. 39. — B. fontana, /3. jnimila. 
Turn. Muse. Hih. p. 107. 10. /. 1. 

About springs and wet places, in a turfy soil. Fr. July. — This varies 
much in size and somewhat in the direction of the foliage ; but may 
always be known by its erect rigid leaves, of a glaucous hue, and by 
their form. 

** Seta very short, curved. 

5. B. Hallei idna, Hedw. {Hallerian Appile-Moss); stems 
much elongated proliferous, leaves long subulate flexuose 
serrated above, seta lateral from innovations very short curved. 
Hedw. St. Or. V. 2. t. 40. Turn. Muse. Hih. p. 109. FI. Brit, 
p. 1339. E. Bot. t. 997. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 2. n. 54. Drum. 
Muse. Scot. v. 1. 11 . 57. Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. P. II. p. 64. 
Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 147. t. 23 . — Bryum laterale, Dicks. 

Crevices of rocks, frequent in mountainous countries. Fr. June. — 
The foliage of this has considerable affinity with that of B. pomiformis : 
but the stems are generally longer, clothed with thick ferruginous downy 
roots among the leaves, exceedingly proliferous, throwing out their shoots 
from the summits, whence, the fruit, of 2 or 3 preceding years still re- 
maining, has the appearance of being lateral. 

6. B. arcudta, Brid. {curve-stalked Apple-Moss); stems much 
elongated proliferous, leaves horizontally patent ovato-lanceo- 


M U S C l -PLE U 11 0 C A 11 P I - G YM NO S ro M I . [ Hcdwigia. 

lute acuminated serrated striated, seta very short arcuate at 
length lateral, capsule not furrowed. Brid. Muse. v. 4. 

Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 109. E. Bot. t. 1237. Schwaegr. Suppl. 
V. 1. P. II. jo. 61. G 62. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. ]). 148. t. 23.— 
Mnium arciudum, Dicks. Cr. Ease. 3. p. '2. t. 7. f. 3. — HyjJ- 
num chrysocomnm, Dicks. Or. Ease. 2. 12. 

Wet banks and among rocks in alpine districts, rare in fructification. 
Fr. Winter. — This extremely beautiful moss, so frequent with us, seems 
to be wholly unknown upon the continent. It is at once distinguishable by 
its perfectly globose, large and smooth (at length furrowed) capsules^ by 
the flexible stems and rigid leaves which never become twisted or curled 
in drying. 

30. Buxbaumia. Linn. Buxbaumia. 

Capsidc oblique, gibbous. Peristome double : the outer of 
numerous filiform, erect, jointless teeth ; the inner a plaited mem- 
branous cone. Calyptra mitriform, minute. {IMusc. Brit. t. 3.) 
— Named in honour of J. C. Buxhauni, a German botanist and 
author of a catalogue of plants of the environs of Halle, who first 
detected this curious plant in Russia. 

1. B. aphylla, Linn, (leafless Buxbaumia). Linn. Sp. PI. 
p. 1370. El. Brit. p. 1148. E. Bot. t. 1596. Hook, in El. 
Lond. cum Ic. Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1 . P. II. p. 63. Muse. 

Brit. ed. 2. p. 143. t. 22. — B. viridis, Mong. et Nestl. n. 724 

B. indusiata, Brid. Bryol. Univ. v. \. p. 331. Suppl. p. 2. 
Dill. Muse. t. 68. y. 5. 

On the ground, generally in woods, very rare ; first discovered at 
Sprowston near Norwich, in a fir plantation. Near Rossyln, Mr. E. 
Maugkan. Wood near Aberdeen, Mr. Jackson. Selkirkshire, near the 
borders of Peebleshire, Mr. J. Stewart. Georgetown hill, one of the 
Lomonds, Fifeshire, 1,100 feet above the sea, a very exposed spot, 
Mr. Arnott. Fr. March. — The stem, if it may be so called, is reduced 
to a little conical bulb, clothed with minute scales, which Mr. R. Brown 
has ascertained to be ; from this arises a red tuberculated seta, 
about an inch high. Apophysis small, cylindrical. Capsule large, ovate, 
oblique, nearly flat above, convex below, gibbous at the base ; at the 
mouth is a rim or border, which is broken or cleft irregularly. Lid small, 

Sect. II. Seta or fruitstalk latei'cd. Pleurocarpi.' 

Subsect. I. Moidh of the capsule naked. Gymnostomi. 

31. HedavIgia. Hook, (m Humb. Nov. Gen.) Hedwigia. 

Seta lateral. Moidli of the capsule naked. Calyptra dimi- 
diate — Named in honour of the prince of Museologists, J. 
G. Hedwig. 

1. H. (estiva, (Summer Hedivigia); steins elongated densely 
tufted, leaves lanceolate twisted when dry, capsule oval smooth. 

’ From the side, and fruit. 

Plcrogouiiun.] M USC f-PLE U ROCA R PI- PE R I STOM I . 

lid with a long obliquo subulate beak. — Gymnostomiun ccstia/iu, 
Hedw. Sp. 3Iusc. j). 32. 11. /. 4—7. Schwaegr. Snppl. v. 1. 

p. 30. Hobs. Br. 3Iosses, v. 2. w. 6. Drum. 3Iusc. Scot. v. 2. 
n. .5. 3It(sc. Brit. ed. 2. p. 18. t. 6.—G. luteolum, E. Bot. ^.20. 
{not of FI. Brit, according to 3Ir. Davies siiecbnens) — Amc- 
tanghim compactimi, Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. 2^- H* 

Wet rocks, especially near water-lalls, frequent. Fi\ Sept.— The 
fnictif cation of this is truly lateral, as niy friend 3Ir. Witsonhafi satisfied 
me ; and along with the Gymnoslomunb lloriiscliufiianum of the Bryalo- 
gia Germanica, to which it is closely allied (difiering in its much shortei 
leaves), it must be removed from Gymnostomiun. The Cienus Iledwigia 
was established by Ehrhart (and adopted by Iledwig bimself) upon the 
present Anictangium cUiatum ; a plant with which ours has been united 
generically, by succeeding Botanists, who have, nevertheless, without 
sufficient reason, deprived our great Museologist of a name among 
Mosses, suffered the plant to merge into Gymnostomum, or formed of it 
the Genus Anictangium, and allowed a phoenogamous plant to usurp the 
appellation. I have ventured to separate a groupe from Anictangium u\ 
the Musci Exotici, in IlumboU's Nova Genera, and in the 3Iusc. hrit., 
which will include the present plant : and this arrangement has already 
been sanctioned by the Authors of the Dictionnaire Classique d Hist. 
Nat. and by Schwaegrichen in the 2d and 3d Supplements to his Species 

Subsect. II. 3Ioulh of the capsule furnished tcith a p)cristome. 


Div, I. Peristome single. ApLOi^EUiSTOiMi. 

32. Pterogonjum. Sw. Pterogoniiini. 

Seta lateral. Peristome single, of 16 entire, equidistant teeth. 
Cahjiitra dimidiate. {3Iusc. Brit. t. 2.) — Name ; a ivhig, 

and yovo^, a shoot : signifying winged shoots or branches. 

1. P. S mUhii,^w. {curled Pterogoniuni); stems much branched, 

branches pinnate, leaves lingulate obtuse entire crisped when 
dry their margins recurved, the nerve reaching about half-way 
up, seta very short, lid rostrate. Sw. in Schrad. Journ. v. 2. 
]j. 173. FI. Brit. p. 1271. E. Bot. t. 1326. Schwaegr. Sujjpl. 
V. \. 2i- 105, and v. 2. j). 31. 109. Hobs. Br. 3Iosses, v. 2. 7i. 25. 

3Iusc. Brit. ed. 2. 74. t. 14. — Hypnum Smithii, Dicks. Or. 

Fasc. 2. 2^‘ 10. t. 5. /. 4. Hedw. Sp. 3Iusc. p. 264. t. 68. 
/. 5-7. 

Trunks of trees in the south of England. Fr. Spring. — Stems very 
much branched, branches pinnated, much curled, as are the leaves when 
dry. The fruit, which is not commonly produced, is nearly sessile, the 
seta slightly curved. 

2. P. grdcile, Sw. (^slender Pterogoniiwi); branches fascicled 

curved, leaves broadly ovate acute concave their margins plane 
the summits serrated faintly 2-nerved at the base, lid conical. 
Sw. 3'Iusc. Suec. p. 26. FI. Brit.p). 1270. F.. Bot. t. 1085. 

'Iledwigia Ilornschnchiann, Hooker Muse. Exot., ami Schwaegrielien. 


Schwmgr.^ Suppl. v. 1. p. 105. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 1. 26. 

use. Brit, ed, 2. p. 74. t. 14 — Pterigyncindrum gracile, Hedw. 

Cr. V. 4. t. 6. — Grimmia ornithopodioides, Mohr. — Himnum 
gracile, Linn.—Dill. Muse. p. 41./. 55. 

Kocks, in subalpine and hilly countries, frequent. Fr. Winter.— A 
caretul examination of good specimens of the fruit of this plant will 

Jing to view something like an inner peristome, a narrow membrane, 
similar to that which unites the base of the cilia of Neckera, yet termi- 
nating so irreg/arly as not to justify us in placing this among the mosses 
which have a double peristome. 

^ 3. P. filiforme, Schwaegr. (^filiform Plerogonium); stems 
irregularly branched curved, leaves ovate subacuminated con- 
cave tlieir margins recurved serrated, nerve single or forked 
short faint, lid conical. Schivaegr. Suppl. v.\. p. 100. E. Bot. 
t. 22d7 . Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 75. t. 14. — Pterigynandrum fili- 
jorme, Hedw. St. Cr. v. 4. t. 7 — Plerogonium ccespitosum, E. Bot. 
t. 2526 — Hypnum cylindricum, Dicks. Cr. Ease. 2. p. 12. FI. 
Brit.p. 1280. 

^Rocks, upon the mountains of Scotland and Ireland. Fr. Summer. 

In this and the preceding species, the leaves are closely imbricated 
and subsecund, but the present plant is much the smaller of the two and 
more iiiegularly branched. The cellules of the leaves are larger than in 
F. gracile, and project on the back and at the margins, which give the 
foliage a papillose appearance, as in Ihjpnum catenulatum, H. proliferum. 
and a few others. ‘ i j * 

33. Leucodon. Schwaegr. Leucodon. 

Seta lateral. Peristome single, of 32 teeth, closely united in 
pairs. Calyptra dimidiate. {Muse. Brit. t. 2.)— Named from 
XivTiog, white, and o§cnv, a tooth, on account of the pale-coloured 
teeth of the British species, the one on which the Genus was 

1. \j. sciuroides, Schwaegr. {Squirrel-tail Leucodmi); leaves 
closely imbricated ovato-cordate acuminated striated, capsule 
oblong. Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 2. p. 1. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 1. 
n. 51. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 112. t. 20. — L. Morensis, Schwaegr. 
Suppl. V. 1. P. II, p, 2, and v. 2. P. I. t. 125. — Dicranuni 

sciuroides, Sw — FI. Brit.p. 1215. E. Bot. t. 1903 Trichosto- 

muni sciuroides, Mohr. — Pterogonium sciuroides, Turn. Muse. Hib. 
p. 32 — Hypnum sciuroides, Linn Dill. Muse. t. 41. / 54. 

Frequent on tninks of trees, in England ; rare in Scotland. F>-. (very 
scarce) Summer. — Utems long, creeping on the bark of trees. Branches 
ascending, often tumid, when it becomes the L. Morensis of Schwaegr. 
Leaves concave, those of the perichcetium long, cylindrical, sheathino^, 
especially the inner ones, which are half as long as the fruitstalk, and’ 
which closely envelope it : this latter is about an inch long. Lid ros- 
trate. The perfect fruit has rarely been gathered but by C. Lyell, Esq. 
in the New Forest, Hants, and by Mr. Borrer in Sussex. 




Div. II. Peristome double. Diploperistomi. 

A. Internal peristome composed of free cilia, or apparently so. 

34. Neckera. Hedw. Neckera. 

lateral. Peristome double: the outer of \Q teeth ;i\iQ 
inner of 16 free cilia, or connected only at the very base by a 
short membrane. Cahjptra dimidiate (mitriform in N. pennata, 
according to Mr. Arnott). Muse. Brit.t. 23.— Named in honour 
of N. J. Necker, who denied, and with much justice, the presence 
of real anthers and pistils in mosses. 

1. N. jmmila, Hedw. {small Nechera); leaves bifarious ovato- 
acuminate slightly concave their margins recurved, setascaicely 
longer than the perichsetial leaves, capsule oblongo-ovate. Hedw. 
St. Cr. V. 3. t. 20. FI. Brit. p. 1272. E. Bot. t. 1443. 
Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. P. II. p. 147. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 135. 

t. 22. — Hypnurn pennatum, Dicks. 

Woods in Sussex, Hants, and probably the South of England gene- 
rally. Cheshire and N. Wales; S. W. of Ireland, Wilson. Abundant at 
Inverary and at Cleish, but otherwise rare in Scotland. Fr. Sumrner. - 
The pericheetial leaves are very convolute, ovate, much acuminated, and 
the selce are only in a slight degree exserted beyond them. 

2. N. pennata, Hedw. {feathered Neckera?); leaves bifarious 
ovato-lauceolate acuminate plane, capsule sessile oblong im- 
mersed in the perichtetial leaves. Hedw. St. Cr. v. 3. t. 19. 
Schicaeqr. Suppl. v. 1. P.,II. p. 144. Grev. Scot. Cr. FI. t. 109. 
Muse. Brit. ed. 2. /j. 135. Suppl. t. A.—Daltonia pennata, Arn. 
Disp. Muse. p. 54. — Fonlinalis pennata, Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1571. 
— Dill. Muse. t. S2.f 9. 

On the trunk of a Beech at Fotheringham, near Forfar, very spai- 
ingly in fruit, Druiiwiond. Fr. Summer. — Although not uncommon in 
Switzerland, no station is known for this moss in Britain, but that above 
given. In size, it is intermediate between the preceding and the follow- 
ing ; but is readily distinguished from both by the different form of the 
leaves and immersed capsule. 

3. N. ertspa, Hedw. {crisped Neckera?); leaves bifarious oblong 
acimiiiudate transversely waved, seta much exserted, capsule 
ovate. Hedw. Sp. Muse. p. 206. Turn. Muse. Hih. p. 101. 
FI. Brit. p. 1273. Hobs. Br. ^losses, v. 2. «. 48. Drum. Muse. 
Scot. V. \. n. 61. Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. P. II. p. 147. Muse. 
Brit. ed. 2. p. 136. t. 22. — Hypnurn crispum, Linn. — E. Bot. 
t. 617. — Dill. Muse. t. S6.f. 12. 

Trees and rocks, in stony and subalpine countries. Fr. Winter. — 
This most lovely moss invests rocks and portions of the trunks of trees 
with its richly-coloured and glossy foliage. The leaves of this and the 
preceding ones are, under a magnifying power, slightly serrated. The 
seta is much exserted and the capsule is ovate approaching to spherical. 

35. Anomodon. Hook, and Taylor. Anomodon. 

Seta, lateral. Peristome double; consisting of 16 teeth with 
a ciliary process arising from each. Cohjptra dimidiate. {Mxtsc. 


lit it. t. 3.) Named from «. not, t'o,ao;, a laxo, and a tooth; 
fiom tlie anomalous nature of the peristome. The same pecu- 
liarity is found in some Orfhotricha and in Daltonia. Such 
mosses cannot be said to have a doxdjle peristome in the usual 
acceptation of the words, i. e. one within the othei% When 
similar characters ai’e accomjianied by a pecnliar habit they may 
be deemed of sufficient importance to constitute generic dis- 

1. A. curtipendaluni, Hook, and Taylor, (^pendulous Anomo- 
do)d); leaves ovate acuminate toothed, the nerve disappearing 
below the point, seta twice as long as tlie perichfetium, capsule 
oyntQ. Muse. Brit. ed. l.p.l^.ed.^i.p. 137.^.22. Hobs. Br. Mosses, 
V. 2. 71. 49. Drum, Muse. Scot. v. n. 62. — Neckera curtipen- 
dula, Hedw. Sp. Muse. p. 209. Turn. Muse. Hih. p. 102. FI. Brit, 
p. 1275. E. Bot. t. 1444. Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. P. II. p. 151. 
— Antitrichia curtipendula, Brid. — Iljpnum curtipendulum, Linn. 
—Dill. Muse. t. 43./ 69. 

Upon rocks and trees, principally in mountainous countries. On 
sandy plains, near Yarmouth, but always barren. Fr. Spring.— This 
moss is of a peculiarly dark, almost blackish, green, 3, to 8 — 10 inches 
loiig» pinnated with cylindrical branches ; the extremities slightly incras- 
sated. Leaves imbricated on all sides, concave with a reflexed margin, 

2. A. viticulosum, Hook, and Taylor, (cylmdrical Anomodon); 
leaves ovato-lanceolate obtuse entire the nerve reaching to the 
point, seta very long, capsule cylindrical. Muse. Brit. ed. 1. 
p. 80. ed. H. p. 138, t. 22. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 2. n. 50. Drum. 
Muse. Scot. V. 1, n. 63. Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. P. II. p. 149. 
— Nechera vitic. Hedw. Sp. Muse. t. 48. /. 4 — 8, Turn. 3Iusc. 
Hib. p. 103 — Hypnum viticulosum, Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1592. FI. 
Brit. p. 1275. E. Bot. t. 263. — Dill. Muse. p. 39. /. 43. 

Upon trees and rocks ; less frequently on the ground, Fr. Feb. — 
Leaves imbricated on all sides of the stem, erect, patent, somewhat 
waved, of a thick and soft texture and pale green colour, very yellow 
when old. PericluBtium small ; nerve strong. Seta an inch or more long. 
Lid rostrate. 

36. Daltonia. Hook, and Taylor. Daltonia. 

Seta lateral. Peristome double ; consisting of 16 teeth, with a 
ciliary process arising from the side of each. Calyptra mitri- 
form. {Muse. Brit. t. Q. f. 1 — 4.) — Named in compliment to 
the Rev. James Dalton, F. L. S. Rector of Croft : a gentleman 
as much distinguished by liis botanical as by his classical ac- 
quirements, a lover no less of science than of the fine arts, and 
one whom the author has been long proud to number among 
his most valued friends, — This Genus is the same with Cryphcea 
of Web. et Mohr, and Bridel : but there was already a Cryphia 
of Mr. Brown. 

1. D. heteromdlla. Hook, and Taylor, (lateral Daltonia). 
Muse. Brit. ed. 1. p. 81. ed. 2. p. 139. t. 22. Hobs. Br. Mosses, 


V. 2. n. 51. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 1. n. Q^i.—Nechera heteromalla, 
Hedw. St. Cr. V. 3. t. 15. Turn. Muse. Hib. j>. 102. FI. Bnt. 
p. 1274. E. Bot. t. 1180. Sclmaegr. Suppl. v. 1. P- D. p. 14b. 
— Cryplma heterom. Brid — Fontinalis secimda, Dicks. — Sphag- 
nuni arhoreum, Linn. — Ddl. Muse. t. 32. f.O. 

Trunks of trees, England, and south of Ireland, plentiful, (Hi/s.): 
rare in Scotland. Fr. April-— 5/cm.v slightly branched, diffuse. Leaves 
imbricated on every side, concave, the nerve disappearing below the 
point, the margins recurved and quite entire. Perichcctial leaves as long 
as the sessile oblong-ovate capsule, broadly ovate and suddenly acumin- 
ated, almost cuspidate, having a nerve reaching to the point. 1 id conico- 
acuminate. Calyptra mitriform, brown ; somewhat fringed at the 
At the suggestion ot Mr. Wilson, who finds the inner peiistome ot 
splachnoidTs to arise from a membrane as in Hoolceria, I have referred 
that species to the latter Genus. 

B. Inner peristome composed of cilia united below into a 
membrane or connected by transverse bars. 

37. Fontinalis. Linn. Water- Moss. 

Seta lateral. Peristome double: the outer 16 teeth; tlie 
inner of 16 cilia, connected by transverse bars and forming^ a 
reticulated cone. Calyptra mitriform. (^Musc. Brit. ed. 2. t. 3.) 
Named thus from its being an aquatic Genus. 

1. F. antipyretica, Linn, {greater Water -Moss); leaves nerve- 
less broadly ovate complicato-carinate. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1571. 
Turn. Muse. Hib, ji. 190. FI. Brit. p. 1336. E. Bot. t. 859. 
Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 1. n. 53. Drum. 3Iusc. Scot. v. 2. n. 59. 
Schivaegr. Suppl. v. 1. P. II. p. 307. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 141. 
t. 22. — Ddl. Muse. t. 33. f. 

Rivers and stagnant waters. Fr. June. — Stems a foot or more long, 
fluitant. Leaves broadly' ovate, trifarious, decidedly complicato-caiinate, 
rarely plane, as in a var. found by Mr. Harvey, easily splitting at the 
keel. Fruit principally on the lower part of the stems. ^ PerichcEtium 
large ; its leaves resembling closely imbricated scales which cover the 
capsule, and are of a roundish form, concave, nerveless, generally erose 
at their apices. Capsulr elliptical. lAd conical, acute. 

The specific name was given to this plant by Linnaeus, in allusion to 
the use made of it by the Swedish peasantry, who fill up with it the 
spaces between the chimney and the walls in their houses, and thus 
by excluding the air prevent the action of the fire- 

2. F. squarrosa, Linn, (alpine Water-Moss'); leaves nerve- 
less lanceolate acuminate plane. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1571. Hedw. 
St. Cr. V. 3. t. 12. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 199. FI. Brit. p. 1336. 
E. Bot. t. 1861. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 2. n. 52. Drum. Muse. 
Scot. V. 2. n. 60. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 142. t. 22. 

Alpine rivulets, abundant. Fr. June. — Much smaller than the last, 
and as I am now satisfied, quite distinct from it in its narrow never com- 
plicate leaves. 

3. F. capilldcea, Dicks, (bristly Water-Moss); leaves fur- 
nished with a nerve slightly concave subulate, Dicks. Cr. 


Faso. 2. p. K FI. Frit. p. 1337. E. Bot. t. 2432. Schwaegr. 
Suppl. V. 1. P. II, p, 307. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 142. t. 22. — 
Dill. Muse. t. 33. f. 5. 

Alpine rivulets, in Scotland. Mr. Dickson. Fr. ?— I am not 

^are that any one, except Mr. Dickson, has seen this plant growing in 
Britmn ; nor do I know in what particular part of Scotland he gathered 
It. Dillenius’ specimens were from Pennsylvania : and beautiful indi- 
viduals were gathered by Mr. Drummond in North America, during Capt, 
Franklin’s 2d. Journey, and published by him in his valuable Musci 
Americanly v. 2. n. 234. 

38. Hookeria. Sm, Hookeria. 

Seta lateral. Veristome double : the outer of 16 teeth ; the 
inner of 16 cilia united below into a membrane, (wdiicli in II. 
splaehnoides is exceedingly short). Calyplra mitriform. {A'lusc. 
Brit. t. 3.) — Named, by Sir J. J5. Smith, in compliment to the 
author of the jiresent work. 

1. H. lucenSy Sm. (^shining Hookeria^; leaves bifarious broadly 
ovate entire obtuse nerveless. Sm. in Linn. Trans, v. 9. p. 296. 
E. Bot. t. 1902. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 1. n. 63. Drum. Muse. 
Scot. V. 2. n. 61. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 149. t. 27. — Hgpnum 
lucens, Linn.—Hedtv. Sp. Muse. p. 243. Turn. 3Iusc. Hib. 
p. \Si>. FI. Brit. p. 1295. — Leskea lucens, De Cand. — Schwaegr. 
Suppl. V. 1. P. II. p. 164. t. 84. — Pterigophyllum lucens, Brid. 

Moist banks, in woods and among rocks. Fr. Feb. — Stems procum- 
bent, 2 4 inches long, slightly branched, plane. Leaves arranged on 

four sides, but bifarious in their direction, quite plane, succulent, pellucid, 
reticulated, with the meshes large, the margin not thickened; nerve none. 
From the points of the leaves, roots are often emitted. Seta an inch 
long, curved at the summit. Capside ovate, horizontal, reticulated, lid 
conico-rostrate. Calyptra thin, whitish, faintly reticulated, mitriform, 
jagged at the base. 

2. H. Icete-vtre7is, Hook, and Taylor, {deep green Hookeriad) ; 
leaves bifarious ovate acuminulate margined very obscurely ser- 
rated at the extremity with 2 nerves reaching nearly the whole 
length. 3Iusc. Brit. ed. \. j). 89. ed. p. 150. t. 27. Hook, and 
Grev. in Edin. Journ. of Sc. v. 2. p. 230. ScJiivaegr. Sttppl. v. 2. 
P. II. t. 163. 

• Duncombe’s wood, near Cork, Mr. J. Drummond; in dark holes 
there by the sides of three rivulets which empty themselves into a water- 
ing place for horses near the road, Wils. O’Sullivan’s cascade and Turk 
waterfall, Killarney, plentiful and in fr., W. H. Harvey, Esq. Fr. Nov. 
Dec. — Much smaller than the last in every part and readily recog- 
nised by that circumstance, as well as by the deep green colour of the 
leaves, their smaller reticulations and the 2 long nerves. 

3. H. splacJmoides, {small upright Hookeria); leaves imbri- 
cated on all sides erect oblongo-lanceolate, nerve reaching nearly 
to the point, calyptra fimbriated at the base. — Daltemia splach- 
noides, 3Iusc. Brit. ed. 1. p. 90. ed. 2. p. 139. t. 22. 

Secawn mountain, near Dublin, (a station since destroyed) ; Dr. 


Tavlor. On moist inclined faces of rocks, usually near rills, on the side of 
Tuik mountain and Cromagloun near Killarney, rarely upon trees ; Mr. 
Wilson. Fr. Oct. Dec.— The grows m large tufts : stems slightly 

branched, scarcely half an inch high ; branches erect ; leaves rather loosely 
imbricated, almost erect, of a delicate nearly membranous texture, lamtly 
reticulated, the margins thickened and somewhat waved, entire, those ot 
the perichcetium are few, small, ovate, nerveless. Seta scarcely nsmg 
above the stems, scabrous above. Capsule inclined, ovate, with an in- 
distinct apophysis. Calyptra mitriform, nearly white, delicate, tamtiy 
reticulated : the base cut into fine capillary segments. Lid conico- 
rostrate, nearly as long as the capsule. Peristome large in proportion 
to the size of the capsule, pale yellow : Outer one of 16 subulate teeth 
expanding in water, inner of 16 slender cilia alternating with the outer 
teeth, united by a membrane which scarcely rises beyond the mouth ot 
the capsule. ( Wits.) 

39. Hvpnum. Linn. Feather-Moss. 

Seta latei’al. Peristome double: the outer oi 16 ; the 

inner of a membrane cut into 16 equal segments, with filiform 
pi-ocesses frequently placed between them. Calyptra dinndiate. 
(Muse. Brit. t. 3.) — Named from mvog, sleep, according to Bridel, 
given to some kind of tree-moss or Lichen ; and by Ray ap- 
plied to this Genus and its allies on account of some fimcied 
^poriferous property.— Mm, of authors, is here united to 
Hypnum : for the characters by which it is separated (the ab- 
sence of the intermediate cilia ox filiform processes') is too minute 
to he generally available to the student. 

I. Stems (taken in conjunction with the leaves') plane. 

1. Capsules erect. 

1. H. trichomanoides, Linn, (hlunt fern-like Feather -moss); 
leaves broadly scymitar-shaped serrated at the point, nerve 
reaching to the middle of the leaf, capsule ovate erect, lid ros- 
trate. Schreh. FI. Lips . — Turn. Muse. Hib. 145. FI. Brit. p. 
1287. E. Bot. t. 1493. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 1. n. 64. Drum. 
3Iusc. Scot. V. 1. n. 73. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 152. t. 2A.—Leskea 
trichom. Hedw. — Schwaegr. Siqyjl. v. 1. P. II. p- 163 — Dill. 

Muse. t. 34. y. 8. , -c. 

Not unfrequent on the trunks of trees. Fr. ]\larch.— Easily dis- 
tinguished by its peculiar scymitar-shaped leaves. 

2. H. complandtum, Linn, (fiat Feather-Moss) ; leaves oblong 

apiculate entire nerveless, capsule ovate erect, lid rostrate. Linn. 
Sp. PI. p. 1588. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 144. FI. Brit. p. 1286. 
E. Bot. t. 1492. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 1. n. 65. Drum. Muse. 
Scot. V. 1. n. 72. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. 152. t. 24. — Leskea 

compl. Hedw. — Schwaegr. Sujjpl. v. 1. P. IL p. 163. Dill. 
Muse. t. 34. /. 7. 

Trunks of trees, very common. Fr. Spring. — This and the preced- 
ing s[iecies are allied in habit to Ncckcra, especially to K. pumila. 



w. Capsules cermioiis or inclined. 

3. H. riparium, Linn, {sliort-heahed water Feather- Moss^; 
leaves ovato-lanceolate acnininated entire the nerve reaching 
cilniost to tlie summit, capsules oblong cernuous, lid conical. 
Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1595. Hediv. St. Or. v. 4. t. 3. Turn. Mmc. 
Hib. p, 152. FI. Brit. p. 1292. E. Bot. t. 2UG0. Hobs. Br. 
Mosses, V. 1. n. G6. Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. P. II. p. 194. Muse. 
Brit. ed. 2. p. 153. t. 24 — Dill. Muse. t. 40./ 44. B, C, D. 

Banks of rivers, often partially in the water, and in spots occa- 
sionally overflowed. Fr. Apr. — Stems 4 — 5 inches long. Colour lurid 
yellow-grepi. This, like all plants liable to be acted upon by nuich 
moisture, is variable in size, in its mode of growth and in the longer or 
shoitei stems and leaves. Mr. Wilson even doubts if it may not pass 
into H. Jluitans ; but this opinion I have had no means of verifying. 

4. II. unduldtiim, Linn, (loaved Feather -Moss'); leaves ovate 
acute transversely waved with two faint nerves at the base, 
capsule oblong furrowed arcuato-cernuous, lid rostrate. Linn. 
Sp. Pl.p. 1589. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 154. FI. Brit. p. 1294. 
E. Bot. t. 1181. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 1. 7i. G8. Drum. Muse. 
Scot. V. 1. 71 . 75. Schwaegr. Supj^l. v. 1. P. IL p. 197. Muse. 
Brit. ed. 2. p. 153. t. 24.~Dill. Muse. t. 35. /. 11. 

Woods, in dry heathy places and among rocks. Fr. Apr. — This plant 
has peculiarly white, membranaceous, undulated leaves, and the cajj- 
sule distinctly furrowed, which latter peculiarity gives it the same rela- 
tion with the other Hgpna as Fryum palustrc and F. androumiun bear 
to the rest of the Frya. 

5. H. de7iticuldtum, Linn, {shaip feim-like Feathei'-Moss); 
leaves ovate sometimes approaching to lanceolate more or less 
acuminate having 2 short nerves at the base, capsule oblongo- 
cylindraceous inclined, lid conical. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 153. 
t. 24. — ct. amgustifoliuni; leaves ovato-lanceolate distant quite 
plane. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1558. Hedw. St. Ci\ v. 4. t. 'S\. Turn. 
Muse. Hib. p. 148. t. 12. f. 1. FI. Brit. p. 1288. E. Bot. 
t. 1260. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 1. 71 . 67. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 1. 
n. 74. Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. P. II. p. 187. Muse. Brit, 
ed. 2. p. 153. t. 24. — H. sylvaticum, Schwaegr. Suppl. r. 1. 

P’ IQS', t. 82. — Dill. Muse. t. 34. f. 5. — j3. obtusifolium ; 
leaves ovate more or less obtuse slightly concave. IL denticu- 

latum, j3. obtusifolmm. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 146. t. 12. f. 2. 

H. obtusatum, Wahl. Lapp. — H. Donkmum, E. Bot. t. 1446. 

Woods and moist rocky places. /3. Mountains. Fr. May.— The above 
varieties, as I have considered them, some botanists have ranked as 
species: but if examined in their places of growth intermediate states 
will be found. The texture of the /cq/" even is variable, more reticu- 
lated in P>. than in a. 



II. Stems {taken in conjunction loith the leaves) more or less 
cylindrical, never plane. 

1. Leaves spreading on all sides {not secimd). 

A. Leaves uniform in their direction {not squarrose). 
a. Nerve reaching to or beyond the point. 

* Leaves without serralures. 

G. II. medium, Dicks, {long-headed Feather-Moss); leaves 
ovate obtuse concave entire slightly falcato-secund, the neive 
rcacliing to the snininit, capsule cylindrical nearly erect, lid 
conical. Dicks. Or. Fuse. 2. p. 12. Turn. Muse. Hih. qi. 142. 
FI. Brit. p. 1280. E. Bot. t. 1274. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 2. 
n. 55. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. jn 154. t. 24.—//. inundatum, Dicks. 

Turn. Muse. Hih. — FI. Brit. p. 1282. E. Bot. t. 1022. 

— Lcskea polycarpa Ehrh. Or. — Hedw. — Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. 
P.II. 171. 

Trunks of trees, particularly of Alders, near the ground. Fr. 

Whole plant of a dense growth and lurid colour; leaves opaque with the 
margins recurved, often ialcato-secund, so that it has as great a claim 
to be ranked in the groiipe “ foliis secundis,” as in the present divi- 
sion ; and it is in other respects nearly allied to H. atro-virens. 

1. H. tenellum, Dicks, {tender awl-leaved Feather -Moss); leaves 
Gisciculated erect lanceolato-subulate entire, their nerve reaching 
to the point, capsule ovate cernuous, lid rostrate. Dicks. Or. 
Fuse. 4. t. 11. / 12. Turn. Muse. Hih. p. 170. FI. Brit. p. 
1308. E. Bot. t. 1859, {figure of the leaf incorrect). Drum. 
Muse. Scot. V. 2. n. 63. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 155. t. 24.— H. 
Algerianum, Brid. — Schivaegr. Suppl. v. 2. p. 161. t. 144. 

On rocks, especially such as are calcareous, and on old walls. I'r. 
Winter.— The leaves are clustered or fasciculated in a peculiar manner 
in this species : by this character and by the shape and texture of its 
leaves and by the rostrate lid, it may be distinguished from H. serpens ; 
and from H. populeum by its narrower entire leaves and long operculum. 
Mr. Wilson, however, has found a var. with serrulated foliage, on moist 
rocks, Anglesea. 

8. H. serpens, Linn, {creeping white-veiled Feather -Moss); 
leaves ovato-lanceolate rather obtuse patent entire, the nerve 
reaching to the summit or abbreviated, capsule cylindrical curv- 
ed cernuous, lid conical. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1596. Turn. Muse. 
Hih. p. 168. FI. Brit. p. 1306. E. Bot. t. 1037. Hobs. Br. 
Mosses, V. 1. n. 70. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. I . n. 77. Schwaegr. 
Suppl. V. 1. P. II. p. 260. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 156. t.24 . — 

H.fiuviatile, Fimck H. tenue, Schrad. — H. contextum and H. 

spimdosum, Hedw. — H. subtile, Dicks . — Turn. — Sm. in FI. 
Brit, and in E. Bot. t. 2496, {not Hedw). — Dill. 3Iusc. t. 42. 
/. 64. 

Moist banks, trunks of trees, on pales and decayed wood in various 
situations. Fr. May. — I agree with Schwaegrichen in saying, “ vix 



datur exemplum tantae inconstantiEe nervi in ullo Hyjmo for dif- 
ferent leaves on the same individual have the nerve varying much in 
length, and to me, in the older stems, the nerve, of a dark brown colour, 
seems to reach quite to the point ; but Mr. Wilson observes that it 
always vanishes below it. In others, the nerve almost totally disap- 
pears and then the plant becomes the H. subtile of British authors, not 
Leskea subtilis of Hedw. which has the true fringe of a Leskea and has 
not, that I am aware, yet been found in Britain. For further remarks 
on this variable species see the Muscologia Britannica, ed. 2. 

** Leaves serrated. 

2. H. populeum, Hedvr. (pnatted Feather-Moss); leaves erect 
lanceolate acuminated serrated the margin slightly reflexed, the 
nerve reaching to the point, capsule ovate subcernuous, lid 
conical. Hedw. Sp.Musc.t. 70./. 1 — 6. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 1. 
n. 69. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 1. n. 78. Schwaegr. SuppL v. 1. 
P. II. p. 238. Muse. Brit. ed. 1,. ]). 157. t. 24. — H. implexum, 
Sivartz . — Turn. Muse. Hih.p. 173. t. 16. FI. Brit. p. 1310. E. 
Bot. t. 1584. 

On stones in shady situations, less frequently on trees. Fr. Nov. 

10. H. rejlexum, Web. {rejiexed Feather-Moss); leaves cor- 
dato-acuminate serrated the margin slightly reflexed, the nerve 
reaching to the point, capsule ovate cernuous, seta rough, lid 
conical. Web. et Mohr, Cr. Germ. yj. 306, et 476. Schwaegr. 
Suppl. V. 1. P. II. p. 161. t. 143. 

On Ben Nevis, near the base of the mountain ; on Ben Lawers, Br. 

Greville. Fr. . — Bi'itish specimens quite accord with original ones 

from Starke. In habit, they differ considerably from the last species, 
being more straggling in the growth, the leaves are broader and shorter, 
especially those of the main stem, which are broadly cordate with a sud- 
denly acuminated point. 

b. Nerve shorter than the leaf, or none. 

* Leaves entire. 
f Leaves ovate or elliptical. 

11. H. molle, DicV'ti. (^soft water Feather-Moss); stemscreep- 
ing, branches erect, leaves loosely imbricated patent rotundato- 
ovate rather acute concave entire faintly 2-nerved at the base 
or with one short nerve, capsule ovate cernuous, lid conical. 
Dicks. Cr. Fasc. 2. t. 5. f. 8. Hedw. Sp. Muse. t. 70. / 
7 — 10. FI. Brit. p. 1312. E. Bot. t. 1992. Hobs. Br. Mosses, 
V. 2. n. 56. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 2. n. 64. Schwaegr. Suppl. 
V. 1. P. II. p. 220. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 158. t. 24. Grev. Scot 
Cr. FI. t. 283. 

Alpine rivulets, in Scotland; Aber, N. Wales; Mr. Wilson, (the 
station since destroyed.) Fr. June. — Plant tufted and the short branches 
(2 — 3 inches high) erect, bare of foliage below. Leaves of a thin 
membranaceous texture, generally very dark lurid green, concave, 
varying in the nerve which is either single or double. This, indeed, 
comes very near to H. alpestre, which is, however, more rigid in tex- 




ture, its leaves are more patent and in general the nerve is more evident 
and longer, the colour is yellower at the extremity of the branches. 

12. U.alpestre, ^\viivtz,{moimtainu-ater Feather-Moss); stems 
creeping, branches erect, leaves loosely imbricated patent rotun- 
dato-ovate obtuse concave entire rather rigid, nerve disappearing 
beyond the middle or faintly 2-nerved at the base, capsule 
broadly oblong cernuous, lid conical. Stvarlz, Muse. Suec. p. 
102. t. 6./. 15. Hedxo. Sp. Muse. t. 44. f. 1—4. Grev. Scot. 
Cr. FI. t. 282. 

Mountain rivulets, Ben Challum, Perthshire; Dr. Greville. i'r. 
— — , — I have followed L)r. Greville, who has so beautifully illustrated 
this and the preceding species, in keeping this Moss distinct from the 
preceding; though JDi'. Taylor and myself had expressed a different 
opinion in the Muse. Brit.; and indeed the distinguishing marks are 
very slight, if they are constant. 

13. H. trifdriitm, Web. (three-ranhed Feather- Moss'); leaves 
compactly and subtrifariously imbricated ovate obtuse entire 
concave, the nerve disappearing below the middle, capsule 
oblongo-ovate cernuous, lid conical. Web. et Mohr, FI. Suec. 
t. 2. y. 2. a, d. ejiisd. FI. Cr. Germ. p. 319. Muse. Brit. ed. 
2. p. 161. Suppl. t. 4. Grev. Scot. Cr. FI. t. 279.— /T. stram- 
ineum, (3. Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1 . P. II. 

Very rare. Moist bogs and peat-holes on Ben Challum and Ben 
Lawers, Dr. Greville and Hooker. Fr. . — This is a very beauti- 

ful plant and assuredly quite distinct from H. slramineum, with which 
Schwaegrichen has united it as a variety. It is of a dark lurid colour, 
with remarkably concave and closely imbricated leaves. Our plants 
exactly accord with those from Norway and Lapland. 

14. H. stramineurn, Dicks, (straxo-like Feather-Moss); leaves 

loosely imbricated erecto-patent oblongo-ovate obtuse entire 
shining, the nerve reaching half way, capsule oblongo-ovate 
curved cernuous, lid conical. Dichs. Cr. Fasc. 1. 1. J. 9. 

Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 164. FI. Brit. p. 1303. E. Bot. t. 2465. 
Schivaegr. Suppl. t. 89. Hobs. Br. 3Iosses, v. 2. 7t. 59. Brum. 
Muse. Scot. V. 1. n. 82. Schieaegr. Suppl. v. 1. P.II.p. 212, 
{excl. var. j3.). Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 161. t. 24. 

Banks and wet bogs, frequently mixed with other mosses. Abundant 
on the Breadalbane mountains ; very rare in fr. : on moist sandy places 
near Dundee (il/r. Drummond) ; and Castle Kelly Glen, Ireland, Dr. 

Taylor. Fr. . — The slender habit, pale colour and obtuse leaves 

are striking characters in this species. It seems to bear fruit almost 
entirely in sandy places, where the seta is half buried in the soil. 

15. W.Jlavescens, (^pale yellow Feather -Moss); stems depressed 
and procumbent thickly matted, leaves ovato-lanceolate acumi- 
nate entire concave with flattened margins, faintly 2-nerved at 
the base erecto-patent and slightly secund, seta smooth, capside 
ovate cernuous, lid with a long slender beak. WHs. Mss. 

On moist shady rocks, by rills in mountainous woods ; near 
Killarney, frequent, also near Glengariff ; Mr. Wilson. Fr. June, 
July. — “ This has no obvious affinity in habit to any other British species. 


It often grows in broad patches or flakes on tlie inclined faces of rocks, 
over which water occasionally flows,” WiU. 

16. II. murdle, Hedw. {loall Feather-Moss); leaves nearly 
erect imbricated oval with a very short point concave the single 
nerve reacliing three-fourths of the way up, capsule ovate cernu- 
ous, lid rostrate. Hedw. St. Cr. v. 4. t. 30. Turn. Mmc. Hih. 
p. 166. FI. Brit. y;. 1304. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 1. n. 72. 
Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. P. II. p. 198. Muse. Brit. cd. 2. 2>- 161. 
t. 24. — II. confertum, E. Bot. t. 1038. — II. abhreviatum, Hedio. 
Sp. Muse. t. 65, f. 1 — 4. — Dill. Muse. t. 41. 52. 

On walls and stones. Fr. Oct. Nov. — The rostrate lid and concave 
short-pointed leaves distinguish this species from its affinities. 

17. PI, purum, Linn, (pieat meadow Feather -Moss); leaves 
closely imbricated oval with a very short j)oint very concave, 
the nei've reaching- half way up, capside ovate cernuous, lid 
conical. Linn. Sp. Pl._p. 1594. Hedw. Sp. Muse. t. GQ.y. 3 — 6. 
Turn. Muse. Hih. p>. 175. FI. Brit. p. 1313. E. Bot. t. 1599. 
Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 1. n. 74. Drum. Muse. Seat. v. 1. n. 83. 
Sehwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. P, II. p. 126. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 162, 
t- 24, — H. illeeebrum, FI. Brit, and E. Bot. p. 2189, (iiot 
Hedw.) Dill. Muse. t. 40. f. 45. 

On the ground, on banks and in woods, abundant. Fr. Nov. — Dil- 
lenius informs us that the specific name of this very common moss is 
derived from the use, made of it in some parts of England, in cleans- 
ing worms for Fishermen. 

18. H. piliferum, Schreh, {hair -pointed Feather -Moss); leaves 
ovate with a long narrow acumen scarcely serrated, the nerve 
disappearing below the middle, capsule cernuous, lid rostrate. 
Sehreb. FI. Lips. p. 91. Hedw. St. Or. v. 4. t. 14. Turn. Muse. 
Hib. p>. 178. FI. Brit. p. 1319. E. Bot. t. 1516. Drum. Muse. 
Seot. V. 2. n. 71. Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. P. II. jj. 239. 3Iuse. 
Brit. ed. ‘‘l.p. 175. t. 25. 

Banks, rareiny)-. : found in that state at Auchindenny, near Edinburgh, 
Mr. Arnott; and Cotteral wood, Cheshii-e, Mr. Wilson. Fr. Nov. — 
A distinctly marked plant, which at the suggestion of Mr. Wilson I have 
removed from the division with serrated leaves, where it has no affini- 
ty, and placed along with H, murale and purum. The leaves of the stem 
are exactly ovate and so suddenly acuminated into a long narrow 
point, as to appear, especially when dry, to be hair-pointed. Those of 
the branches are more gradually attenuated and scarcely warrant the 
specific name. 

19. H. Schreberi, Willd. {Schreherian Feather-3Ioss); leaves 
closely imbricated nearly erect elliptical apiculate concave 
entire faintly 2-nerved at the base, capsule ovate cernuous, 
lid conical. Willd. FI. Berol. p. 325. Turn. BIusc. Hib. p. 
176. FI. Brit. p. 1315, E. Bot. t. 1621. Hobs. Br. Mosses, 
V. 1. n. 71. Drum. 3Iusc. Scot. v. 1. ?^. 81. Schivaegr. Suppl. v. 
1. P. II. p. 227. 3Iusc. Brit. ed. 2. p. 159. t. 24. — H. imdicum, 
Sw. — Dill. 3Iusc. t. 40. f. 7 . 



Woods and banks, among bushes, frequent. Fr. Oct.— Allied to //. 
nurum; but slenderer, more rigid and more compressed in the and 
branches, which are of a red colour, best seen by holding the plant be- 
tween the eye and the light. 

20. H. moniliforme, Walil. (beaded Feather -Moss); lea\es 
closely imbricated rotundato-ovate obtuse very concave ven- 
tricose nerveless, capsule ovate nearly erect. Wahl. Lapp. p. 
376. t. 24. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 2. ?i. 57. 3Iusr. Brit. ed. 2. p. 
139. t. 24. — Leskeajidacea, Mohr. — Hypnuni julaceu)n,Schioaegi . 
Siippl. V. 1. P. II. p. 216. ^d.—Pterogonium? rotundifoliim, 


On the ground, Cunnamara mountains, Ireland ; Mr. J. i. Mackay. 
Not uncommon on rocks in the Breadalbane mountains. Fr. . 

21. H. catemddtum, Scbwaegr. (catenulated Fealher-3Ioss); 

leaves subpatent ovate subacuminate papillose on the back and 
margin with a very short nerve, capsule ovate inclined, lid 
conical acuminate. Schwaegr. Stippl. v. 1. P. 218. Hobs. 

Br. 3Iosses, v. 2. n. 58. Muse, Brit. ed. 2. p. 160. t. 24. 

II. Conferva, Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 2. P. II. p. 158. t. 142. Grhn- 
mia catemdata, 3Iohr. — Pterigynandrum, Brid. 

Wet rocks and in woods. Dargle and Powerscourt, near Dublin, Dr. 
Taylor. Ben Lawers, Dr. Greville. Campsie hills, near Glasgow, Mr. 
Arnoll. Mill Dingle, near Beaumaris, and woods near Bangor, but al- 
ways barren, Wilson. Fr. ? — This has probably not unfrequently 

been taken for Pterogonium jiliforme, and Mr. Mackay s specimens in E. 
Bot. under the last-mentioned name, are H. catemdatum. The present 
plant is a genuine Hypnum, having a single filiform process between the 
segments of its inner peristome. The stems are closely tufted, from one 
to^two inches in length, rigid. Leaves rather remote, of a dark green 
colour, their margins appearing as it were serrated from the papillae on 
the surface. In our specimens, the nerve is short, not more than one 
fourth of the length of the leaf, whilst in II. catenulatum of Schwaegr. 
it is said to disappear beyond the middle. 

■j -j' Leaves lanceolate or subulate. 

-t- Leaves without stria. 

22. H. plumosuni, Linn, (rusty Feather- 3Ioss); leaves erecto- 
patent the upper ones sometimes secund all of them ovato-lanceo- 
late acuminate subseiTated the margins recurved, the nerve 
reaching above the middle, capsule ovate cernuous, lid conical. 
Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1592. (not Hedw.) Turn. Altisc. Hib. p. 172. 
t. 15./. 1. FI. Brit. p. 1310. E. Bot. t. 2071. Hobs. Br. 
3Iosses, V. 1. n. 73. Drum. 3Iusc. Scot. v. 2. n. 65. Schwaegr. 
Suppl. V. 1. P. II. j). 244. 3Iusc. Brit. ed. 2. jj. 162. t. 25. — H. 
alpinum, I'urn. 3Iusc. Hib. ji. 192. FI. Brit. p. 1380. E. Bot. t. 
1406. — H. Jiagellai'e, Hedw. Sp. 3Iusc. t. 12>. f. 1 — 3. (not 

Moist banks and rocks, not uncommon. Fr. Oct. — The upper leaves 
are often secund, all of them of a glossy, generally deep, yellow-green. 





The plant varies much in size. Hedwig’s H. p/umnsum (our H. salc- 
brosum) has striated leaves and ranks near H. lutescens. 

—3. H. pulchellum, Dicks, {elegant Feather-Moss^ ; leaves 
loosely imbricated the upper ones subsecund all of them lanceo- 
lato-acuminate entire nerveless, capsule ovato-cylindrical nearly 
erect, lid conical. Dicks. Cr. Fasc. 2. t, 5,f 6. Turn. Muse. 
Hib. p. 136. FI. Drit. p. 1277. E. Bot. t. 2006. Drum. Muse. 
Seat. V. 1. n. 76. Muse. Brit. eel. %. p. 163. t. ^5.—Leshea pul- 
chella, Heclw. Sp. Muse. t. 55. f. 7 — 12 . — Hypnuni nitidulum, 

Woods, in alpine countries and among rocks. Fr. Sept. — A small 
.species, scarcely an inch in length ; the leaves spreading out nearly 
horizontally on two opposite sides of the stem, whence Wahlenberg has 
leferred it to his division “shoals plane F but its upper leaves are sub- 
secund and it approaches in many respects the H. Silesianum. 

-t — f- Leaves striated. 

24. H. rufeseens, Dicks, (red mounted n Feather-Moss) ; leaves 
erecto-patent lanceolate acuminate entire striated faintly two- 
nerved at the base, capsule ovate nearly erect, lid conical. Dichs. 
Cr. Fase. 3. t. 8. f. 4. FI. Brit. p. 1316. Bot. t. 2296. 
Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 2. n. 61. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 2. n. 66. Muse, 
Brit. ed. 2. p. 164. t. 25. — Leshea rufeseens, Sehwaegr. Suppl. 
V. 1. P. II, p. 178. t. 88. 

Scottish mountains, among moist rocks, not unfrequent. Fr. rare, 
July. In this state the Rev. Colin Smith finds it abundantly near Inve- 
rary : and Mr. Wilson at the upper end ofFinlarig Burn, Perthshire. 

Whole plant of a singularly yellowish-purple colour; stems erect. It 
varies in size, and small decumbent specimens considerably resemble the 
Hypnum incurvatuin of authors. 

25. H. polydntlios, (many-fruited Feather -Moss') ; leaves 
erecto-patent ovato-lanceolate remarkably acuminate minutely 
serrated at the point smooth obscurely 2-nerved at the base, 
capsule ovato-cylindrical erect, lid conico-acuminate. Hook, in 
Drum. Muse. Seot. v. 2. n. 87. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 164. Suppl. 
t. 5. (not E. Bot.). — Leshea polyantha, Hedw. St. Cr. v. 4. 
t. 2, Sehwaegr. Suppl. v.\. P. II. p. 69. 

Trees and rocks, perhaps not rare ; first found in England on Apple 
trees, near Darlington, by Mr. JV. Backhouse ; and on rocks and trees 

about Forfar, Scotland, by Mr. Drummond. Fr. . — Stems forming 

densely entangled tufts, with numerous short erect branches. Leaves 
erecto-patent, slightly secund on the lowermost creeping shoots, ovato- 
lanceolate, running out into a long narrow acumen, which appears under 
a magnifier slightly serrated ; there are 2 very short indistinct nerves at 
the base. Seta about half an inch long. Capsule cylindrical, slightly 
swelling at the base, reddish-brown. A small var. of H. cupress forme, 
not unfrequent upon trees, has often been taken for this plant and is in- 
deed figured as such in E. Bot. t. 1664. Our plant is known by the leaves 
pointing in all directions, broader below, more suddenly acuminated 
above, the capsule quite erect, and by having decidedly the peristome oi 
a Lc.<ikea. 




26. H. sericeum, Linn, {silky Feather-3Toss); leaves erecto- 
patent lanceolate acuminate entire or slightly sei-rated, the 
nerve reaching to 3-4ths of the length, capsule ovato-cylindncal, 
seta rough, lid conical. Linn. Sp. PL p. 1595. Turn. H^sc. 
Hib. p. 138. FI Brit p. 1282. E. Bot t. 1445. Hobs. 
Br. Mosses, v. 1. «. 79. Brum. 3Iusc. Scot v. 1. n. 79. Muse. 
Brit eel. 2. p. 165. t 25.—Leskea sericea, Hedw. St Cr. v. A. 
t 17. Schimegr. Siippl. v. 1. P. II. p. 178. — Dill. Muse, t 42. 

f. 9. 

On trunks of trees, walls and rocks. Fr. Soy.—Calyplra., when 
voini", hairy. “ Seta rough. I am satisfied that this is a true Hijpnum 
(not a Leskea), but the inner peristome is always defectively formed, 
perhaps owing to its adhesion to the columella and its rupture by the 
shrinking of the latter.” Wils. 

27. H. salebrosum, Hoffm. {smooth-stalked yellow Feather- 
Moss); leaves erecto-patent lanceolate acuminated into a waved 
hair-like scarcely serrulate point striated, the nerve disappearing 
above the middle, capsule ovate cernuous, seta smooth, lid 
conico-acuminate. Hoffm. FI. Germ. v. 2. /). 74. Sehwaegr. 
Suppl. V. 1. P. II. p. 237. Drum. ISIuse. Seot. v. 2. n. 68. 
Grev. Seot Cr. FI. t 184. 3hisc. Brit ed. 2. p. 166. Sup})! 
t, 5. — H. plumoswn, Hedw. St. Cr. v. 4. t. 15, {exel. syn.). 

Cotteral wood, near Manchester, Mr. Hobson. Near the Loch of 
Forfar, Scotland, Mr. Drummond. Fr. Nov.— Closely allied to H. 
lutescens and H. plumosum. It is remarkable for its pale green colour 
and thin flaccid leaves, which are generally more patent and taper into 
a more hair-like and waved point than any of its affinities. 

28. H. luteseens, Huds. {rough-stalked yellow Feather-Moss); 
leaves erecto-patent lanceolate acuminate entire striated, the 
nerve disappeaidng below the point, capsule ovate cernuous, 
seta rough, lid shortly rostrate. Huds. Angl. ed. 1. p. 421. 
Hedw. St Cr. v. 4. t 16. Turn. 3Iuse. Hib. p. 174. FI. 
Brit p. 1311. E. Bot. t. 1301. Hobs. Br. Alosses, v. 2. n. 62. 
Drum. 3Iusc. Scot. v. 1. n. 80. Sehwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. P. II. 
p. 237. 3Iusc. Brit. ed. 2. p. 166. t. 25. — Dill. Muse. t. 48./. 60. 

On banks, on the stems of trees and bushes near the ground, frequent. 
Fr. Spring. — Leaves of a bright yellow-green colour, sometimes slightly 
serrulate. Lid rostrate, not conical as in H. salebrosum. 

29. H. nitens, Schreb. {shining Feather-Moss); leaves erecto- 
patent lanceolato-subulate acuminate nearly entire striated, the 
nerve running almost to the point, capsnle-oblongo-ovate curved 
cernuous, seta smooth, lid conical. Schreb. FI. Lips. p. 92. 
FI. Brit p. 1316. E. Bot t. 1646. Drum. 3Iusc. Scot. 
V. 2. 71. 67. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 2. n. 63. Schivaegr. Suppl. 
V. 1. P. II. p. 291. Muse. Brit. ed. 9..p. 167. t. 25 — Dill. Muse, 
t 39./. 37. 

Bogs and marshy ground, in the East of England and of Scotland. 

Fr. . — This fine and brightly coloured moss seems to be peculiar 

to the East of England and Scotland. The Rev. James Dalto7i finds it 
in/*, between Copgrove and the river Ure, Yorkshire. 



30. H. albicans, Neck, (^whitish Feathei'-Moss^; leaves erect 
ovato-laiiceolate acuminate faintly striated concave entire re- 
volute at the luai’gin, the nerve reaching half way, capsules 
ovate cernuous, seta smooth, lid conical. Neck. Meth. Muse, 
p. 180. Hedw. St. Cr, v. 4. t. 5. Turn. Muse. Hih. p. 171. 
FI. Brit. p. 1309. E. Bot. t. 1300. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 2. 
n. 62. Drwn. Muse. Scot. v. 2. n. 69. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 167. 
t. 23. — Bill. Muse. t. 42. f. 63. 

Hedge-banks, and on the ground, in sandy soils, frequent. Fr. Nov. 

I his is of a pale colour, and is less branched than H. lutescens, which it 
resembles in many points. Its leaves, however, are longer, more acum- 
inate, softer and more [)atent. — The last 5 species have a very close 
natural affinity, one with another. 

** Leaves serrated. 

f Stems below bare, of leaves. ( Tree -like.') 

31. H. alopecurum, Linn, (^fox-tail Feather-Moss); stems erect 
simple and naked below fascicled above, leaves concave nar- 
row ovate acute serrated reflexed at the margin, the nerve reach- 
ing nearly to the point, capsule ovate cernuous, lid rostrate. 
Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1594. Turn. Muse. ITib. p. 163. E. Bot. 
t. 1182. Schwaegr. Suppl v.\. P. II. p.2Qb. Hobs. Br. Mosses, 
V. 1. n. 77. Brnm. Muse. Scot. v. 1. n. 86. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. 
p. 168. t. 25. 

Woods and shady banks, common. Fr. Oct. — This and the follow- 
ing species are among fhe largest and handsomest of our Hypna, and in 
their upright and tree-like mode of growth differ remarkably from the 
rest. A variety, however, of the present, growing in running water, is 
branched from its very base, having the branches elongated and the 
leaves more closely set and shorter. 

32. H. dendroides, Linn, (tree-like Feather- Moss); stems 
erect below simple and naked fascicled above, leaves ovate often 
more or less lanceolate serrated at the point, the nerve reaching 
nearly to the summit, capsule ovato-cylindrieal, lid rostrate. 
Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1593. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 138. FI. Brit, 
p. 1283. E. Bot. t. 1565. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 1. n. 78. Brum. 
Muse. Scot. V. 1. n. 85. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 168. t. 25. — Leskea 

dendr. Hedw. — Neckera dendr. Sio Climacium dendr. Mohr . — 

Schwaegr. Suppl. v. l.P. II. p. 141. 81. — Bill. 3Iusc. t. 40. 


In woods, and borders of bogs and marshes. Fr. Nov. — Mostly in 
subalpine countries. — The segments of the inner peristome being cleft 
at the base, Weber and Mohr have considered this difference sufficient to 
constitute a new Genus, Climacium. “ The columella is protruded, 
and reaches the top of the lid, which, when the capsules are ripe, and 
during a dry state of the atmosphere, it raises up, turning in a spiral 
manner ; and thus perhaps, permitting the discharge of the seeds. If, 
in this state, moisture be applied to the mouth of the capsule, the lid on 
the top of the columella will descend, as this last performs a spiral volu- 
tion, and the capsule is completely closed again.” Muse. Brit. ed. 2. 
p. 169. Mr. Wilson remarks on this, “ the columella does not appear to 


twist at all. It is perfectly straight and tapering, and nn hen dry has 
Ttrtht furrows: the lid seems to close in consequence of the swelU 
in<r of the columella, which diminishes its length. These different ap- 
pearances may have depended upon the different ages or states of the 
plant under examination. 

+ + Stems leafy below. 

4 - Capsules erect. 

33. H. curvatum, Swartz, (curved Feather-Moss); brandies 
fascided curved, leaves ovate- elliptical concave serrated at tlie 
point, the nerve disappearing beyond the middle, capsule ovate 
erect, lid rostrate. Sw. 3Iusc. Suec. p. 64. Turn. Muse. Hih. 
IK 139. FI. Brit. p. 1284. E. Bot. t. 1566. Hobs. Br. 
Mosses, V. 1. n. 75. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 1. 7i. 87. Sdneaegr. 
Suppl. V. 1. P. II. p. 267.— H. myosuroidcs, Hedw. St. Cr. v. 4, 

/. 8 Dill. 3IUSC. t. 4,\. f. b6. r X 1 X- e 

On trees and rocks. Fr. Nov.— This has something of the habit of 
the two last species; but its stems are leafy throughout ; the nerve of 
the leaf is sometimes forked. Mr. Wilson finds, in Cheshire and near 
Killarney, a state of this plant in which the outer peristome is abortive, 
but the rudiments of teeth are visible. 

34. W. myosuroides, \I\nw. (jnouse-tuil Feather- 3Ioss); branches 
fascicled curved, leaves lanceolato-acuininate serrated the mar- 
gin inflexed at the base, the nerve disappearing near the 
middle, capsule ovato-cylindricul erect, lid rostrate. Linn. Sp. 
PI. p. 1596. {not Hedw.). Turn. Muse. Hih. p. 140. FI. 
Brit. p. 1285. E. Bot. t. 1567. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 1. n. 76. 
Drtim. Muse. Scot. v. 1. n. 88. Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. P. II. 
p. 267. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 170. t. 2b.— Dill. Muse. t. 41./. 51. 

Trunks of trees and rocks. Fr. Autumn.— Distinguishable from the 
preceding by its slenderer habit, its more acuminated, less concave leaves, 
with their shorter nerve, and reflexed margins, which are serrated for 
nearly their whole length. Mr. Wilson finds a large var . of this, on 
Conner Hill near Brandon mountain, Ireland. 

4 --t- Capsules cernuous. 

§ Stems bi-tripinnate. 

35. H. splendens, Hedw. {glittering Feather-Moss); stems 
tripinnate, leaves ovate with a suddenly acuminated point con- 
cave faintly two-nerved at the base the margin recurved below, 
capsule ovate cernuous, lid rostrate. Hedw. Sp. 3Iusc. t. 67. 
/ 7 — 9. Turn. 3Iusc. Hib. p. 156. FI. Brit. p. 1295. E. 

Bot. t. 1424. Hobs. Br. 3Iosses, v. 1. n. 80. Drum. 3Iiisc. 
Scot. V. 1. n. 90. Schwaegr. Sujipl. v. 1. P. II. p. 237. 3Iusc. 

Brit. ed. 2. p. 170. t. 25 H. parieiinum, Sw. — Dill. 3Iusc. 

t. 35. /. 13. 

Heaths and hedge-banks in woods. Fr. Apr. — The whole jdant is 
glossy, whence its specific name. 

36. H. proliferum, Linn, {proliferous Feather- Mots); stems 


tripinnate, leaves serrated papillose on the back the cauline 
ones coi dato-acumiuate striated with a nerve I’unning’ nearly to 

branches more ovate with a single or 
double nerve at the base, lid conico-rostrate. Linn. Sp. PL 
p. Io90. Turn. Muse. Hih. p. 157. FI. Brit. p. 1297. E. 
B)t. t. 1494. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 1. n. 81. Brum. Muse, 
beot. V. 1. «. 91. 3Iusc. Brit. ed. 2. 170. t. 25.— H. tamaris- 

emum, Hedw. Sp. Muse. p. 261. 67./. 1—5. Sehwaegr. SuppL 

II’ V- 236. — H. reeognitum, Hedw. St. Cr. v. 4. t. 35. 
LI. Brit. p. 1298. E. Bot. t. 1495. — II. delicatulum, Iledtv. 
St. Cr. V. 4. t. 33. Sehwaegr. Suppl. v. \. P. II. p. 236. — Dill. 
Muse. t. 35./. 14 U7id t. 83./ 6. 

Woods, and banks in heathy places, abundant. Fr. Apr. — Stems red- 
dish; leaves yellowish-green, opaque. — It is an inhabitant of almost every 
part of the world. 

37. H. prcElongimi, Linn, (very long Feather-Moss^; stems 
subbipinnate, leaves distantly placed patent cordate or ovate 
acuminate serrated, the nerve disappearing below the summit, 
capsule ovate cernuous, lid rostrate. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1591. 
Hedw. St. Cr. V. 4. t. 29. Turn. Muse. Hih. p. 160. FI. 
Brit. p. 1299. E. Bot. t. 2035. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 1. n. 82. 
Drum. Muse. Seot. v. 1. n. 89. Sehwaegr. Suppl. v. \. P. II. 
p. 277. Muse. Bril. ed. 2. p. 172. t. 25. — H. Stokesii, Turn. 
Muse. Hih. p. 159. t. 15. / 2. FI. Brit. p. 1300. E. Bot. 
t. 2036. — H. Swartzii, Turn. Muse. Hih. p. 151. t. 14. /. 1, 2. 
FI. Brit. p. 1293. E. Bot. t. 20^4.— H. atrovirens, Sw . — 
Dill. Muse. t. 36./ 15. 

Moist shady banks and on tninks of trees, especially such as are in a 
state of decay. Fr. Nov. — A variable plant, certainly. In mountainous 
wet situations, the var. named Stokesii occurs, with closely set bipinnate 
branches ; and in wet hollows, the state called Swartzii, which is well 
represented in tlie minified figure of Turn. Muse. Hib. t. \4.f. 2. b. 
and which, as Mr. Wilson observes, is chiefly to be distinguished by its 
shorter capsule and darker colour. 

§§ Stems pinnate or irregidarly branched. 

_ 38. H. Jlagelldre, Dicks. (Jlagellate Feather-Moss^; stems 
pinnate (or irregularly bipinnate), leaves thickly set cordato- 
acuminate serrated very faintly 2-nerved at the base, capsule 
ovato-oblong cernuous, lid conical. Dicks. Cr. Fasc. 2. p. 12. 
FI. Brit. p. 1322. (not Hedw.). Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 2. 
n. 65. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 174. t. 25. — H. umbratum, E. Bot. 
t. 2565. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 158. (not Hedw.). 

Rocks in alpine countries ; frequent in the West of Scotland and in 
Ireland, rare in fr. : found in that state by Mr. Wilson below Aber 
water-fall, N. Wales, and far more abundantly in Ireland. 

39. H. niieans, (sparkling Feather- Moss); leaves patent 
roundish-ovate slightly acuminate concave serrated above, the 
margin flattened below or reflexed two-nerved at the base. 
Wils. Mss. 


Soiitl. of Ireland, Miss Hutchins, Dr. Taylor. Frequent near Kil- 

la, ney, Ireland, in the same situations as sMulj 

“ In habit similar to H. fiavescens, having, like it, the leaves ;; ® ‘f 

secund and of a shining yellow aspect, (the “ j 

other and but slightly branched), yet a 

wholly escaped tlfe notice of Dr. Taylor in '^hose collection I af^rwa.J 
saw it, not named, and placed with H. 

however, rather with H.flagellare; a species wS 

secund IcavesT Wits. This moss has been long known to me as weU 
as to Dr. Taylor; and I had likewise considered it a state of H. cupres- 


40. II. ahkthium, Liiin. {Spruce-tree Feather- Moss) ; 
pinnate, leaves papillose on the back and on the s ig i y 
flexed margins the nerve running nearly to the point, those 
the stem ovato-acuminate striated those of the branches ovato- 
lanceolate, capsules cylindrical inclined, lid conical. Lwn. Sp. 
PL p. \5^i: Hedw. St. Cr. v. 4. 32. Turn Mu^c. Hib. 

p. 162. FI. Brit. p. 1300. E. Bot. t. 2037. Drunu Mmc. 
Scot. V. 2. p. 70. Schn-aegr. Suppl v. 1. P. IL p- 232. Muse, 
Brit. ed. 2. j). 174. t. 2o.—DilL Muse. t. 35. /. 17. 

On the ground, in mountainous and principally c^careous soils. Kaie 
in Scotland. Sands of Barrie, near Dundee, Mr. Drummond. 
known in Britain.—" All the leaves are striated and have 1 1 e mar- 
gins slightly reflexed and all are falcato-secund and appies . 

flry, ere°c to-pateut when wet, the points of the X"®'® 

from the stem or branch and not parallel wnh it ; hence, hough th^ 
are closely crowded together, the outline has not that smooth unbroken 

appearance, so remarkable in JT. His. c,,,arf7’o 

It was observed in the Muscologia Brdanmca, that Dr. Swartz s 
specimens found in Sweden “ are very different from our British ones, 
having a remarkable furrow in the leaf as seen from above and conse- 
quenfly a projecting keel beneath this plant Mr. Wilson has had he 
good fortune to discover in England and has ascertained that it is quite 
distinct from H. ubietinum: and to it he gives the following name and 

41. H. laricinum, {Larch Feather-Moss); stems nearly erect 
simply pinnate wdth long slender decurved branches, leaves 
loosely imbricated erect (lax when dry) cordato-ovate 
contracted at the base acuminate serrulate papillose at the back 
with a very prominent keel nerved more than half-way the 

margin revmlute, capsules . If «7A'. Mss. 

In low boggy ground, amongst Cure.x amjndlacea, near \V arnngton, 
Cheshire, Mr. Wilson.— The fruit was rising, but quite ® 

time of Mr. Wilson's last communication to me (Deer. 1 ith, ‘Sdi.; 
but the spring of the year is probably its season of perfection. le 
same species 1 have just seen in Captain Beechey s collection otp an s 
from Kamschatka, but without fructification. 

42. H. Blandbvii, Weber et Mohr, {Blandow s Feather- 
Moss); stems pinnate, leaves serrated smooth on the hack the 
margins reflexed, those of the stem cordato-aente with a short 
nerve, those of the branches ovato-acuminate with the nerve 


ilisappeaiiiig beyond the middle, capsule cylindrical inclined, 
comcal. et Mohr, FI. Cr. Germ. 332. Sclnvaegr. 

Sappl V. ^.p. 158. t. 142. 3Iusc. Brit. ed. 2. p. 175. t. 25. 

countries. Tonbridge, Mr. Joseph Woods : al- 

43. H. hldndum, {neat Feather-3Ioss); stems somewhat pin- 
nate, leaves closely imbricated nearly erect ovate very con- 
cave almost keeled above apiculate smooth the margins plane 
serrulated, the nerve disappearing below the point, seta roimh, 
M comco-acummate Lyell in Hook. FI. Loud, xoith a /ip.— 
Altisc. Brit. ed. 2. p. 176. Sitj^pl. t. 5. 

i”’ New Forest, Hants; C. Lyell, Esq. 

f ^ on elevated rocky ground about Aberffraw, Anglesea, and on 
banks by load-sides, also sparingly near Bangor, Mr. Wilson. Fr. Nov.— 

I f rw and on the other to II. rutabulum: 

but dittering by the characters above given.-Mr. Wilson justly observes 
la le figure of the leaf in Muse. Brit, does “ not properly illustrate 
e apiculus nor the very concave boat-shaped extreniiti^ characters 
wtiich are as constant as any other. 

44. H. crassinervium, _ {thick-nerved Feather-AIoss); “ stem 
cieepmg, with siniple fasciculated erect branches, leaves spread- 
ing ovate acuminate concave with reflexed serrated margins 
nerved more than half way, capsule narrow-ovate, fruit-stalk 
rough, hd rostrate.” Wih.inE. Bot. Siippl. t. 2706 Taxjlor 

Somh of Ireland, Dr. Taylor. Plentiful and in Fr. (Oct.) at Mucruss 
^ai Killarney (on limestone rocks and in shady situations) and at 
Kenmore; woods near Dublin (barren): in fr. near Beaumaris, Angle- 
sea, and plentiful at Tyfry in the same county (barren), also near Ban- 
gor and above Abcr in Caernarvonshire : —perhaps of frequent occurrence 
in limestone districts and subalpine countries. IVikon. Limestone 
rocks, Cave hill, Belfast, (barren), Mr. Drummond.—This, again, ac- 
cording to the observations of Mr. Wilson, who has seen it growing 
most abundantly, is on the one hand allied to II. blandum and on the 
other to H. rutabulum ; Ivut perfectly distinct from both. “ When the 
sterns are moist, even barren specimens are known at a glance: the re- 
flexed or flattened iiiargnis of the leaves, contrasted with the general 
convexity of the disk, are best seen by holding the specimen with the 
points of the leaves turned away from the light, towards the eye.” 

45. H. rutabulum, Linn, {common rough- stalked Feather AIoss^; 
stem.s variously branched, leaves patent ovate acuminate ser- 
rated at the points striated, the nerve reaching half way, cap- 
sule ovate cernuoiis, seta rough, lid conical. Linn. Sp. PL 
p. 1590. Jledw. St. Cr. v. 4. t. 12. Turn. AIusc. Bib. p.'l79. 
FI. Brit. p. 1320. Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. P. //. p, 244. Hobs. 
Br.AIosses, v. 1. n. 86. Drum. AIusc. Scot. v. 2. 72. 31 use. 

Brit. ed. 2. v. 176. t. 26. — H. brevirostre, E. Bot. t. 1647. {not 
Ehrh.). — II . cremdatum, E. Bot. 1261. — Dill. Muse t 38 


On trees and banks, extremely common. Fr. Nov. 


46. ll.velutmum, Linn, (velvet Feather-Moss); stems variously 
branched, leaves erecto-patent ovate often approaching to an- 
ceolate acuminate serrated striated, the nerve reaching ha t 
way, capsule ovate cernuous, seta rough, lid ^n‘cal. 

PLp. 1595. Hechv. St. Cr. v. 4. ^ 27. Turn. Muse. Huh. 
p. 167. FI. Britp. 1305. E. Bot. t. 2421. Hobs. Br. ^losses 
V. 1. 71 . 85. Dncm. Muse. Scot. v. 1. w. 94. Sehcaegr.Suppl. 
V. 1. P. IL p. 253. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 177. t. 26— 
catum, FimcL—Schteaegr. Suppl. v. 1. P. IL p. 233.—//. Tees- 
dedii, Dicks. ?—DiU. 3Iiisc. 42./. 61. _ 

Woods and hedge-banks, common. Fr. March — This is a _ 

very closely allied to the preceding, and indeed, except in its smaller 
size, someivliat narrower leaves and their more upright direction, we can 
find no point of distinction.-Mr. Wilson thinks it may be but a var. of 
H. rulabulum. 

47. H. ruscifolium, Neck, {long-heahed water Feather -Moss); 
stems variousiy hranclied, leaves loosely imhricated subpatent 
broadly acute serrated concave, the nerve reaching nearly to 
the summit, capsule ovate cernuous, lid rostrate. 

Muse.— Turn. Muse. Hih. p. 153. FI. Brit. p.\^0. E. Bot. 
t. 1275. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 1. n. 84. Drum. 3Insc. Scot.;iK \. 
n. 92. 3Iuse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 177. t. 26.— H. riparioides, Hedi^ 
St. Cr. V. 4. t. 4. Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. B. IL p. 
prolixum, Dicks.— II. Atlanticum, Desf.—Ddl. 3Iusc. t. 38. 

/*. 31 32. 

Upon wood and stones, in ponds and rivers. Fr. Oct.— The s/cw.? 
often exceed a span in length, and the leaves, \n certain situations, attain a 
greater size than those of any other British species of this genus. 

48. H. striatum, Sclireh. (common striated Feather-3Ioss); 
stems variously branched, leaves patent cordato-acuminate ser- 
rated striated, the nerve reaching beyond the middle, capside 
ohlongo-ovate cernnons, seta smooth, lid rostrate. Schreb. II. 
Lips. p. 91. Hedw. St. Cr. v. 4. t. 13. Turn. 3Iusc. Hib. p. 180. 
FI. Brit. p. 1321. E. Bot. t. 1648. Schivaegr. Suppl. v. 1. 
P. II. p. 238. Hobs. Br. 3Iosses, v. 1. n. 87. Drum. 3Iusc. Scot. 

1. n. 84. 3Iusc. Brit. ed. 2. p. 178. t. 26 — H. longirostrum, 

Ehrh.—Dill. 3Iusc. t. 38./. 30. 

Woods and shady banks, common. Fr. Nov.— Allied to H. rutahu- 
hm ; but a lamer and more robust plant, with leaves more patent, broader 
and more decrdedly striated, with a shorter point and longer werw ; the 
setce are smooth and the lid rostrate.— A pretty small var. is found by 
Mr. Wilson, growing at Mucruss, Ireland, together with H. crassincr- 
viuin, often bearing 2 setce from the same perichaetium. 

49. H. confertum, Dicks, (clustered Feather- 3Ioss); stems 
variously branched, leaves erecto-patent ovato-acuminate con- 
cave serrated their nerve reaching half way, capsule ovate cer- 
nuous, seta smooth, lid rostrate. Dicks. Cr. Fasc. 4. t. 11. 
f 4. FI. Brit.p. 1304. E. Bot. t. 2407. Schicaegr. Suppl. v. 1. 
P. II. p. 199. t. 90. Hobs. Br. ^losses, v. 2. n. 67. Drum. 3Iusc. 



Scot. V. 2. n. 73. 3Iusc. Brit. ed. 2. p. 178. 1. 26.-7/. serndatum, 
Hedw. Sp. Muse. t. 60. E. Bot. t. 1262. 

trunks of trees, old rails and banks. Fr. Nov.— A small variety of 
this, growing on trees, has the leaves occasional!)' subsecund. 

B. Leaves squarrose. 

50. II. cuspiddtum, Linn, (^pointed Bog Feather- 3Ioss^; leaves 
loosely set ovate concave nez-veless entire the lower ones squar- 
rose those at the summit closely imbricated into a cuspidate 
point, capsule oblong' curved cernuous, lid conical. Linn. Sp. 
PI. p. 1595. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 177, (ear/, var. (3.). El. Brit, 
p. 1317. E. Bot. t. 2407. Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. P. II. p. 228. 

Hobs. Br. 3Iosses, v. 1. n. 83. Brum. Muse. Scot. v. 2. n. 74. 

Bill. 3Iusc. t. 39. f. 34. 

Bogs and wet places. Fr. Nov. — In habit, very similar to II. cordi- 
folium^ a dark var, of which, Mr, Turner has made his var, /3, The pre- 
sent moss is easily known by its sharp cuspidate points ; it grows, in 
water, to a considerable size. 

ol. H. cordifoliitm, Hedw. (Jieart-leaved Feather -3Ioss'); 
leaves loosely set squarrose cordato-ovate obtuse concave entire, 
the nerve reaching very nearly to the point, capsule oblong 
curved cernuous, lid conical. Hedw. St. Cr. v. 4. t. 37. FI. 
Brit. p. 1318. E. Bot. t. 1447. Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. P. //. 
j}. 229. Hobs. Br. 3Iosses, v. 2. n. 68. Brum. 3Iusc. Scot. v. 2. 
n. 75. 3Iusc. Brit. ed. 2. p. 179. t. 26.— 77. cuspidatum, (3. Turn. 
3Iusc. Hib. p. 177. 

Bogs. Fr. March. — A purple var. of this moss, generally’ barren, is 
found in alpine situations, frequently assuming a fasciculated appearance, 
with the tops of the branches having the leaves convolute ; if the 
nerve of the leaf he not accurately observed, it may be taken for H. cus- 
pidalum. In this state it is var. /3. of that species, in Mr. Turner’s 
AIusc. Hib. 

52. PI. pohjmorjdium, Hedw. (variable-leaved Feather-3Toss); 
leaves loosely set squarrose cordate much acuminated entire, 
their nerve disappearing more than half way up, capsule 
oblongo-ovate curved cernuous, lid conical. Heelw. Sp. 3Iusc. 
t. 66. 3Iusc. Brit. ed. 2. p. 179. t. 26. — H. chrysophullum, Brid. 
3Iusc. V. 2. t. 2. f. 2. 

Limestone rocks, in Ireland. Chalky downs in Sussex, Mr. Borrer. 
Plentiful in clayey fallows, near Over and other parts of Cheshire, not 
often bearing fruit, Mr. Wilson. Near Edinburgh, Dr. Greville. Fr. 
Apr. — It seems doubtful if this may not be a small variety of H. stella- 
tum, which Mr. Drummond has obsenmd to vary with nerved and nerve- 
less leaves. 

53. H. stelldtum, Sclireb, (yellow starry Feather-3Ioss); leaves 
loosely set squarrose cordate much acuminated entire (mostly) 
nerveless, capsule ohlongo-ovate curved cernuous, lid conical. 
3Iusc. Brit. ed. 2. p. 180. t. 26.— a. majus. 77. stellatum, Schreb. 
FI. Lips. p. 92. Hedw. Sp. 3lusc. p. 280. Turn. 3Iusc. Hib. 


« 183. FL Brit. p. 1322. E. Bot. t. 1302 Sclao^gr. 
%uppl. V. 3. p. 144. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 2. n. 69. Brum. Mus^ 
Tof. v.2. Il6.-Dai 3Insc. t. 39. /. 35.-0. mums H 
squarndosum, E. Bot. 1709.-H. polymorphum, Funck, 

Deutschl. Moose, t. 39. /. 35. , , r' \To„ TIip Hre-er 

In marshes. H. On stone walls and rocks. Fr. ® 

and more usual state of this plant is erect and ^ 
colour; the smaller is creeping, of a green coloui and has the 

somewhat more recurved. 

54. H. Hcdleri, Linn. {Hcdkrian Feather-Moss); stems creep- 
ing with short erect hranches, leaves broadly ovate acumina e 
serrated very obscurely and shortly 2-uerved their extremit es 
remarkably 'recurved, capsule oblongo-ovate cernuous I d 

conical. Linn. Biss. Muse. p. 34. Hedw. ft. Cr. ;• 4- • 21- 
Schwaegr. SuppL v. 1. F. IL p. 283, (crc/. the sgn. of II. dmwr- 
phum). Grev. Scot. Cr. FI. t. 174. Muse. Brd. ed. 2. p. 180. 

"^^ufeks^' on* Ben Lawers, Scotland, extremely rare; Greville, Aniotl, 

Pr —This moss is remarkable for its regular and much 

recurved leaves. Although so rare in Britain, it is abundant in Switzer- 

55. H. dimorphum, Brid. (dimorphous Feather-3Ioss) ; stems 
vaguely pinnated, leaves cordato-ovate concave serrulated 
erecto-patent obscurely 2-nerved at the base those of the stems 
acuminated and reflexed at the extremity those of the brandies 
acute and nearly straight, capsule ovate cernuous, M conical. 
Brid. 3Ieth. p. 165. Grev. Scot. Or. FI. t. 160. 3Iusc. Brit, 
ed. 2. p. 181. Suppl. t. 5.—H. Halleri, var. Scinoaegr. Suppl. 

V. 1 . P. II. p. 235. ^ T T\/r A If 

Under rocks, in very shady places, upon Ben L™, ilfr. 

Fr, .—Dr. Schwaegrichen and Mr. Wilson, two high authorities, are 

disposed to consider this aaar. or state of H. Hdlen ; and the fact of their 
being found upon one and the same mountain, and only theie, would 
seem to strengthen such an opinion. 

56. H. I'oreum, Linn, (rambling mountain Feather-3Ioss) ; 

leaves recurved squarrose lanceolate much acuminated concave 
serrated striated faintly 2-nerved at the base, capsule ovato- 
g-lobose cernuous, lid hemispheerical suddenly apiculated. Linn. 
Sp. Pi. p. 1593. Turn. 3Iusc. Hib. p. 183. FI. Brit. p. 131 . 4 . 
E. Bot. t. 2072. Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. P- IL p. 293. Bobs. 
Br. 3Iosses, v. 1. «. 91. Brum. 3Iusc. Scot. v. 2. n. 77. 3Iusc. 
Brit. ed. 2. p. 181. 26.— Bill. 3Iusc. t. 39. /. 40. 

Woods and on heaths, among bushes. Fr. Dec.— From a span to a 
foot in length, scarcely thickened at the extremity of the stem ; the 
lower branches attenuated and often rooting. Leaves frequently sub- 

57. H. triquitruni, Linn, (triquetrous Feather-3Ioss); leaves 
squarrose cordate gradually acuminated plane serrated faint y 
striated w’ith two nerves at the base, capsule ovato-g o- 




^P' P^- P- 1593- P<^r7i. Muse. Hih. 
p. Ib^ M Bnt. p. 1325. E. Bot. t. 1622. Schwaegr. SuppL 
'' 1 ■ P^- Mosses, v. 1. n. 90. Drum. Muse. 

!.■ P' 182. t. 20,.— Dill. Muse, 

t. 38. /. 28. 

_ Woods, abundant. Fr. Dec. — Tliis is a robust plant, 6—8 or 10 
inches long. Stems pinnated, much thickened at the extremity ; the 
branches attenuated and often rootinc. 

58. H. hrevirostre, Elirli. {common rough-stalhed Feather- 
Moss); leaves squarrose broadly ovate concave often striated 
acuminated suddenly and with an evident contraction, so as to 
terniinate in a long- narrow point serrated faintly 2-nerved at 
the base, capsule ovate, lid short conical. Ehrli. (not Sm.)— 
Suppl. V. 1. P. IL p. 279. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 2. «. 
70. 3Iusc. Brit. ed. 2. p,. 182. Suppl. t. 5. Grev. Scot. Cr. 
±l. t. ‘3,^1 .—H. triquetrum, (3. minus. Muse. Brit. ed. 1. p. 108. 

oods, in various parts of England, Scotland, and the South of 
Ireland. GVtls.) Fr. Nov. — A very distinct moss, though in Muse. 
Bnt cc/ 1. It was considered a var. of H. triquetrum. It is perhaps more 
nearly a bed, in some respects, to H. striatum.— TherecentU ripe cansules, 
Mr. VV ilson observes, are highly polished. 

59. H. squarrosum, Linn, {drooping -leaved Feather -Moss); 
leaves squarrose widely cordate very much acuminated and re- 
curved serrated faintly 2-nerved at the base, capsule ovato- 
globose cernuous, lid conical. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1593. Turn. 
Muse. Hih. p.\3,A. Fl.Brit.p.\3,23. E. Bot.t.\5d3. Sclnoaegr. 
rnippl. V. \. P. II. p. 82. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 1. n. 92. 3Iusc. 
Bnt. ed. 2. p. 182. t. 20.— Dill. Muse. t. 39./. 38, 39. 

_ Woods and on heaths, common. Fr. Sow.—Stems slender, 4—6 
inches long, variously branched, with the leaves often recurved at 
the extremity, so that their bases there form a hollow cup or disk. 

2. Leaves secund. 

A. Leaves loith a single nerve. 

60. H. filicinum, Linn, {lesser golden Fern Feather-Moss); 
branches pinnate, leaves especially the upper ones falcato-secund 
broadly ovate acuminate serrated their nerve reaching to the 
^int, capsule oblongo-ovate curved cernuous, lid conical. Linn. 
Sp. PI. p. 1500. Hedtv. Sp. Muse. t. 76. / 5—10. Turn 
Muse. Hih. p.\01. FI. Brit. p. IQ34. F. Bot. t. \b70. Hobs. 
Br. Alosses, v. 2. n. 71. Drum. Mtisc. Scot. v. 2. n. 79. Schwaegr. 

Suppl. V. \. P. II. p. 297. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. j). 183. t. 26 

H. dubiuin, Sw — E. Bot. t. 2126. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 195'— 
H.fallax, Brid. Muse. v. 3. t. 3. / 1. E. Bot. t. 2121 .—H. flu- 

viatile, Siv. ? — Hediv. Sp. Muse. p. 277. t. 72. f 4 ? Dill 

Muse. t. 36. f. 19. 

Bogs and sides of rividets. Fr. (not frequent) Apr.-The stems are 
erect, pinnated, frequently clothed with downy ferruginous roofs ; and 
the stems themselves and nerves of the leaves are reddish-brown. The 




cauline leaves are the shortest and broadest, wjth the excur ent 

which is characteristic of the species and together with the less falcate 
foliac^e distinguishes it from H. notwithstanding that 

Schwae<rrichen has lately united them. The large giowin^ in 

rumlin^water, is the H. fallal of E. Bat. and probably of Bndel H. 
falcatum of Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 3. t. 145, seems to be scarcely different 

from this. 

61. H. atro-v'irens, Dicks, (dark green Feather-Moss); stems 
variously branched procumbent, leaves all slightly secund 
broadly' ovate with an attenuated obtuse point, the nerve 
running nearly to the summit, capsule ovate cerauous, lid 
conical. Dicks. Cr. Fuse. 2. p. 10. Turn. Muse. Hih p. 169. 
FI Brit. p. 1307. E. Bot. t. 2422. Muse. Brit, ed 2.p. 184. 

t.2& H. filamentosum, Dicks. Cr. Base. 2. p. U. ^•'■Erit. 

p. 1308. Brid. Muse. p. 167.—//. attenuatum, Dicks.— E. Bot. 
t. 2420. (not Leskea attenuata, Hedw.) — Leskea meurvata, 
Hedio. Sp. Muse. t. 53. (^not Hypnum incurvatum, 3Iokr.) 

Trees and rocks, in mountainous countries. Fi. . This, in many 
points, comes near H.filichium; but differs in being procumbent, m its 
loose and straggling ramification, more closely set, shorter, more con- 
cave, broader and more obtuse leaves, with the margin more reflexed, and 
quite entire, the nerve broader, of the same colour as the leaf, disappear- 
in'' below the point; besides all which, the texture oj the foliage is 
tlncker and softer with distinct cellules : whereas in H. filicinum the 
leaves are somewhat scariose.— I have remarked, under H. medium, its 
affinity to that species. 

62. H. palustre, Liuii. (pnarsh Feather -Moss); leaves secund 
ovate somewhat acuminate concave entire the margins incurved 
above, the nerve short often forked sometimes obsolete, capsule 
oblongo-ovate cernuous, lid conical. Linn. Sp. PI p. 1593. 
Turn. Muse. Hih. 191. FI. Brit. p. 1329. E. Bot. t. 1655. 
Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. P. IL p. 292. Hohs. Br. Mosses, v . I . 
n. 88. Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 2. n. 80. Muse. Brit. ed. 2.p. 185. 
t 26. — H. luridum, Hedw. St. Cr. v. 4. t. 38. H. Jiuviatile, 
Turn. Muse. Hih. p. 192. E. Bot. t. 1303. {not Hedw.).—H. 
adriatum, Turn. Muse. Hih. p. 165. E. Bot. t. 2406. {not Hedw.) 
—Dill. Muse. t. 37./. 27. 

Banks of rivers and standing water, and on wet rocks, abundant. 
Fr. Apr. — A very variable species. The stems, or rather perhaps the 
principal branches, are upright, thickly crowded; the /caiw flaccid, 
varying from a deep lurid green, the most common tint, to a bright and 
pale yellow, in some situations. The nerve is sometimes obsolete, rarely 
half the length of the leaf, more frequently forked or double. 

63. H. fiuitans, Linn, {floating Feather-Moss); leaves loosely 
imbricated the upper ones especially falcato-secund all lau- 
ceolato-subulate scarcely serrated at their points, the neri e 
reaching nearly to the summit, capsule ovato-oblong curved cer- 
nuous, lid conical. Linn. FI. Suec. ed. 2. p. 399. Hedw. St. 
Cr. V. 4. t. 36. Turn. Muse. Hih. p. 182. FI. Brit. p. 1319. 
E. Bot. t. 1448. Schwa-egr. Suppl. v. 1. P. II. p. 304. Hohs. 




^r. Mosses, v. 2. n. 60, Drum. Muse. Scot. v. 2. w. 83. 3Iusc. 
Brit. V. 2. p. 186. t. 24.— D///. 3Iusc. t. 38./ 33. 

n pools and streams of water; rarely fructifying, except in places that 
are only occasionally inundated. Fr. Dec. -Stems often a span or more 
ong. Colour varying from pale green to a deep purple in alpine rivulets. 

64. H. aduncum, Linn, (^claw-leaved Feather-3Ioss); leaves 
falcato-secund lanceolato-subulate concave or almost semicylin- 
drical entire the nerve disappearing below the summit, capsule 
oblongo-ovate curved cernuous, lid conical. 3Iusc. Brit. ed. 2. 
p. 18(b / 26 — a. revolvens ; leaves narrow, very falcate. Linn. 
Sp. PL p. 1592. Hedw. St. Cr. v. 4. t. 24. Turn. 3Iusc. 
Lhh. p. 189, FI. Brit. p. 1327. Schwaegr. Suppl. v. \. P. II 
p. 299. Hobs. Br. 3Iosses, v. 1. n. 93. Drum. 3Iusc. Scot. v. 2. 
n. 81. — II. revolvens, Siv — Turn. 3Iusc. Fib. p. 188, E. Bot. 
?. 2073. Dill. 3Iusc. t. 37. /. 26. — 13. rugosum ; leaves wider, 
less falcate somewhat rugose. Linn. 3Iant. 131. E. Dot. 
t.2250, (iiot Hedw. nor Schwaegr.') — II. lycopodioides, Schwaegr. 
Suppl. V. 2. p. mo.— Dill. Muse. t. 37. /. 24. 

Bogs, common, Fr. May. — The leaves are of a peculiarly soft, flaccid 
and membranaceous texture. 

65. H. uncindtum, Hedw. {sickle-leaved Feather- 3Ioss); leaves 
falcato-secund lanceolato-subulate serrated striated the nerve 
disappearing below the point, capsule cylindrical curved cer- 
nuous, lid conical. Hedio. St. Cr. v. 4. t. 5. Turn. 3Iusc. Hib. 
p, 19^ FI. Brit. p. 1328. E. Bot. t. 1600. Schwaegr. Suppl. 
V. \. P. II. p. 304. Hobs. Br. 3Iosses, v. 1. n. 89. Drum. 3Iusc. 
Scot. V. 2. n. 82. 3Iusc. Brit. ed. 2. p. 187. t. 26. 

Moist banks and stone walls, abundant in subalpine countries. Fr. 
June.— The slender stems, which are pinnated, the long and uncinate 
leaves of a brighter colour, together with their strim and serratures, abun- 
dantly distinguish this from H. aduncum and all its affinities. 

66. H. rugtdosum, Web. et Mohr, {wrinkle-leaved Feather- 
3Ioss); leaves secund ovato-lanceolate serrated nearly plane 
crisped transversely Avhen dry the margins recurved the nerve 
reaching half-way. Web. et 3Iohr, FI. Cr. Germ. p. 366. 
3Iusc.Brit. ed. 2. p. 187. t. 20.— H. ruxjosum, Hedw. Sp. Muse. 

p. 293, et St. Cr. v. 4. t. 23. /. A. {leaf onh/). Schwaegr. Suppl. 
v.\.P. II. p. 301. V ^ y pp 

On the ground, in heathy places, near Thetford, F. K. Eagle, Esq — 
Mountainous parts of Scotland, especially in Breadalbane. Fr. un- 
known —This lies on the ground in dense tufts of a yellow-brown 
colour. The transverse undulations are peculiarly striking, even to the 
naked eye, in which particular, as well as in the" broader and shorter, 
more plane, secund, but not falcate, leaves, it differs from all the varie- 
ties of H. aduncum. The only species that is very closely allied to this 
IS the II. robustum {Muse. Exot.) of the N. W. Coast of America. 

67. H. commutdtum, Hedw\ {curled Fern Feather-3Ioss); 
stems pinnated, leaves falcato-secund cordate very much acumi- 
nate seriated their margins reflexed the nerve disappeai'ing 




bolow the summit, capsule oUoug cunetl j}' 

oouical. Hedw.St.Cr.v.4.1.%6. Tuni. Muse ILh. p. II. 

Bril. p. 1333. E. Bol. t. 13C9. Hobs.Br. Jesses, u 1. . 

Drum. Muse. Scot. v.2.n. 84. iMusc.Bnl. cl. 2- 
H. /iliemum, Schicaegr. Suppl. v. l.P. //./'• 

* We/'nlaces particularly in a calcareous soil. Fr. May.— Though 
often confounded with //. filicinum, this may be distinguished by its 
larger size, much less rigid stems and and its S^een colou^^ 

The leaves, too, for want of the excurrent rigid nerve, are disposed to 
be more curved and to become-twisted when diy. 

B. Leaves destitute of a nerve, or furnished with two very 
indistinct ones at the base. 

68. U. scorpioides, Linn, {scorpion Feather-Moss); leaves se- 
ennd broadly ovate ventricose obtuse somewdiat apicnlate entire 
nerveless or obscurely 2-nerved at the base, capsules oblongo- 
ovate curved cernuous. Linn. Sp.Plp. 1592. Hedio Sp. 3Iusc. 
p. 295. Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 2. P. II. p. 293. t. Qo. Tin n. use. 
mb. p. 187. FI. Brit. p. 1326. E. Bot. t. 1039. 

3Iosses, V. 2. n. 72. Brum. Muse. Scot. v. 2. n. &o. 3Iusc. Brit, 
ed. 2. p. 188. t. 27. , . 

Bogs, common. Fr. March.-This, which may rank among the 
largest of the British mosses, is at once distinguished from its afhnities 
by its broad and nerveless leaves. In habit, it is allied to H. aduncum. 

69. H. Silesidnum, Beauv. {Silesian Feather-3Ioss); leaves 
loosely imbricated secund narrow lanceolate acuminate serrat- 
ed nerveless or very obscurely 2-nerved at the base, capsule 
subcylindrical erecto-cernuous, lid conical obtuse. Beauv, 
Prodr. d'rnii. p. 70. Web. et 3Iohr, FI. Cr. Germ. p. 343. 
E. Bot. t. 2016. Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. P. II. p. 287. t. 94. 

3Iusc. Brit. ed. 2. p. 189. t.21. 

On soil, in the clefts of rocks, mountains of Scotland, frequent, fr. 

Allied to H. cupressiforme, but much smaller, of more straggling 

(rro'wth, with more serrated, narrower and less falcate /cares, and a shorter 
lid to the capsule. In some respects, it approaches H. jnilchellum. 
Frequently, the serratures occupy the whole margin from the base to 
the extremity. 

70. H. cupressiforme, Linn, {cypress-leaved Feather-3Ioss) ; 
leaves closely imbricated more or' less falcato-secund lanceolate 
acuminate entire except at the points which are usually serrat- 
ed very faintly two-nerved at the base, capsule cydindrical 
erecto-cernuous, lid conical wdth a point. 3Iusc. Brit, ed. 2, 
p. 189. t. 27. — a. vulgare; stems broad semicylindrical, leaves 
falcato-secund. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1592. Hedtv. St. Cr. v. 4. 
t. 23. Turn. 3Iusc. Hib. p. 1 93. FI. Brit.p. 1331. E. Bot. t. 1860. 
Schwaegr. Suppl. v. \. P. II. p. 290. Hobs. Br. ^losses, v. 1. 
n. 95. Drum. 3Iusc. Scot. v. 2. n. 86. — H. nigro-viride, Dicks . — 
Turn.Musc. Hib. p.^ 93. E. Bot. t.WW.—Dill. 3Iusc. t. 37. f 23, 




nnd <.41./. 53. — (3. compressim; stems slender compressed, 
lea^s falcato-secund. H. compressum, Linn. Mant. v. p. 310. 

ill. Muse. t. 36./ 2. — y. tenue ; leaves very slightly curved 
narrow-lanceolate quite entire. H. p>olyanthos, E. Bot. t. 1664. 

Turn. Muse. Bib. p. 137. (iiot of this work, nor Leskea polyan- 
thos, Hedw.) ^ 

Banks and trunks of trees, extremely common. /3. particularly 
abundant in shady woods, y. mostly on trees. Fr. Oct. — One of the 
most sportive of all mosses ; but the best-marked vars. are defined above. 
The var. y. is however the most remarkable and has often been mistaken 
for Leskea polyanthos of Hedw. It is also very nearly allied to H. in- 
curvntum, Sehrader and Schwaegr., which has a shorter and more drooping 
capsule. * 

71. H. Crista-eastrensis, Linn. l^Ostrichplurne Feather- 3Iossf 

stems closely pectinated, leaves falcato-secund ovato-lanceolate 
acuminate serrulate striated faintly 2-nerv^ed at the base, cap- 
sule oblongo-ovate curved cernuous, lid conical. Linn. Sp. PI. 
p. 1391. Hedw. Sp. Muse. t. 16. f. 1—4. E. Bot. t. 2108. 
Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 2. n. 73. Drum. Muse. Seot. v. 1. n. 95. 
Schwaegr. Supjil. v.l. P. U. p. 293. 3Iuse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 190. 
t. 27. ^ 

Woods in Yorkshii’e, Mr. Backhouse and Rev. James Dalton. Not 
unfrequent in the mountain-woods of Scotland, and upon exposed 
rocks at a considerable elevation. Rare in fr. The Rev. Colin Smith 
finds it in that state abundantly, at Inverary, in Nov.? — The most elegant 
of all the Hypna, well marked by its large and beautifully feathery 
In Clova, it grows along with Linncea borealis, which is its common 
associate in the woods of Switzerland. 

72. \i. molluseum, Hedw. (^plumy-erested Feather-moss') ; 
stems pectinated, leaves falcato-secund cordate much acumina- 
ted serrated scarcely striated faintly 2-nerved at the base, cap- 
sule oblongo-ovate curved cernuous, lid conical. Hedic. St. 
Cr. V. 4. t. 22. 7’urn. Muse. Hib. p. 198. FI. Brit. p. 1335. 
E. Bot.t. 1327. Hobs. Br. 3‘Iosses, v. 1. n. 96. Drum. 3Iusc. Seot. 
V. \.n. 96. Sehioaegr. 1. P. U. p. 293. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. 

p. 190. f. 27. Dill. 3Iuse. t. 36. / 20. — H. Crista-eastrensis, 

On the ground, in woods and among stones. Fr. Nov.— This has 
been taken, even by some able British Botanists, for the preceding; but 
not by Dillenius, as Sir J. E. Smith supposed; his figures A. and B. being 
truly our present plant. 


Ord. III. HEPATIC^. Juss. Liverworts. 

Fructification generally of two kinds ; 
early stage covered with a calyptra, which is tipped nith an 
anpJrent%/c, often surrounded by a perianth or cahjx, at 
leno-th bursting the calyptra irregularly and rising on a pediin- 
cl^lnd opening at the Ltremity with 2 or 4, or many valves, 
destitute of operculum, bearing within 

^except in Riccia and perhaps Sphcerocarpus) with spiial fila- 
menJ- 2dly, oblong or mostly rounded and frequently shortly 
pernculated reticulated bodies, {Anthers?) containing a very 
minutely granulated substance, which escapes by an aperture 
formed at the extremity.-Minute plants, 

sometimes,in for instance,leaf-bearmg^^ 

often divided, never really nerved. From var.ou paits of the 
fronds or leaves, gemnuB are produced in many ^ 

substance is loosely cellular, in general, easily revning, aftei 
beino- dried, by the application of moisture. Sometimes the 
areofjB of the cells have an evident pore, as in 3I(irchantia and 
Targionia, and tlien the plants, after being once dried, are found 
to revive very slowly. 

Synopsis of the Genera. 

1 Riccia. Capsule sphaerical, immersed in the ^0"^, inde- 
hiscent, crowned with a style which alone is protruded. 

2. SPHiEROCARPUS. Cctpsuk spluerical, surrounded by an 
obovate perianth (?) which is open at the summit. 

3 Anthoceros. Capsule pedunculated, linear, 2-valved, 
having a central columella to whicli the seeds are attached, and 
arising from a tubular perianth. 

4. Targionia. Common receptacle oi 
anth glohose, terrain*!, arising from tl,e 

2-valrcd; capsule globose, inclnded, opening iriegulaily, and 
filled with seeds and spiral filaments. 

5 Marchantia. Common receptacle o{ the fruit 

lateil, pdtate, bearing beneath P" e* aiTfitl 

camules opening at the extremity with about 8 teeth, and niiett 

wfth seks and spiral filaments. Anthers (-^) f 
a flat, carnose, sessile or pedunculated papillary disk.— Geinw « 
abundant in this genus, on the frond, lenticular, 
variously shaped receptacles, and germinating even while on the 

parent frond. 





6. JuNGERMANNiA. Commoii receptacle of the fruit none : 
perianth or calyx monopliyllous, tubular (rarely wanting) : 
capsule 4-valved, terminating a peduncle which is longer than 
the perianth. 


1. Riccia. Linn. Riccia. 

Capsule sphserical, immersed in the frond, indehiscent, 
(covered by a calyptraf), crowned with a style which alone is 
protruded. {Muse. Brit, ed. 2.p. 211.) — Named in compliment 
to Pietro Francesco Ricci, a Florentine botanist. 

1. R. crystdllina, Linn, {chrystalline Riccia); frond carnose 
ovato-oblong 2 — 3-lobed, the divisions dichotomous. Muse. 
Brit. ed. 2. p. 2\2 . — «. frond fleshy glaucous channelled, seg- 
ments acute. R. glauca, Linn. Sp. PL p. 1605. E. Bot. t. 2546. 
Hooker, FI. Scot. P. II. p. 110. Lindenh. Syn. Hepat. p. 117. 
~R. minima, Linn. Sp. Pl.p. 1 605. Dill. 3Iusc. t. 7Q.f. 10, 1 1. 
— /3. frond thin nearly plane yellowish-green, segments obtuse. 
R. crystallina, Linn. Sp. Pl.p. 1605. — Lindenh. Sy?i. Hepat. 
p. 116. Dill. Muse. t. 7Q.f. 12. 

On banks. «. in rather dry situations. /3. in moist places, especially in 
the mould of garden-pots in the greenhouse and stove, Bot. Garden, 
Glasgow. Fr. March, Apr. — A careful examination of numerous speci- 
mens, both fresh and dried, enables me to assert that the vars. above 
named are all the same species, depending mainly on age and place of 
growth for their different appearance. The first, a., including glauca dxid 
minima, Linn., these being only dependent on age and size, grows in 
comparatively exposed spots, and is small, fleshy, but little divided, 
grooved along its upper surface, and of a glaucous green colour. The iS. 
again, which is commonly called crystallina, inhabiting moister places, is 
generally larger and thinner, with more numerous and obtuse segments 
and a yellowish-green hue. In both the fronds grow in orbicular tufts, ra- 
diating from the centre, and when fresh, have a remarkably chrystalline 
appearance, owing to the delicate and pellucid nature of the cellules, not 
unlike Mesemhryantliemum crystallinum, which induces me to retain the 
present specific appellation. 

2. R.? jluitans, Linn, {narroio floating Riccia); aquatic float- 
ing, frond tliin repeatedly forked, Avith linear obtuse segments 
generally notched at the extremity. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1606. E. 
Bot. 25 1. Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 213. — Ricciella jluitans, Braun. 
— Lindenh. Syn. Hepat. p. 115. Dill. Muse. t. 74,. f. 17. 

Stagnant waters. Not found in Scotland. Fr. . — Fronds half 

an inch to 2 inches long, yellow-green, repeatedly dichotomous, segments 
linear, somewhat thickened,, as if nerved in the centre grooved aboA'e 
when dry, semipellucid ; reticulation indistinct ; extremities obtuse, 
opaque, sometimes appearing spotted, as if with young fructification,! ac- 

1 Lindeiiberg describes the fructification as “ Caps, globosa, in inferiori 
frondis pjigina sessilis, (circumcissa?). Semina elateribus destituta.” 




cording to Mr. Wilson occasioned by scales on the lower part of the 
frond, but no peculiar organization exists to justify a belief in real fiu . 
When growing in ponds and ditches, this plant is large and quite desti- 
tute of fibrous radicles : but if thrown on the soil at ^ 

becomes smaller, with shorter segments, and fastens itself fiimly to the 
ground by numerous fibrous roots. 

3. R. nakms, Linn, (fcooii floatiiifl Riccia): frond obovato or 
Invei-sely ooidate once or twice loltcd, dotl.ed beneath and at 
the innigin witli numerous long pendent reticulated flat hnibiia:. 
Lmn. si)U. Nat. erf. 1 2. f. 2. p. 708. E. Bot. t. 252. ^lusc.Bnt. 
2. /I. 214. Lindenh. Si/n. Hepat. ji- 121. — capillatu, Scnm. 

Ic. t. 74. — Dill. Muse. if. 78./. 18. t- d, i 

Stagnant pools, England; but not general. F> . — • >en s a 

ways floating, half an inch long, between fleshy and membranaceous, pale- 
ureen above, slightly grooved in the centre, cells large, each cell consist- 
ing of smaller cellules, margin and underside clothed with numerous 
pendent, linear, membranaceous, dark purple, strongly veined fiinbriae. 
Fruit unknown in Britain ; but appearing, from specimens coinmuincated 
by Professor Torrey, New York, exactly like that of 7^. crijstrmna. 
Professor Henslow has sent me numerous specimens from near Lam- 


4. R. siyuria, Dicks, {spurious Riccia); “ fronds membrana- 
ceous lobed pellucid, fructification beneath the sinuses of the 
lobes solitary exserted turbinate toothed.” Diclts. Cr. Fas^ 4. 
p. 20. 11. /. 16. Hook. FI. Scot. P. II. p. 110. Muse. Bnt. 

eel 2. p. 214. Lindenh. Sijn. Hcpat.p.W'^. 

Turfy marshes among the Scottish mountains, Mr. Dickson, l^r. 

—Of this plant 1 know nothing, except from Dickson s figure and 

description above quoted, which seem to accord but ill with Riccia. 

2. Sphtehocarpus. Mich. Sphserocarpus. 

Capsules (?) spluerical, surrounded by anobovate;ienV/»///,open 
at the summit. (3/«sc. Brit. eJ. 2. jti. 213.)— Named from gfai^cc, 
a globe, and Kx^^Tro;, fruit, in allusion to the form of the supposed 

1. S. terrestris, Sm. {ejround Sphcerocarpus). E. Bot. t. 299. 
Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 215. Lintlenb. Syn. Ileput. p. 111. — 
Turgionia sphcerocarpa, Dicks. Cr. Fasc. 1. p. 8. Schm. Ic. t. 28. 
/. 11. Mick. Gen. t. 3 . — Dill Muse. t. 78. f. 17. 

Fields, especially clover layers : plentiful in Norfolk. Fr. Feb.— It 
is with regret that I am obliged to give but an unsatisfactoiy account 
of this plant, which, although found plentifully in my own neighbourhood, 
I have never been able to gather in perfect fructification. Various are 
the accounts given of it by Schmidel, Sprengel and Weber ; but I con- 
fine myself to detailing my own observations. — The Fronds grow singly 
or collected in small patches on the ground, each from one-fourth to 
one-half an inch in length, plane, slightly waved, the margin variously 
lobed, lobes short and rounded : texture thin, beautifully reticulated, 
colour pale-green, somewhat glaucous ; underside adhering to its place 
of growth by numerous fibrous radicles ; superior surface, except^ to- 
wards the margin, covered with many obovate follicles or perianths, of the 




same texture and colour as the frond, varying much in dimensions ; the 
largest and oldest about the size of mustard-seed, truncated at the top 
and perforated ; the a[)ci'ture entire at the margin. Within these at the 
base, both in the smaller and larger perianths, are sometimes 2 — 5 ex- 
tremely minute, linear, pistilliform bodie.s;; at other times, one of these 
is oblong, swollen and lengthened, exactly like the young germen 
of a Jti ngermanma. Again, much more rarely, I have found one of 
these jHstiUiform bodies enlarged into a perfectly spha;rical form, tipped 
with a short, slender sii/le, the whole not larger than an eighth of the 
perianth : the contents of so small a body I could not satisfactorily ascer- 
tain, but they appeared, when pressed out, to consist of a pulpy sub- 

3. Anthoceros. Linn. Anthoceros. 

Capsule pedunculated, linear, 2-valved, with a central colu- 
mella to which the seeds are attached and arising from a tubular 
perianth. (^Musc. Srit. ed. 2. p. 216.) Name; a Jlower, 

and xsgas?, a horn : from the horn-like fructification. 

1. A. punetdtus, Linn, (dotted Anthoceros'); frond obovato- 
ohlong flattish waved and cut at the margin. Linn. Sp. Pl. 
p. 1606. E. Bot. t. 1537. Muse. Brit. ed. 2.p. 216. Lindenh. 
Syn. Hepat.p. 113. — Dill. Muse. t. 68. y. 1. — A. Icevis, Linn. 
Sp. PI. jJ- 1606. Schm. Ic. t. 19. Lindenh. Syn. Hepat. p. 112. 
— A. major, Mich. Gen. t. 7. f. 1. E. Bot. t. 1538. — Dill. Muse, 
t. 68./. 2. 

Sides of ditches and water-courses, in very moist situations. Fr, Spring. 
— Fronds from one-half to three-fourths of an inch long, procumbent, 
often forming orbicular imbricated patches, radiating from the centre ; 
each more or less obovato-oblong, plane or slightly waved above, the 
extremities somewhat dichotomously divided into short, rounded seg- 
ments, which are waved and broadly notched at the margin, sometimes 
even laciniated, segments always obtuse. Texture between fleshy and 
membranaceous, inclining to the former, generally of a darkish green 
colour, paler at the margins. Cellules distinct, oblong, with a pore in 
the centre : — there is no midrib, the fibrous radicles springing from 
various parts of the under surface of the fronds ; male and female fructi- 
fication generally abundant on the same individual, yhilhers exactly 
sphaerical, shortly pedicellated, of a yellowish-orange colour, included in 
cup-shaped, deeply and sharply laciniated receptacles, on the upper sur- 
face of the fronds. The female fructifications, of which there are several 
on each frond, appear first in the form of conical tubercles, similar to the 
frond in colour and texture, and consisting in fact of the epidermis. In 
a short time, these, which we have called perianths, attain the height of 
2 lines, become cylindrical, opening at the mouth with a truncated, rather 
jagged orifice; whence proceeds a linear, subulate, slightly curved capsule, 
which rising about 2 inches and elevated on a succulent fruitstalh scarcely 
longer than the perianth, bursts from the extremity into two narrow 
linear valves, which are partially twisted round each other. The open- 
ing of the capsule presents a central filament or columella, equal in length 
to the capsule, and covered with numerous roundish, opaque, brown 
seeds, each of which is marked by lines, indicating its being composed 
of 3 or 4 smaller bodies : — these are attached by means of short, simple 
or forked, rather flat, brownish, semipellucid stalks, which have no ap- 
pearance of a double spiral helix, as figured by Schmidel. 




Besides the organs of fructification described above, 1 observe m t!ie 
surfece of the frond, oval or elliptical, compactly granulated, dark green 

bodies, similar to what have been detected m 

I have been surprised to find an increasing difficulty, as these mvesii 

gations proceeded! in discriminating between 
I species adopted by all preceding authors. Ihe 

of the plant is characterized above : Us extreme vaiieties h< e b^et de 
scribed as ^ species by other Botanists the larger kind, with the least 
dTS ma^X L ‘be smaller and more divided one is 

A jnmc/flfits'^Sm. All, however, remark that the fructification is alike, 
fnd hot Smbh and VVeber assert that the often grow 

mixed. The A. vndlifulus of Dickson, can hardly, I think beloi 
genus. Dilleniiis does not figure the fructification; nor does M ; iJick- 
son who is the authority for its being considered of British H 

anv’notice of it ; it is wholly omitted in E. Bat. ; and both the dtsci [ 
tiLs of Uickson and Dill., and the figure of the latter, induce me to 
refer it with little hesitation to Ju7ig. mullifida, 

4. Tarqionia. Mich. Tai’gionia. 

Common receptacle of the fruit none; Perianth globose, ter- 
minal, arising from the underside of 3s 

side globose, included, opening m-egular y and filled ^ 
and spiral Jilaments. {Muse. Brit. 6d. ‘‘2. 21 .) am 

honour of John Anthony Targioni, a Florentine Botanist. 

1. T. hypophylla, Linn, {flat-leaved Targionia). Linn. 

PI p. 1603. E. Bot. t. 287. Hooker, FI. Scot. P. 11 . 

Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 218. Lindenh. Syn. Hepat. p. n^.—Vitl. 

Muse. t. 78. f. 9. „ . , 1 c- .1 I 

Banks, in ratlier moist but exposed situations, England and Scot ^ 
but not general. Fr. Apr. May.— FrowA forming large patches, imbii- 

cated, oblongo-obovate, plane, between coriaceous and fleshy 7/m v«5 

entire, very deep green, purplish at the edges, not obviously reticulated, 
but furnished with numermis oval pores on the upper surface ; nnderneat 
onlvis the appearance of a midrib, which is prominent and covered with 
numerous obtuse radicles, on each side_ of which are many PC" P^'c> ‘‘ a"®- 
versely oblong, membranous scales, as in Marchantia. Immediate!} be 
neath die extremity, or the underside of the bond, is a so itary 
globose, of a deep purplish-black colour, and a texture betiyeen mem- 
branaceous and coriaceous, marked with a vertical 
from which it becomes dehiscent, and consequently 2-valvec . 
this perianth are seen, in an early stage, a few pistilhlorm bodies one o 
which becomes a sphaerical germen covered with a cahjpti-a winch is 
tipped with a rather long style; the calyptra bursts irregularly and verti- 
cally. The sphaerical capsule is protruded beyond it ; but never i eaches 
further than the perianth. Fndtstalk very short and succu ent. Cap- 
sule dark brown, opening at the extremity with several unequal segments, 
and discharging innumerable brown seeds, mixed with shoit spoaljila- 
ments, composed of a double helix. 

5, Marchantia. Mich. Marchantia. 

Common receptacle of X\\e fruit pedunculated, peltate, hearing 
beneath shortly pedicellated pendent capsules, opening at t le 
extremity with about 8 teeth, and filled with seeds and spiral 

HEPATIC/E. [Marchantia. 

Ji aments. Anthers (y) oblong;, imbedded In a flat, carnose, sessile 
or pedunculated, papillary disk. Gemma', abundant in this 
genus, on the frond, lenticular, contained in variously shaped 
receptacles, and germinating even while on the parent frond. — 
(^Musc. Brit. ed. '2. j). 219.) — Named in compliment to Nicholas 
Alarchant, the first Botanist which the Royal Academy of 
Sciences at Paris admitted among its members. 

1. M. j}olym6rj)ha, Linn, (^polymorphous Marchantia'); recep- 
tacle of the capsules deeply cut in a stellated manuer into about 
10 narrow segments, that of the anthers pedunculated. Linn. 
Sp. PI. p. 160. B. Bot. /.no. Hooker, FI. Scot. P. II. j). 1 19. 
Muse. Brit. ed. 2. p. 219. lindenb. Syn. Hej)at. p. 100. — Dill. 
Muse. t. 76. f. 6. 

Moist and wet situations ; also in dry spots when shaded ; very com- 
mon. Fr. July. — Fronds much imbricated, procumbent, erect only 
when growing in water, very variable in length, rarely simple, generally 
once or twice divided in a dichotomous manner, 1 — 4 or even 5 inches 
long ; laciniae mostly short, rounded and nearly entire ; sometimes, as 
when growing in water, very much elongated, linear-oblong, marked on 
the upper surface with a depressed dark line, which, beneath, consti- 
tutes a prominent blackish midrib, whence, for nearly the whole length 
of the plant, spring numerous pale, silky, fibrous radicles. Colour gene- 
rally an uniform dull green ; the texture between fleshy and membra- 
naceous, more approaching to the latter, strikingly cellular ; cells oblong, 
furnished in the centre with a small pore, arranged in parallel lines, 
diverging upward froni the midrib at an acute angle. Fructification 
dioecious; fronds bearing anthers similar to those bearing capsules. 
Male receptacle greenish ; the papillae purple, supported on peduncles, 
springing from the base of a sinus at the extremity of the frond just 
beneath the margin; about one inch in length, obtusel}' quadrangular, 
thickened upwards. On one side of the peduncle are two grooves, each 
containing a bundle of filaments that pass through their whole length, 
and dwerge, on the under side of the peltate receptacle, into as many 
rays as there are lobes to the receptacle. Receptacle flat on the sum- 
mit, horizontal, papillose, fleshy, thin and membranaceous at the margin, 
and cut into about eight short, rounded lobes. Anthers equal in number 
to the papillae on the surface of the receptacle, and imbedded in its 
fleshy portion ; a vertical section shows them to be of nearly oval form 
and reticulated structure, filled with soft granular matter; they are 
surrounded by an ovate reticiilated membrane, attenuated above and 
opening by an orifice through the papillae. On the underside of 
the receptacle are numerous imbricated scales, radiating, so that each 
ray corresponds with a marginal lobe of the receptacle, and there covers 
the diverging fibres above mentioned. Female fructification ; — receptacle 
of the capsules pedunculated ; the peduncle 1 — 3 or 4 inches long, 
rising, as in the male fructification, and similar in shape and structure, 
but not thickened above. Receptacle hemispherical, deeply divided to 
the base into 8 — 10 linear, cylindrical, decurved rays, covering as many 
involucres which are united at the base, and there intermixed with minute 
chaffy scales; these involucres are oblong, membranaceous, open at the 
extremity, and remarkably laciniated, enclosing at the base, while young, 
two or three pendent as in Jungermannia, each surrounded by an 

ovate qnadrifid membranaceous Of these pistils, one or more 



Marchanlut ] 

. % . Tht> rnhntlra IS obovatc, tipped with a short sli/lc 

and buJs°t in‘eiularW for the emission of the capsule. The caimde\s 

ole pedicellated, so as tob^^ 

little bevond the calyx, and opens into about eight short and nearly 
equ^l se^mmits at the' extremitj^ immediately overflow^ 

,a\le greenisi,. brown sph.erical »re 

the same colour, and formed ol a double helix, 
mature, the segments of the receptacle are frequently bent back, so 
become erect from the expansion of the numerous capsu ^ . 

Besides these two modes of fructification, we n 0 ^"'^^ 

as fertile individuals, at all seasons of the year cup-sl aped «e^ 

virions narts of the upper surface of the frond and alwajs on the mia 
” le sal exti^^^ frond itself, but with more membrana- 

ceous llmated margins; within which are contained several len 1- 
shaped membranaceous bodies of a reticulated st^mcture and Jeqrmnt y 
furnished with iiellucid dots: these are the gomwu? which frequent y 
throw out radicles before leaving those receptacles, and, "oot^n 

the spots where they happen to fiill, in time become Pe;^f j 

have been thus particular in my description, as the structui e of the ot 
species is very similar, while this is the most common of them all. 

2. M ? Icevis, (smooth Marcliantkt). Wils. Mss. 

Road-sides, or banks, Ballilickey', Ireland. Mi . H ^soh. 

Without perfect fructification. I do not venture to offei a specific ti a 
racter for this plant, which, nevertheless, Mr. Wilson has 
be quite distinct from M. polymorpha, to which of a 1 the 
species it seems most similar, but agreeing as to its f‘uctif cation 
rather with M. conica. “ Frond almost leathery, scarcely succulent ot a 
shining green above, and with many visible pores. Pisttlliferomrece2dacle 
at first sessile, as in other species (at length perhaps elevated) flepressed. 
Pistils not curved as in other species, and not apparently surrounded by 
an involucre, hence the Genus is doubtful. There are some obscuie 
traces of organization in the disk of the receptacle, so that it is possible 
the perfect state may have anthers imbedded in this receptacle. 
The compact imbricated and convergent scales enveloping the fructih- 
cation are very remarkable.— F/-«c/i/cafion truly epiphyllous and not as 
in M. jmlymnrphn. 

3. M. conica, Linn, (conical Marchantia); receptacle of the 
capsule conical ovate somewhat angular nearly entire at the 
margin, that of the anthers sessile. Linn. Sp. PL p- 161 4- 
E. Bot. t. .504. Hooker, FI. Scot. P. II. p. 120. Mnsc. Brit, 
p. 22\.—Dill. Muse. t. 75./. l.—FegateUn officinalis, Raddi, tn 

Opusc. Scient. di Bologna, v. 2. 

Sides of mill-ponds and shady banks, common. Fr. March.— Fronds 
procumbent, .3—5 inches long, several times divided in a dichotomous 
manner, the segments oblong, obtuse, margins scarcely waved or crenate ; 
colour almost an uniform yellowish-green; texture more inclined to fleshy 
than membranaceous, the reticulation larger and more distinct than in any 
other species. Cells oblong and hexagonal, the central pore veiy con- 
spicuous and surrounded by a whitish thickened margin ; the inulnb 
scarcely distinguishable on the upper surface but by a longitudinal de- 
pression, beneath, however, prominent and thickly covered, for it> 




entire length, with the usual fibrous radicles ; among these radicles, and 
almost concealed by them, arise, on each side of the midrib, a fewmem- 
)ranaceous oblique scales, which are more evident upon the young 
shoots or innovations, where the roots are fewer and are there of a purple 
uie . occasionally, scales of a similar nature, but greenish colour, 
overlap the margin of the innovations at the extremity. These scales, 
when seen in their more perfect state, appear to be unequally 2-lobed 
at tlieir anterior margins. Fructification, as far as I have observed, 
constantly dioecious. Male receptacle entirely sessile, arising, apparently, 
always from the midrib in various parts of its surface : in form and 
stiucture leseinbling the two preceding species. Female receptacle pe- 
dunculated . peduncle differing from that of other Marchantue in bein<r 
remaikabl}' succulent, as in Jungermannia epiphplla, becoming flat and 
apparently uicmbranaccous when dry, and having, so far as we can ob- 
serve, but one groove with one bundle of fibres ; this peduncle is inserted 
in a concave disk, and is 2 4< inches long. The receptacle is conical, 

inclining to ovate, obtuse at the summit, the margins deflexed and cut 
into about six very short emarginate lobes; involucres green, 2-valved; 
cali/x quadrifid, and each seeming to contain but one ovate captsule, 
which is partially exserted and cut into several revolute segments. 
Secds^ large, dark, olivaceous ; spiral filaments double. — The bruised fronds 
are singularly fragrant, resembling 13ergaraot. 

4. M. hemispluErica, Linn. (Jiemisphcerical Marchantiaf); recep- 
tacle of the capsules heinisphserical cut at the margin into 4 10 

equal lobes, that of the anthers pedunculated wdth a thin mar- 
gin, frond with large cells and pores. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1604. 
E. Pot. t. 503 and t. 2545 ? (under M. commutata, Lindenb. Syn. 
Hepat. ^.101. M. androgyna, excl. the 2 lower Jigs.) Muse. 
Brit. ed. 2. p. 222 — M. androgyna, Linn. ? — M. quadrata, Scop. 
Cam. ed. 2. p. 63. — Pebouillia heniisprhcerica, Ruddi, in Opusc. 
Scient. di Bologna. — Bill. Muse. t. 75./. 2. 

Sides of mountain-streams and moist banks, not uncommon. Fr. 
Pf^x.— Fronds procumbent, imbricated, oblong, 1—3 inches long, rarely 
simple, generally forked, waved and crenate at the margin; texture be- 
tween carnose and membranaceous, inclining to the latter; colour dark 
green above, frequently with a dark central line indicating the midrib, 
underside often purple at the margin, midrib prominent, throwing out 
numerous silky fibres, and on each side beset with purple scales, par- 
tially concealed by the roots, sometimes the centre of the frond below 
is purple; on the upper surface the cells are very distinctly marked, and, 
as in M. polymorpha, furnished in the centre with a pore. Fructifica- 
tion monoecious, as well as dioecious ; male receptacle with short jiedi- 
cels springing from the midrib in a sinus at the extremity of the frond ; 
receptacle peltate, flat and papillose above, purplish, the margins some- 
what reflected, cut into 4, 8 or 9 rounded lobes. Anthers as "in M. po- 
lymorpha. Female recejAaele with pedicels 2 — 4 inches long, hemisphEe- 
rical,_ cut at the margin into 4—10 or 11 obtuse, deflexed lobes, 
covering as many membranaceous involucres, which are entire at the 
margins ; calyces white, membranaceous, quadrifid, 2—3 in each invo- 
lucre. Calyptra as in the preceding. Capsule scarcely protruded at 
maturity, consequently on a very short fruit-stalk, dark brown, cut nearly 
half-way down into 7, 8 obtuse revolute segments, containing a great num- 




ber of equally dark brown seeds and spiral filaments, as in M. polpviorpha. 
Gemmiferous scuphi crescent-shaped, as in the genus Lunularia oi Mictieli. 
Mr. Francis sends me from Edgefield, Norfolk, specimens with female 
fructification only, which difler from the common appearance ot the plant 
just described, by the more compactly cellular nature of the Irond, so 
that the areolae are not visible in a dry state. _ 

A second var., as I presume it to be, has been communicated by Mr. 
Borrer, from Sussex, with the fronds more elongated, their maigins 
beautifully crenate, and, like the underside of a deep purp e , t e ce u es 
and pores less distinct than even in the last-mentioned var.; upon it 1 lina 
the pedunculated male receptacles, and, lying among the specimens, but 
not attached to them, is a single female receptacle, apparently belonging 
to them, and having all the characters of that ol M. Iiemispharica. htiU 
a third appearance of this species, is found growing abundantly on a hank, 
intermixed with Targioitia hppophplla, in the New borcst, Hants, by i i . 
Lvell. In this, likewise, the specimens have the fronds of a compact 
nature, their underside and margin of a deep purple, the upper surface, 
sometimes, especially in the dry state, apparently as destitute of areo ae 
as in the ‘id vai-., whilst at other times, especially when moist, the areolm 
and their pores are tolerably conspicuous. The female fructification, as 
seen and described to me by Mr. Lyell, seems precisely si'J'ihir to that 
of M. hemisphcerica ; hut the most remarkable iiecuharity of this plant is 
that the male receptacles, which are very abundant, have hitherto al- 
ways been found sessile, and imbedded, as it were, in the surface of the 
frond, situated near the extremities, whence, at the period ot their 
decay, innovations of the frond are seen to issue. _ 

The 3 vars. just described, are found growing on comparatively dry 
banks, and to this may be attributed the compact nature of their fronds, 
the deep purple hue of the underside and margins, and the indistinct- 
ness of the cellules. The M. quadrata. Scop., which Smith refers to 
his M. androgpna in E. Bot., may, I think, be quoted under M. hemi- 

sphcBrica. n r> 1 

I cannot help suspecting that M. androgijna oi E. Lot., at least, is 
nothing more than M, honisphcsricci, I allude to the 2 uppei figs.; the 
2 lower ones, with more perfect fructification, are stated to be copied 
from Swiss specimens, and I have no hesitation in pronouncing them 
to be the M.fragrans, Balbis, a highly curious plant, never yet found in 
Britain. I however possess individuals of the same or an analogous 
species from Philadelphia and the Cape of Good Hope, as well as 
Switzerland and Savoy, and they constitute the very remaikable genus 
described by Nces von Ivsenbeck, in the Flora Bcroliiicnsis, under the 
name of Fimbraria. The essential character of Smith s M. androgyna, 
is to have the “ calyx of t\ie female flowers hemisphoerical, with 4 clefts 
and 4 cells,” which is by no means at variance with the common state 
of j\r. hemisphcerica. The figures, too, are sufficiently characteristic, and 
in the form of the frond, more faithful than M. hemisphcerica , t. 503. 
The upper left-hand plant has the appearance and purple edges of our 
Edgefield var. 

The name 71/. androgyna* originated with Linnaeus ; but his character, 

* Dr. Taylor has seen, in Ireland, that the same peduncle has sometimes on 
its summit the peltate disk, with one half of its summit having capsules 
pointing downwards, the other half with its upper surface having anthers 
imbedded. Can this have given origin to the name, M. androgyna ? 




as given in the Sjh PI., where it was first noticed, is “ M. calyce coni- 
muni integro heniisphasrico,” adding “ monoica sen androgyna est haec 
sj^cies ; he states it to be a native of Italy and Jamaica, and refers to 
■^cheli, t. 2. f. 3, (the authority for the Italian plant,) and to Dill. 
Muse. 1. 15. f. 3, (the authority for the Jamaica plant.) Micheli’s plant, as 
far as we can judge from the magnified figure, may possibly be that state 
of the species with sessile male receptacles above noticed as found by 
ttiid to which, if any', the name androgyna may still be ap- 
plied ; the female receptacles are equally divided with our M. hemi- 
spliccrica ; yet the fronds are much longer, narrower, and repeatedly 
divided in a dichotomous manner. With regard to Dillenius’ plant from 
Jamaica, the fronds are still more unlike ours; and as is evident from 
his description and figure, they are lurnished with gemmiferous scyphi 
and not with male receptacles, Now, it appears that Linnaeus’ character 
of M. androgyna was taken from a Siberian plant, described by Scopoli 
and Smith, under the name of M. triandra, and hence Smith observes, 
“ our great naturalist erred in making its specific character Calyx com- 
munis integer.” To return again to the figs, in D. Pot., there is no male 
fructification described ; nor, so far as we can discover, any mark by 
which to distinguish it from M- hemisphcBrica, 

Schmidel, under M. liemisplicerica, t. 34. at /. 3, and XIII, has figured 
and has described what appear to be sessile male receptacles, on the 
same fronds with the pedunculated ones ; and this would seem to 
strengthen our opinion of the 2 kinds being found on the same species. 

5. M. irrigua, Wils. (water Marchantici); receptacle of the 
capsules hemisphserical cut at the margin into 5 or 6 lobes, tluat 
of the anthers pedunculated Avith a thickened margin, frond of 
a very close texture without pores. Wils. Mss. 

In dripping places; Turk Cascade, near Killarney; Maghanabo Glen, 
near Brandon mountain ; Ballihasig Glen, near Cork ; Mr. Wilson. Fr. 
Apr. May. — 'Wem. receptacle hemisphaerical, 5 — 6 rayed, each ray slight- 
ly split for the protrusion of the capsule. Filaments yecy long, thickened 
in the middle, seeds small. Male receptacles stalked, peltate, flattish or 
sometimes pitted in the centre, not bordered as in M. hemisplicerica. 
Frond of a tuavy^ dark green, of close texture zuithout pores, furnished 
with a sort of midrib, covered beneath with silky radicles.” — The shape 
of the antheriferous receptacle, Mr, Wilson observes, and the texture of 
the frond, seem chiefly to distinguish this from M. hemisphaerica ; the 
latter character is indeed quite visible in the dry state ; and both in 
colour and texture the fronds look more like those of Jungermannia 
epiphylla than of any British Marcliantia. I possess what appears to be 
the same species from Madeira and other southern countries. 

6. Jungermannia. Linn. Jungermannia. 

Common receptacle of the fruit none. Perianth or cahjx 
monophyllous, tubular, sometimes double, rarely wanting. 
Capsule 4-valved, terminating a peduncle, wliich is longer than 
the perianth. — Named after Louis Jungermann, a German Bo- 




1. FoUaceous. 

A. Stems loithout Stijndes* 

a. Leaves inserted on all sides of the stem.^ 

I J Hooheri, ^mJHookerianJiingermannia'); stem c*rect some- 
what branched, leaves imbricated on all sides ovate or oblongo- 
ovate here and there lobed or angled, fruit terminal, 
none, calyptra large oblong fleshy smooth. E. Bot. t. 4. Hook. 
Br. .Juno t. ^4. Lindenb. Sgn. Hepat. p. 9&.-Gymnonntrion 

Hooheri, Corda, in Sturm Beutschl. FI. cum Ic. 

Very rare. Boggy places at Cacinam, New Forest, Hants ; and Kin- 
nordy Moss, C. Lyell, Esq. Fr. Spring.-This very remarkable spe- 
cies which differs in habit from all other Jungermanma has been most un- 
naturally combined with J. concinnata and distinguished as 
Gymnomitrion by Corda; and still more unnaturally with J. 
seipijUifolia, &c. to form the genus Lejeuma (of Libert.) by Spren e . 

The nature of this work does not give me the opportunity of discuss- 
ing the necessity of separating the Jungermannue '"to other Genera as 
has been done by Raddi and Corda and others. _ Their observations 
will tend to a much better knowledge of the species; but it requires a 
more extended acquaintance with exotic species than we yet ]ios- 
sess, to form Genera u])on solid grounds. Lindenberg, m his Synopsis 
Hevaticarum Europcearum, has, with great judgment, preserved the 
Genus in question, entire ; and his work is a model of accurate descrip- 
tion and profound research. 

b. Leaves hifarious. 

* I^eaves undivided. 

2. .^.asplenio^des, Linn. {Spleemcort Jungerma.nnia);^ms 
ascending branched, leaves obovato-rotuudate cdiato-deiitate 
somewhat recurved, fruit terminal and lateral, perianth oblong 
compressed oblique, the mouth truncated subciliated. S>p. 
PI. p. 1597. Hook. Brit. .Jung. t. 13. E. Bot. f. \im. He>hs.Br. 
Mosses, V. 1. V. 111. Lindenb. Syn. JJepat. p. 1'2.—Ddl. Muse. 

t. 69./ 5, 6. r A 

Moist woods, shady banks and among rocks; frequent. Tr. Api . 
This is one of the largest of our species ; from 3 to 5 or even 6 inches 

in length. 

3. .T. spiuuldsa, Dicks, {prickly-leaved .Jungermanma); stem 
erect branched, leaves ovate recurved with the margin and the 
apex on one side dentato-spinulose, fruit lateral and axillary, 
perianth roundish compressed, the mouth truncate cdiatud. 
Dicks. Cr. Ease. 2. p. 14. Hook. Br. .Jung. t. 14. E. Bot. 
t. 2228. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 2. n. 111. Lindenb. Syn. Hepat. 

* In this division will be found .7. Spliagni and J. compressa, which have 

stipules only upon their young shoots. . . , • , r 

t J. trichophylla, setacca,jidacea, laxifolia, and jwmpertna, having been tounrt 
to have hilarious leaves and stipules, are removed to the division b. 

108 HEPATICiE. [.Tungcrmannia- 

p. 73. — DUL3Iusc.t.7Q. f. 15, 16. — /3. tridentota; leaves smaller 
fewer with 3 shai-p spiniform teeth at the extremity. J. triden- 
ticnlata, Mich. Am. v. 2, p. 278. 

Hocks in shady situations, especially in subalpine countries : yet Mr. 
LjjclL finds it in the New Forest, Hants. /S. Mountains near Bantry, 

Miss Hutchins. Scottish mountains. Fr. . — Though perianths 

are by no means unfrequent on this plant, I am not aware that its perfect 
fruit has ever been found in this country. 

4. J. decipiens, Hook, {deceptive Jungei'niannia); stems erect 
flexuose nearly simple, lower leaves small ovate entire upper 
ones rotiindato-ovate or siibqiiatlrate with here and there a 
spiniform tooth. Ilooh. Br. Jung. t. 50. E. Bot. t. 2567. 
Lindenb. Syn. Hepat.p. 73. 

Rocks in heathy places, about Bantry, Miss Hutchins. Tdentiful on 
detached rocks in the woods near Killarney, Mr. IVilson; always barren. 
— Mr. Wilson, to whom I am indebted, for numerous specimens, observes 
that this is a good species, that the leaves have a thickened margin 
omitted in the Brit. J ungermannicc , and the upper ones are appressed as 
in J. compressa. 

5. J. Donidna, Hook. {Donian Jmtgermannia); stem erect 
suhsimple flexuose, leaves closely imbricated patent ohlongo- 
ovate concave bidentate at the point frequently falcato-secund, 
fruit terminal, perianth ovate laciniated. Hook. Br. Jung. t. 39. 
E. Bot. t. 2566. Lindenb. Syn. Hep. p. 74. 

Scottish mountains, rare; and almost wholly confined to moist rocks, 
among other Jungermannice and Mosses, in the elevated parts of the 
Clova and Cairngorm mountains. Dr. Greville has gathered it with 
calyces, but these are of very rare occurrence, and the fruit of this most 
distinct species is unknown. 

6. J. pumila. With, {dwarf simple Jungermannia); stem 
ascending nearly simple, leaves elliptical oblong, fruit terminal, 
periautli oblongo-ovate acuminate plicate and contracted above, 
the mouth minute dentato-ciliate. With. Bot. Arr. ed. 3. 
p. 866. t. 18./. 4. E. Bot.t. 2230. Hook. Br. Jung. t. 17. Lia- 
denb. Syn. Hepat. p>- 69. 

Rocky beds of rivulets, in subalpine countries. Fr. June. — A small 
plant, with foliage of the colour and texture of ./. cordifolia. 

7. J. lanceoldta, Linn, {lunce-leaved Jungermannici); stem 
procumbent nearly simple, leaves ])ateiit ovato-suhrotuud, fruit 
terminal, perianth oblong cylindrical depressed and plane at the 
top, the mouth contracted inciso-dentate. Linn. Sp. Pl. p. 1597. 
Hook. Br. Jung. t. 18. Lindenb. Syn. Hepat. p. 71. 

Moist shady banks, and on the trunks of trees. Hudson, Withering, 

Lightfovt. Fr. . — Of this I have never seen British specimens : 

and I suspect the authors just mentioned may have mistaken some other 
species for it. It is remarkable for the cylindrical, and, as it were, trun- 
cated summit of the perianth, and for the very minute contracted mouth. 

8. J. cordifolia. Hook, {heart-leaved Jungermannia); stem 
erect flexuose dichototnous, leaves erect concave cordate cir- 



J linger mannia.] 

cumvolute, fruit terminal ami axillary. oblo.jgo.ovate 
subplicate, the mouth minute denticulated, //oo/e. 

t. 32. E. Bot. t. 2590. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 2. n. 89. Lmde7tb. 

Sun. Hepat. j). 72. . ™ 

Bo""v idaces and in springs, in subalpme countries, ri. 
rapSrf ire unknown to ,ne, ana the winch "te very rare 

have been only found by Mr. Lyell in Angusshire, in August, the 
leaves are pecuUarly soft and flaccid, of a dark lurid green, almost black 

when dry. 

9. J. Sphdgni, Dicks. {Bog-Moss Jungermannia); stem pro- 
cumbent nearly simple (the gemmiferous elongations alone 
stipuled), leaves orbicular, fruit terminal on short proper 
branches, periantli oblong attenuated at each extremity, the 
moiitli contracted denticulate. Dichs. Cr. Ease. \. p. b. t. 1. 
f. 10. E. Bot. t. 2470. Hook. Br. Jung. t. 33, mid ^u])pl. t. 2. 
hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 2. n. 110. Lindenb. Sign. Hepat. p.2S. 

Moist heathy places. Fr. Spring.— A very elegant and distinct spe- 
cies, sending out large radicles from nearly the whole length ol the 
underside of its stem, by which it attaches itself to Sphagnum and other 

10. ,J. cremddta, Sra. {crenidnted Jungermannia'); stem pro- 

cumbent branched, leaves orbicular margined frequently se- 
cund, fruit terminal, perianth obovate compressed 4-angled, 
the mouth much contracted toothed. E. Bot. t. 1463. Hook. 
Br. Jung. t. 37. Lindenb. Syn. Hepat. p. 66. , . , 

Moist heaths. Fr. Apr.— and perianth frequently tinged 
with purple. The large cellules at the edge of the leaves that consti- 
tute the margin which is so remarkable in this plant, are most obser- 
vable, as Mr. Wilson remarks, in those leaves which are nearest the 

11. .J. sphmrocdrpa, Hook, {round-fruited JungermannicC); 
stem ascending simple, leaves orbicular, fruit terminal, perianth 
oblongo-ovate contracted and tubular at the mouth at length 
4-cleft, capsule (when dry) globose. Hook. Br. Jung. t. 74. 
Lindenb. Syn. Hepat. p. 68. 

Boggy places in the South of England, Wales, and Ireland. Ft. May. 
— According to Mr. Wilson's recent observations, this is a very^ \ariable 
plant; w\\one pterianth becomes 4-fid or deeply 5-toothed, only after the 
emission of the capsule i and whose capsule seems to assume a sphasrical 
form almost in every case after having been dried. 

12. .J. kyalina, Lyell, {transparent Jungermannia); stems 
ascending flexuose dichotomous, leaves roundish slightlj\waved, 
fruit terminal, perianth oblong angnlate, mouth contracted 
4-toothed. Lyell in LLook. Br. Jung. t. 63. Hook, in E. Bot. 
Suppl. t. 2678. Lindenb. Syn. Hepat. p. 67. 

Boggy places, Mew Forest, Hants, and near Ambleside, C. Lyell, Esq. 
Lefing Mountain, near Dublin, Dr. Taylor. Fr. Apr. There is a close 
affinity between J. sphccrocarpa, pumila, and the present species. 

13. J. compressa. Hook, {compressed upright Jungermannia); 
stem erect branched, leaves orbicular the upper ones reniform 




appressed, (stipules only upon the innovations), fruit terminal, 
perianth immersed in the perichaitial leaves ohlong' fleshy, the 
mouth open 4-toothed. Hook. Br. Jung. t. 38. E. Bot. t. 2587. 
Lindenb. Syn. Hepat. p. 33. 

Mountain rivulets, Ireland, Dr. 'Faylor. Plentiful on Snowdon, J\Ir. 
Wilson, l-i r. Apr. June. — Ihis has an almost equal claim to rank witli 
the simulated as with tlie exstipulated species j and among the former it 
is allied to J. scalaris and Taylori. 

** Leaves eniarginate or bifid ; the segments equcd. 

14. J. emargindta, Ehrh. (piotclied Jungermannia^ ; stem 
erect branched, leaves loosely imbricated patent obcordate 
emarj^inate, fruit terminal, perianth ovate toothed immersed in 
the perichsetial leaves. Ehrh. Beitr. 3. p. 80. Hook. Br. Jung, 
t. 27. E. Bot. t. 1022. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 2. n. 92. Lindenb. 
Syn. Hepat. p. 75. — J. niacrorhiza, Dicks. Cr. Ease. 2. p. 16. 
t. 5. f. 10. — Sarcocyphos Ehrharti, Corda, in Sturm Deutschl. 

Wet places, among rocks in the mountainous districts; frequent. Fr. 
March, June. — A well-marked and very distinct sj)ecies, of a deep 
purple colour, almost black. 

15. J. concinndta, Lightf. (braided Ju7igermannia?) ; stem 
erect branched, leaves very closely imbricated erect concave 
ovate obtuse eniarginate, fruit terminal, perianth none, calyptra 
concealed by the perichsetial leaves. Lightf. Scot. v. 2. p. 786. 
E. Bot. t. 1022. Hook. Br. Ju7ig. t. 3. Li/ide/ib. Sy/i. Hepat. 
p. 74. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 2. 7i. 88. — Gy7nno77iitrio7i co 7 ici 7 ma- 
tu7n, Corda. 

Alpine rocks, especially those over which water occasionally trickles. 
Fr. June. — Plants densely matted, small, varying from a silvery hue to 
a pale yellowish-brown, sometimes nearly black.— Mr. Wilson says there 
are occasional appendages to the leaves, resembling stipules, of a lanceo- 
late shape. 

16. J. Orcadhisis, VLoc^. (^Ork7iey Ju7igerman7iiai); stem erect 
nearly simple, leaves closely imbricated erect or patent cordato- 
ovate the margins recurved. Hook. Br. Ju/ig. t. 7 \. Hobs. Br. 
Mosses, V. 2. 71 . 102. Lmdenh. Sy7i. Hepat. p. 74. Hook, i/i E. 
Bot. Suppl. t.2879. 

Mountains of Scotland, not uncommon, mixed with mosses ; first 
discovered in Orkney. P'r. unknown; but gcHuwtP are found upon the 
points of the terminal leaves. 

17. J. infidta, Hnds. (i7fiated Ju7iger7na7i7iia); stem erect 
simple or branched, leaves roundish concave acutely bifid mi- 
nutely reticulated the segments very obtuse, those of the peri- 
chmtium small, fruit terminal, perianth (frequently abortive 
and deciduous) oblong or pyriform, the month contracted 
toothed. Huds. Arigl. p. 571. Hook. Br. ,7u7ig. t. 38. E. Bot. 
t. 2512. Lmdenh. Sy7i. Hepat. p. 79. — ,/. bicrenata, Sclmiid. 

Moist heaths. Fr. March, Apr. 




18. J. aff'inis, Wils. (pale reticulated Jungermannia); stem 
i,rocumbent simple or branched, leaves roundish concave acutely 
bifid coarsely reticulated the segments obtuse, those of the peii- 
chietium larger than the rest, fruit terminal, perianth (mos y 
fertile) pyriform plicate contracted and toothed at the incut i. 
Wils. in E. Bot. Suppl. ined.—J. injiala, Hobs. Br. Mosses, 

^’F^equent in limestone ami marly districts, in moist or ^hady pla^es 
under precipitous banks, Cheshire; near Bangor ; and W oodlands neai 
Dublin, Mr. Wihon. Fr. March, Apr.— The procumbent 
large reticulation and less obtuse segments of 
the plicated upper portion ot the ca/gx, have induced IV . 
distinguish this from the preceding. 

19. J. cjccisa, Dicks, (small notch-leaved Jungermannia); 
stem prostrate nearly simple, leaves patent sub^uadrate deeply 
notched, fruit terminal, perianth oblong, the mouth plica^d 
toothed. Dicks. Cr. Ease. 3. p. 2. t. 8. /. 7. Hook Br 
Jung. t. 9. E. Bot. t. 2497. Lindenh. Sgn. Hepat. p. 84.—^. 
crispata; leaves longitudinally waved the segments nnequa 

crisped. Hook. Br. Jung. l.c. * • . 

Moist banks in heaths and woods. Fr. Apr. May. A minute spe- 
cies, often rendered more conspicuous by its numerous, diaphanous, 
comparatively large perianths, than by the foliage. 

20. J. ventric'osa, Dicks, (tumid Jungermannia); stem pros- 
trate somewdiat branched, leaves patent snbqnadrate bluntly 
einarginate the sides incurved, fruit terminal, perianth oblong, 
the mouth contracted plicate toothed. Dicks. Or. Ease. 2. p. 14. 
E. Bot.t. 2497. Lindenh. Syn. Heped. p. 8G — Dill. Muse. t. 70. 

f. 14. 

Shady woods and banks. Fr. (scarce) Nov. — Allied to the preceding, 
but larger and with differently shaped perianths. Gemmm are very 
abundant on the tips of the upper leaves, where they form balls. 

21. J, Turneri, Hook. (Turnerian Jungermannia); stem 
procumbent flexuose branched in a stellated manner, leaves 
broadly ovate acutely bipartite, segments condnplicate spmu- 
loso-dentate, fruit terminal, perianth linear-oblong longitu- 
dinally plicated. Hook. Br. Jung. t. 29. E. Bot. t. 2510. Lin- 

denb. Hepat. p. 92. , rr / ;• 

Shady bank of a mountain rivulet, near Bantry, Ireland, Miss Hulckins. 
Fr. March. — A minute species, with the habit of J. bicuspidata ; ana a 
no less beautiful than a rare one. 

22, J. bicuspidata, Linn, (forked .Jungermannia); stem pi o- 
enmbent branched in a stellated manner, leaves snbqnadrate 
acutely bifid the segments acute straight entire, fruit radical, 
perianth linear-oblong longitudinally plicated, the month toot i- 
ed. JJnn. Sp. Pl.p. 1589. E. Hot. t. 2239, (not 281.) Jlook. 
Br. Jung. t. 11. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 2. n. 84. Lindenh. Syn. 
Hepat. p. 89 — Ddl. Muse. t. 70. f. 13. 




Hedge-banks and moist heaths, frequent. Fr. March, Apr.— A deli- 
cate species, of a pale yellow-green colour, very cellular, the leaves re- 
mote, their segments sometimes patent. Balls of 3'ellow geinmce are 
produced at the extremities of the barren shoots, which soon dissolve, as 
it were, and disappear. 

23. J. hyssdcea, Rotli, (^Byssus-like Jungermannia); stem 
pi’ocumhent branched in a stellated manner, leaves subquadrate 
obtusely bifid tbe segments acute, fruit terminal, perianth ob- 
long plicate, the mouth toothed. Roth, Cat. Bot. v. 2. p. 158. 

Hooh. Br. Jung. t. 12. Lindenb. Sgn. Hepat. p. 78 J. diva- 

ricata, E. Bot. t. 2463. 

Heathy places, in dry and exposed situations. F?'. Apr, May. — A 
vei}' minute^ species, and appearing, to the naked eye, like some byssoid 
or confervoid plant, rather than a Jungermannia ; it is too of a dark 
brown colour, and its fructification is terminal, by which character it 
may be known from the preceding. Mr. Wilson has observed the 
perianth to be double ; that is, an outer one is occasionally formed by 
the union of the perichaetial leaves, as in J. incisa and some others. 

24. J. connivens, Dicks, (forcipated Jungermannia'); stem 
procumbent branched in a stellated manner, leaves orbicular 
concave with a lanceolate notch at the extremity, fruit terminal 
upon proper short central branches, perianth oblongo-ovate in- 
flated, the mouth ciliated. Dicks. Cr. Ease. 4. p. 19. t. 11. 
^15. Hook. Br. Jung. t. 15. E. Bot. t. 1304. Lindenb. Syn. 
Hepat. J). 91. 

Wet bogs, particularly among Sphagnum and other semi-aquatic 
mosses.^ Fr. Apr. — This is beautifully distinguished from J. bicuspi- 
data, with which it agrees in its mode of grow'th and texture, by the 
singular curvation of the segments of the leaves towards each other in 
a foi ceps-like manner, bj"^ the swollen, much ciWated perianths, and the 
more divided perichcclial leaves. 

25. ,J. curvifolia, Dicks, {curve-leaved Jungermannia); stem 
procumbent branched in a stellated manner, leaves roundish 
very concave deeply bifid the long acuminate segments singu- 
laidy incurved, fruit terminal upon short proper central bran- 
ches, perianth oblong subplicate, the moutli dentate. Dick.i. 
Cr. Ease. 2. t. {). f. 7 . E. Bot. t. 1304. Hook. Br. Jung. t. 16. 
Lindenb. Syn. Hepat. p. 91. 

On moist rocks and decayed wood, in alpine districts. Fr. March. — 
Leaves generally tinged with purple. 

*** Jxaves tri-quadrijid ; the segments equal. 

26. J. capitdta, Hook, {capitate Jungermannia); stem pros- 
trate nearly simple, leaves rotundato-quadrate the loAver ones 
bifid the upper ones collected into a head and tri-quadrifid, 
fruit terminal, perianth oblongo-ovate subplicate, the mouth 
contracted toothed. Hook. Br. Jung. t. 80. Lindenb. Syn. 
Hepat. p. 92. 

Cadnam bog and Lyndhursl Race-course, Hants, C. Lycll, Esq. Dry 
mountain rock, near Bantry, Ireland, Miss Hulchins. Fr. Si>ring. — 




Very nearly allied to ./. exvisa; but the /o/i«ge has a much more loosely 
cellular texture (which also keeps it distinct from J. incisa) and the 
upper leaves, which, too, are tri-quadrifid, are collected into a head at 
the extremity of the stem or branch. 

27. J. incisa, Schrad. (^jug-leavedJ linger mannia); stem pros- 
trate nearly simple, leaves rotimdato-quadrate waved trifid the 
segments unequal here and there toothed, fruit terminal, perianth 
ohovate. Schrad. Samml.2.p. 5. Hook. Br. Jung. t. 10. E. 
Bot. t. 2528. Lindenb. Syn. Hepat. p. 93, 

Wet bogs. Fr. Winter and Spr. — A minute species, like the preced- 
ing, with foliage of a pale delicate green, densely crowded, waved and 
cut, and with thickened and compressed stems. Fruit rare. Gemnas co- 
pious, collected into little balls on the points of the leaves. 

28. J. pusilla, Linn, {dwarf Jimgermannia^; stem procumbent 

nearly simple, leaves horizontal quadrate waved large irregularly 
2 — 3-fid, fruit terminal, perianth campanulate, the mouth much 
spreading waved and cut, capsule globose bursting irregularly. 
Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1602. E. Bot. t. 1175. Hook. Br. Jung. t. 69. 
Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 2. n. 105. Lindenb. Syn. Hcpat. p. 94. — 
J.angulosa, Dicks. — J. Wondraczelci, Corda in Sturm, DeutscJd. 
FI. cum Ic Dill. Muse, t.l\. f. 22, C, D, E, and t. 74. f. 46. 

Moist shady banks, especially on clay. Fr. Aut. and Spr. — This 
species is quite peculiar. Its short and stout stems are furnished with 
long purple radicles for the whole length of their underside. Leaves large 
in proportion to the size of the plant and closely set, spreading. Anthers, 
as they are called, are found naked upon the stems. The perianth is 
singidarly large, campanulate, often cut, with 4 — 5 external subulate 
appendages or bracteas. The capsule is globose, of a very thin and fragile 
texture, bursting irregularly and containing seeds which are densely muri- 
cated. Sometimes 2 or 3 capsules arise from the same calyx. 

*** Leaves bifid, the segments unequal, conduplicate. 

29. ,1. nemorosa, Linn, (pvood Jungermannia'); stem erect 
subdichotomous, leaves unequally 2-lobed dentato-ciliate, lobes 
conduplicate the lower ones larger ohovate the upper ones sub- 
cordate obtuse, fruit terminal, perianth oblong inemwed com- 
pressed, the mouth truncated dentato-ciliate. LJnn. Sp. PI. p. 
1598. E. Bot. t. 607. Hook. Br. Jung. t. 21. Hobs. Br. Mosses, 
V. 2. 71. 101. — J. resupinata, E. Bot. t. 243. Lmdenb. Syn. 

Hepat. p. 51. — Dill. Muse., t. 71. f. 19 /S. purpurascens. J. 

cochleariformis. With. — Dill. Muse. t.lY.f. 21. — y. recurvifolia. 
Hook. Hr. Jung. 1. c. — X. deinidata ; lobes of the leaves nearly 
entire. Hook. Br. Jung. 1. c. 

Woods and among rocks, especially in alpine situations. Fr. April, 

30. J. planifolia. Hook, (^jiat-leaved Jungermannuf); stem 
erect nearly simple, leaves bipartite, lobes unequal dentato-ci- 
liate conduplicate the lower ones larger ovate the upper ones 
cordate. Hook. Br. Jung, t, 67, et in E. Bot. Suppl. t. 269.5. 
J. nemorosa, d. Lindenb. Syn. Hepat. p. 52. 





Moist rocky places, Ben a borcl and Ben y mac Duich, Scotland, Mr. 
Don, (at which latter place Mr. Arnolt and myself gathered it abund- 
antly in 1830, growing with J. Dnniann.) Summit of Brandon mountain, 
Ireland, Dr. Taylor. Cwm Idwel, N. Wales, Mr. Wilson. Fr. un- 
known, — The lobes of the leaf are, in this remarkable species, sejiarated 
nearly to the base, so that they may be said to form distinct leaves. 
Tins species has been observed by Mr. Wilson to have a very fetid 
smell, resembling Castor, giving out its odour while drying and on being 
again moistened. The plant and its foliage are among the largest of 
this groupe, and of a yellowish-brown colour. 

31. J. iimbrnsa, Sclirad. (shady Junyermannid); stem nearly 
erect somewhat brauclietl, leaves unequally lobed the lobes 
conduplicate their apices serrated acute, the upper ones round- 
ish-ovate the lower ones larger ovate, fruit terminal, perianth 
oblong incurved compressed, the mouth truncated entire. 
Sckrad. Samrnl. 2. p. 5. Hook. Hr. Jung. t. 24. E. Hot. t. . 
Lindenb. Syn. Heput. p, 57. 

Rocks in Scotland, Ireland, and at Llyn Ogwen, N. Wales. (Afr. 
Wilson.) Fr. March, Apr. — Considerably smaller than the two pre- 
ceding, and serrated only at the extremity of the leaves. 

32. J. iinduldta, Linn. (ivavy-Ienved .Tungermannia); stem 
erect dichotomous, leaves unequally lobed \vaved the lobes 
conduplicate roundish entire or very obscurely crenulated, the 
lower ones mucli larger, fridt terminal, perianth oblong incurved 
compressed, the mouth truncated entire or nearly so. Linn. Sp. 
PL p. 1598. E. Hot. t. 2231, (the fructified specimens appear 
to belong to J.scalaris.) Hook. Hr. Jung. t. 22. Hobs. Hr. 
Mosses, V. 2. n. 116. Lindenb. Syn. Hepat. p. 56. — J. purpurea, 
E. Hot. t. 1023, (excluding the figure on the left-hand side of 
the plate, which belongs to J. albicans.) 

Wet [)laces, among rocks in streams and in springs, alpine countries, 
abundant. Fr. May, 

33. ,J. resupindta, Linn, (curled Jungermannia); stem pro- 
cumbent nearly simple, leaves roundish almost equally 2-lobed 
entire the lobes conduplicate, fruit terminal, perianth oblong 
incurved compressed, the mouth truncated denticulate. Linn. 
Sp. PL ir 1598. Hook. Hr. Jung. t. 23. E. Hot. t. 2498. 
Lindenb. Syn. Hepat. p. 33. 

Banks and in woods. Fr. Spring. — Much smaller than the last, with 
procumbent stems, and nearly equal concave conduplicate but closely 
appressed lobes of the leaves. 

34. ,J. dlbicrtns, Linn, (tvhitish Jungermannia); stem erect 
slightly divided, leaves unequally 2-lohed the lobes conduplicate 
with a pellucid line in the middle serrated at the point the 
upper ones oblongo-ovate acute the lower ones larger some- 
what scymltar-sliaped, fruit terminal, perianth obovate cylindrical 
subcompressed, the mouth contracted plicate toothed. Linn. 
Sp. PL p. 1399. E.Hot. t. 2240, and t. 1023, (the left-hand 
figure.) Hook. Hr. Jung. t. 23. Hobs. Hr. Mosses, v. 2. n. 82. 
Lindenb. Syn. Hepat. p. ^7. — T. varia, Linn. Sp. PJ. p. 1601.— 

Jtutgermannia.'\ HEPATIC.E. 115 

DHL 3Iusc. t. 71./. 20, and t. 73. f. 36. — 3. 'procumhens ; stem 
procumbent, leaves nearly erect. 

Moist banks, especially in a loamy soil, abundant. Fr. March, Apr. 

35. J. ohtmifoiia, Hook, (blunt-leaved Jungermannia^; stem 
ascending simple, leaves unecpially 2-lobed the lobes condupli- 
cate obtuse entire, the upper ones oblong obtuse the lower 
ones large somewhat scymitar-shaped, perianth obovate, the 
mouth contracted toothed. Hook. Dr. .lung. t. 26. E. Dot. t. 
2511. Lindenh. Syn. Hepat. p. 60. 

Near Heddon on the Wall, Northninberland, Mr. Thornhill. Near 
Bantry, Ireland, Miss Hutchins. Dnncoinbe wood, near Cork, and 
Delainere Forest, Cheshire, Mr. Wilson. Fr. Apr. May. — Much 
smaller than the last, with more obtuse entire lobes, destitute of the 
pellucid line, and with perianths not at all compressed. Colour a pale 
pleasant green. 

36. J. Dicksoni, Hook. (Dicksonian J linger mannia'); stem as- 
cending nearlj^ simple, leaves unequally lobed the lobes condu- 
plicate narrow ovate entire acute the lower ones larger, fruit 
terminal, perianth ovate plicate, the mouth contracted toothed. 
Hook. Dr. Jung. t. 48. E. Dot. t. 2591. Hobs. Dr. Mosses, 
V. 2. n. 90. Jjindenb. Syn. Hepat. p. 62. 

Scotland, Mr. Dickson. Castle hill, Kinnordy, and Kerriemiiir, 
Angus, C. Lyell, Esq. Mountains, near Dublin, Dr, Taylor. Fr. 

37. ,T. minuta, Crantz, (small neat Junger mannia'); stem 

erect nearly dichotomous, leaves horizontally patent subcondu- 
plicate the upper ones equally the lower ones unequally 2-lobed 
all rather acute, fruit terminal, perianth obovate a little plicate 
at the extremity, the mouth contracted denticulate. Crantz, 
Hist. Greenl. p. 288. Dicks. Cr. Ease. 2. 13. Hook. Dr. 

.Tung. t. 44. Hobs. Dr. Mosses, v. 2. n. 98. E. Dot. t. 2231. 
Lindenh. Syn. Hepat. p. 62. — Dill. Muse. t. 69. /. 2. 

Alpine rocks, not unfreqnent. Fr. (rare) Spr. and Sum. — A small, 
but remarkably neat growing plant, of a reddish-brown colour, with the 
leaves arranged in a very regular manner. Red gemmce are found in 
loose clusters, at the extremity of the foliage, in summer. 

38. .T. exsecta, Schmid, (notch-leaved Junger maniiia); stem 
prostrate nearly simple, leaves ovato-lanceolate concave the lobes 
very unequal acute subconduplicate the lower one a sharp tooth, 
the apex of the larger one often two-toothed. Schmid. Ic. 
p. 241. A 62./. 2. Hook. Dr. Jung. t. 19. Lindenh. Syn. Hepat. 
p. 64. 

Boggy heaths and moors, in England and the South of Ireland. Fr. 
unknown. — This is a small and Very curious species, differing in the 
structure of its leaves (as do the tw'o following) from the r^t of their 
division ; — Though unequally and sharply two-lobed, the lobes can 
hardly be said to be conduplicate. The fructification has never been 
detected, but balls of bright red gemmse crown the tips of the upper 
leaves and render this minute plant very conspicuous. 

39. J. cochleariformis, Weis, (hollow-leaved Junger mannia); 




stein procumbent nearly simple, leaves imbricated above une- 
qually two-lobed coiuluplicate the upper lobes larger convex 
bifid and serrated at the point tlic lower oblongo-ovate saccate. 
fVeis-, PL Crypt, p. 123. E. Pot. t. 2500. Hook. Br. Jung, 
i. 68. Hobs. Br. 3Iosses, v. 2. n. 87. Lmdenb. Syn. Hepat. p. 50. 
— J. purpurea. Scop. — LigJttf. Scot. v. 2. p. 778. — IMuiuni 
.lungermannia, Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1.579. — Dill. Muse. t. 69. f. 1. 
C, D, E. 

Moist moors and among rocks, Ireland and the Highlands of Scot- 
land, particularly in the north, not unfreqnent. Fr. unknown. 4—6 
inches long, of a rich purple colour, growing in large tufts. The near- 
est affinity of this species is the J. sphagnoides of St. Helena. 

40. J. compJandta, Linn, {flat Jungermannki); stem creeping 
vaguely branched, leaves distichous imbricated above unequally 
2-lobed the upper lobes larger orbicular, the lower ones ovate 
appressed plane, fruit terminal, perianth oblong compressed 
truncate. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1133. E. Bot. i. 2499. Hook. Br. 
Jung. 81. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 1. n. 112. Linde?ib. Syn. Hepat. 
p. 50. — Dill. Muse. t. 72. f. 26. 

Trunks of trees, frequent. Fr. throughout the year. This forms 
pale green, nearly orbicular patches, closely pressed on the bark of trees. 
In habit, allied to J. platyphylla and dilatata ; but destitute oi stipides. 

B. Stipxdate. 

a. Leaves entire or rarely eniarginate. 

41. J. anomala, Hook, {various-leaved Jimgermannia); stem 
procumbent simple, leaves orbicular roundish-ovate and ovato- 
acuminate with large reticulations, stipules broadly subulate. 
Hook. Br. Jung. t. 24. E. Bot. t. 2518. Lindenh. Syn. Hepat. 
p. 25. 

Bogs, not unfrequent. Fr. unknown. — Gemma; are found in^ small 
balls, at the apex of the upper leaves, especially in autumn : and indeed 
Mr. Wilson considers this as only a gemmiferous variety of the following 
species, in which opinion he is probably right; the very large reticula- 
tion of the foliage being common to both, while the chief character oi the 
present lies in its ovate superior leaves. 

42. J. Taylori, Hook. {Taylorian Jungermannia) ; stem 
erect nearly simple, leaves all of them nearly orbicular uitb 
large reticulations, stipules broadly subulate, fruit terminal, pe- 
rianth ovate compressed at the mouth truncated and 2-lipped. 
Hook. Br. Jung. t. 56, et in E. Bot. Suppl. t. 2691. Hobs. Br. 
Mosses, V. 2. n. 1 13. Lindenb. Syn. Hepat. p. 26. 

Moist rocks and boggy places in alpine districts. Fr. Spring.— This 
species is extremely beautiful, of a rich purple colour, with reticulations 
so large, that, when the plant is dry from the collapsing of the cells, its 
leaves have, even to the naked eye, a distinctly dotted appearance. 

43. J. scaldris, Schrad. {ladder Jungerniannid);. creep- 
inir simple, leaves roundish concave entire and emarginate, sti- 
pules broadly subulate, fruit terminal, perianth combined with 



J anger mannia.'] 

the perieliEetial leaves. Schrad. Samml. 2. p. 4. Hook. Br. Juvg. 
t. Gl. Hobs. Br. Mosses, V, 2. n. 107. Lindenb. Sgn. Heped. 
p. 26. — /. lanceolata, E. Bot. 605. 

Hedge-banks and barren wastes, frequent. Fr. March, Apr. K mi- 
nute, black, inuricated, fnngous-like body infests the leaves of this and 
some other species of Jungermnnnia : “ It contains about 15 oblong 
grannies, on rather long pedicels, attached to a determinate portion ol 
the inner surface of the Fungus, one of the hemisphaerical portions 
(after a section is made) being quite free from them.” Wih. 

A4. i. pohjdnthos, Linn, {many -flowered Jungermannia); stem 
procumbent somewhat branched, leaves horizontal roundish 
cpiadrate plane entire and emarginate, stipules oblong bifid, fruit 
on short proper branches from the underside of the stem, peri- 
anth half the length of the calyptra two-lipped laciuiated. Linn. 
Sp. PI. p. 1597. E. Bot. t. 2479. Hook. Br. Jang. A 62. Lin- 
denb. Syn. Hepat. p. 30. — Bdl. Muse. t. 69.^1 7, 8, and t. 70. 
/. 9. 

Moist and very wet places, not unfrequent. Fr. March, Apr. The 
very square leaves and friiclification will always distinguish this 


45. ,J. cuneifolia, Hook, (^wedge-leaved Jungermannia); stem 
creeping simple, leaves rather remote cuneiform entire or very 
obtusely notched at the extremity, stipules minute ovate bifid. 
Hook. Br. Jang. t. 64, et in E. Bot. Suppl. t. 2700. Lindenb. 
Syn. Hepat. p. 33. 

Parasitic on .7. Tamarisci, near Bantry, Ireland, Miss Hutchins. Fr. 
unknown. — This curious and exceedingly minute plant is of a dingy 
brown colour, and scarcely visible to the naked eye. 

46. J. viticulosa, Linn, (straggling flat Jungermannia); stem 
procumbent branched, leaves horizontal plane ovate entire, sti- 
pules broadly ovate dentato-laciniate, fruit dorsal, perianth 
subterraneous oblong fleshy, the mouth fimbriated with foliace- 
ous scales. Linn. Sp. PI. jj. 1597. E. Bot. t. 2513. Hook. Br. 
Jang. t. 60. Lindenb. Syn. Hepat. p. 28. 

In woods and rocky places, among mosses ; especiall}" in alpine 
countries. Fr. Apr. — In the fleshy subterraneous and in habit 
too, this and the following species recede from all the other Junger- 
vinnnicc. Leaves of a firm texture, yellow or tawny-green. 

47. .J. Trichomanis, Dicks. (Fern .J anger mannia) ; stem 
creeping nearly simple, leaves horizontal convex ovate entire or 
emarginate, stipules roundish lunulately emarginate, fruit dor- 
sal, perianth subterraneous oblong fleshy hairy, the mouth cre- 
nated. Dicks. Cr. Ease. 3. t. 8. f. 5. E. Bot. t. 1875. Hook. 
Br. Jung. t. 79, Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 2. n. 114. Lindenb. 

Syn. Hepat. p. 32 .7. scalaris, Schmid. Biss, de Jung. p. 20. 

f. 17, and 18. — ,/. flssa. Scop. — Light/. — ,7. spkcerocephcda. 
With. — Mnium Trichomanis, Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1579. — il7. fis- 
sum, ejasd. p. 1579. — Dill. Muse. t. 8\.f. 5, 6. 

Moist ground, in heaths, woods and in marshes. Fr. Spr. and Sum. — 

® HEPATIC/E. \J linger mannue^ 

i he leaves are of a singularly glaucous hue, with large cellules. Cap- 
sule linear-oblong ; its valves spirally twisted. Gemma; are produced in> 
little balls at the extremity of leafless prolongations of the stem. 
Hence Linna;us referred the plant to his Mnium. 

I>. Leaves hi-tri-jid or-partite, the segments equal. 

* Stipules much smaller than and very distinct from the leaves. 

48. J. bidentdta, Linn, (^triangular -sheathed J linger mannid) ; 
stem procumbent branched, leaves broadly ovate decurrent bi- 
fid at the apex the segments very acute entire, stipules bi-trifid 
and laciniated, fruit terminal, perianth oblong subtriangular, the 
month laciniated. Linn. Sp. PI. ]}. 1598. P. Pot. t. 606, and 
t. 281, (under the name of J. hicuspidatci). Hook. Pr. Jung, 
t. 30. Hobs. Pr. 3Iosses, v. 2. n. 85. — Lindenb. Syn. Hepat. 

/). 41. Pill. 3Iusc. t. 70. jf. 1 1 jS. obtusata ; leaves bluntly emar- 

ginate dark green, stipules multifid. Hook. Pr. Jung. 1. c. 

Moist and shady situations, on hedge-banks, particularly among moss 
and the roots of trees. /3. In very wet parts of Holt Heath, Norfolk, 
Rev. R. B. Francis. Fr. Winter and Spr. — This Jungermannia (as well 
as some others) has a peculiarly agreeable scent, which may perhaps 
best be compared to that of the dry earth suddenly moistened by a 
shower. Colour a pale and whitish green. 

49. J. heterophylla, Schrad. (^various-leaved Jungermannia')^ 
stem creeping branched, leaves roundish ovate decurrent the 
extremity rarely acutely generally obtusely emarginate or en- 
tire, stipules bi-quadrifid here and there laciniated, fruit termi- 
nal, perianth ovate obtusely triangular, the mouth laciniated. 
Schrad. in Journ. Pot. 5. p. 66. Hooh. Pr. Jung. t. 31. 
Lindenb. Syn. Hepat. p. 42. — Pill. 3Iusc. t. 70. y. 12. 

Moist places, upon decaying wood and at the foot of Alders, rarely 
among rocks. Fr. Winter and Spring. — Mr. Wilson has occasionally 
found two gennens in the same calyx. 

50. J. scutdta, Web. et Mohr, (^scutate Jungermanniai); stem 
procumbent simple, leaves rounded acutely emarginate at the 
apex, the segments acute straight, stipules large ovate acuminate 
with a tooth near the base at the margin on each side, fruit lat- 
eral, perianth obovate subplicate at the apex, the mouth con- 
tracted bluntly toothed. Web. et 3Iohr, Cr. Germ. p. 408. 
Lindenb. Syn. Hepat. p. 38. — J. stipulacea, Hook. Pr. Jung. 

41. P. Pot. t. 2356. 

Shady rocks in the South of Ireland, 3Fiss Hutchins. Scotland, 
Mr. Don. 3Ir. Wilson finds it near Turk Cascade, Killarney (but rare,) 
and near Llanberis, N. Wales. Fr. June. — A minute species. Mr. 
Wilson observes the calyx to be somewhat triangular and the stipules and 
leaves to be larger on the top of the stem than elsewhere. 

51. J. Francisci, Hook. (Ilolt J linger mannici); stem nearly 
erect simple or branched, leaves ovate concave acutely emargi- 
nate, stipules minute ovate bifid, fruit terminal upon short 
proper branches, perianth oblongo-cylindrical a little plaited, the 

,Jungermannia.'\ HEPA'l 1 CM. 

nioutli toothed. Hook. Hr. Jung. t. 49. H. Bot. t. 2565. 
Lindenb. Sgn. Hepat. p. 40. 

Moist boggy ground. First found at Holt and Edgefield, Norfolk, by 
Rev. R. R. Francis. In Sntlblk. New Forest, Hants, C- Lyell, Esq. 
Helamere forest, Cheshire, Air. Wilson. About Bantry, Ireland, Aliss 
Hutchins. Fr. Spr. and Sum.— Stems among the most minute of the 
stipulated species : leaves of a purplish tinge ; those of the perichaitium 
often united, so as to form an outer perianth. (Iflls.) 

52. J. harbdta, Schreb. {toothed Jungermannia); stem procum- 
bent nearly simple, leaves rotundato- quadrate tri-quadrifid, sti- 
pules lanceolate acutely bifid or bipartite and laciniated, fruit 
terminal, perianth ovate, the mouth contracted toothed. Schreb. 
Spied. FI. Lips. p. 107. llooh. Br. Jung. t. 70. Hobs. Br. 
Mosses, V. 2. n. 83. — J. quinquedentata, Huds. Angl. p. 511. 
Linn. Sp. PL p. 1598. E. Bot. t. 2517. Lindenb. Syn. Hepat. 

p. 45 Dill. Muse. A 71./ 22, 23.— /3. minor; stem ascending 

elongated at the extremity, upper leaves closely imbricated 
and secund gemmiferous. Hook. Br. Jvng. 1. c. 

Rocks, woods and heathy places, abundant ; es[)ecially in alpine dis- 
tricts. — )3. in similar situations. Fr. Apr. — Perhaps the var. (i. ought 
rather to be considered as the gemmiferous state of the plant, than as a 
var. The stipules are often obsolete in the lower part of the stem. 

53. J. albescens, Hook, {small pale Jungermannia); stem creep- 
ing branched, leaves very concave almost hemispherical emargi- 
nate, stipules ov^ato-lanceolate obtuse, fruit terminal on short 
branches, perianth oblongo- ovate, the mouth toothed. Hook. 
Br. Jung. t. 82, aiid Suppl. t. 4. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 2. n. 81. 
Lindenb. Syn. Hepat. p. 38. 

Rocky places on the summit of Ben Nevis, Scotland. Fr. . 

Of this small, but very distinct species, I have seen fructification only 
on Swiss specimens, gathered at a great elevation on the Grimsel. 
Colour pale green ; cellules large. 

54. J. reptans, Linn, {creeping .Jungermannici); stem creeping 
stellatedly branched, leaves imbricated on the upper side 
subquadrate incurved acutely quadrideutate, stipules broadly 
quadrate cpiadridentate, fruit dorsal, perianth oblong plicate, 
the mouth toothed. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1599. E. Bot. t. 608. 
Hook. Br. Jung. t. 65. Hobs. Br. Alosses, v. 2. n. 106. Lindenb. 
Syn. Hepat. p. 44. — Dill. Muse. t. 71. /. 24 — /3. bipinnata ; 
much larger, regularly bipinnate. Hook. Br. Jung. 1. c. 

Woods ,and shady jdaces, frequent. /3. Ireland ; Lough Bray, Mr. 
Turner; Bantry, Aliss Hutchins; rocky woods near Killarney, where the 
usual state of the plant is rarely to be found. Air. WiUou. Fr. Spr. 
and Sum. — Often bearing flagellae with small leaves, and in that as well 
as in many other particulars, allied to .7. trilobata. It is however much 
smaller, of a very lax cellular texture and ])ale green colour. 

55. ,J. trilobata, Linn, {three-toothed Jungermannia); stem 
creeping flexuose branched, leaves imbricated on the upper side 
ovate convex obtusely tridentate at tlie point, stipules broadly 
.subquadrate crenate, fruit dorsal, perianth oblong subacuminate. 




the mouth cleft on one side. Linn. Sp. PL p. 1599. 
Hook. Hr. Jung.t. 76. Hobs. Hr. Mosses, v. 2. n. 115. Lindenh. 
Syji. Hepat. j). 43. — minor ; much smaller in all its parts. — 
Hook. Hr. Jung. 1. c — y. minima; very minute, leaves indistinct 
or remote often bidentate or entire. Hook. Hr. Juyig. 1. c. 

Moist alpine spots, among rocks, frequent. /J. in more elevated 

situations, y. South of Ireland, Miss Hutchins. Hr. . — The larger 

state of this plant is very handsome and easily recognized by the above 
characters and its numerous almost leaflessyfagc/te. Abortive fructifi- 
cation has been found by Mr. Wilson at Killarney, on the 2 first varie- 
ties. Perfect fruit I have only seen on continental specimens. It is 
tlorsal in its origin, as is the case with J.viticulosa, reptans,Trichomanis,8ic. 

* * Stipules as large as the leaves or nearly so, and easily con- 
founded with them. 

56. J. junijjerina, S\v. {.Juniper-leaved Jungernianniai); stem 
erect flexuose nearly simple, leaves and stipules linear-lanceolate 
bipartite falcato-secund, fruit terminal, perifinth ovate laciniated 
bearing' the perichsetial leaves. Sw. FI. 2nd. Occ. p. 1855. — /S. 
europwa ; segments of the leaves straight. Hook. Hr. Jung, 
t. 4. Hobs. Hr. Mosses, v. 2. n. 95. E. Hot. t. 2443. Lindenb. 
Syn. Hepat. ji. 35. — J. adunca, Dicks. Cr. Fasc. p. 12. t. 8.f. 1. 

/G. Among rocks, on the mountains of Scotland and Ireland. Welsh 

mountains. Hr. . — Habit almost that of an Andraea, 3 — 5 or 6 inches 

tall. Calyx, which itself seems formed of united perichcelial leaves, con- 
cealed by other leaves which arise from it. Setce very short. The fridt 
is exceedingly scarce on European specimens. The West Indian state 
of the plant, larger and with spreading segments to the leaves, is not 
unfrequently found in fr. in Jamaica. 

.i.juldcm, Linn, {silvery alpine Jungermanniai) ; stem nearly 
erect branched filiform, leaves and stipules ovate closely imbri- 
cated erect deeply and acutely bifid, those of the perichsetium 
quadripartite the segments lanqeolate acuminate subserrated 
erect, fruit terminal, perianth oblong plicated upwards, the 
mouth open toothed. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1601. E. Hot. t. 1024. 
Hook. Hr. Jung. t. 2. Hobs. Hr. Mosses, v. 2. n. 94. Lindenb. 
Syn. Hepat. p. 85. — Dill. Muse. t. 18.f. 38. 

Abundant on the ground and on rocks, in the high mountains. Hr. 
June, July. — This is altogether an alpine species, of small size, but 
growing in very dense compact tufts, often rendered conspicuous by a 
silvery white hue which appears to be occasioned by a kind of bloom on 
their surface. 

58. J. laxi folia, PLoo\e. {lax-leaved Jungermanniai); stem erect 
nearly simple filiform, leaves .and stipules remote erecto-patent 
ovate subcarinate acutely bifid with acute erect segments, those 
of the perichfetium similar, fruit terminal, perianth oblong sub- 
plicate, the mouth contracted toothed. Hook. Hr. Jung. t. 59. 
E. Hot. Suppl. 2677. Lindenb. Syn. Hepat. p. 34. 

Mountain rivulet near Bantry, Miss Hutchins ; and in a stream near 
Castle-Kelly mountain, Wicklow, Dr. Taylor. Hr. Apr. — This, with 
much of the habit oi .7. julacea, has lax foliage, of a pale green colour, 
with large cellules and different pcrichivtinl leaves. 




59 J. setdcea, Web. {hristhj Jungermanma); stem creeping 
soineViiat pinnatedly branched, leaves and stipules ^f ^ply bjpai - 
tite the segments (short) setaceous jointed confervoid P‘‘te 1 1 - 
c rved, fruit upon short proper benches pexaanth d - 

Lg, open cillatert. l^bcr, p. 153. 

Juna t. 8. E. Bot. t. 2482- Hobs. Hr. glasses, v. 2. n. 10 J. 

Lindenh. Syn. Hepat. p. 35. 

Okies, Linn. Siippl.-J. pcmciflora, Dicks. Cr. Ease. 2. p. 15. t. 3. 

Sro-rouncU^shady places, and upon decayed stumps ot 
trees ^ r Ocrkv"-Tiii and the following species are so peculiar 
in the confervoid structure of their foliage, that they cannot be con- 
founded with any other. 

60. J. trichophylla, Linn, {hairy- Jungermemnia); stem creeping 
irregularly branched, leaves and stipules deeply 3— 4-paitite 
tlie segments setaceous sometimes fascicled jointed paten 
straight, fruit terminal, perianth oblong, the mouth contractec 
ciliafed. Linn. Sp.Pl.p.\m^- E.Bot. t.^ Hook.Br, 

Jung. t. 7. Lindenh. Syn. Hepat. p. 3o.—DdL Muse. t. 73./ . 

Turfy heaths, in moist and shady situations, chiefly m mountainous 
countries. Fr. June. 

61. J. setiformis, Ehrh. (fonr-Iobed Jimgermannia); stem ei;ect 
nearly simple, leaves bifarious closely imhrmated erect quadii- 
partite the margins reflexed more or less spinuloso-dentate, sti- 
pules bipartite, fruit terminal, perianth oblong plicate, the niout i 
open. Hook. Br. Jung. t. 20.— «. lapponwa ; segmmits of tlie 
leaves spinuloso-dentate. J. setiformis, Ehrh. Band. 3. p. 40. 
—Lindenh. Syn. Hepat. p. 49.— .7. concatenata Lmn. Lapp, 
{cura Sni.) p. 343. — j3. Britannica; leaves smaller their segments 
entire. Hook. Br. Jung. I. c. i t- 

fl. Elevated mountains of Clova and Cairngorm: upon rocks, i'r. • 
Mr.Wilson has satisfied me that the present, as well as the five preceding 
species, is really furnished with sfipides. It is extremely unlike any o ier 
in its essential characters, and the var. H>. (and that, never in fructification) 
has alone been found in Britain. The var. a.., with ca yces and }oung 
capsules, I have figured in the Br. .Tung, from Linnaeus own specimens. 
This species grows in dense soft tufts of a yellow-green colour. 

c. Leaves bifid, lobes unequal conduplicate. 

* Loner or smaller segments plane. 

62. J. platyphylla, Linn, {fiat-leaved Jungermannia); stem 
procumbent pinnatedly branched, leaves unequally 2-lobed the 
upper lobes roundish-ovate nearly entire, the lower ones and 
stipules lignlate entire, fruit lateral, perianth ovate coinpiessei , 
the mouth truncated iiiciso-serrate cleft on one side. Linn. 
Sp. Pl.p. 1600. E. Bot. 1. 798. Hook. Br. Jung. <.40, ana 
Siippl. t. 3. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 2. n. 103.— |S. major ; vaguely 
pinnatedly branched, leaves larger glossy yellow-green. Linden >. 
Syn. Hepat. p. 18._y. Thuya; stem elongated simply pinnatedly 


HEPA 1 1 CJE. \_Jungermannia, 

brownish. J. Thurga, Dicks. Cr. 
/’asc. 4. p. 19. Dill. Muse. p. 72. /. 33. 

ti iinks of trees, abundant. /3. near Bantry, Ireland. 

north of Irpl-in'l \r ^..^'Ochness in Scotland, A. Menzies, Esq., and 

the Dailli T 1 ’ 1 ^'’b«on finds near 

'"1 ' quadrate, resembling the leaf of 

J. j)olijauthos, and the lesser one very small. 

63. . 1 . IcBuigdta, Schrad. {smooth-leaved Jungermaiinki); stem 
procumbent vaguely bipinnate, leaves nnequaily 2-lobed spinu- 
loso-dentate, upper lobes roundisb-ovate the lower ones ligu- 
late, the stipules oblongo-quadrate spinuloso-dentate. Schrad. 

r P' f J^ooky Br. Jung. t. 35. Hohs. Br. Mosses, v. 2. 
n. Jo. Buidenh. Syn. Hepat. p. 18. 

knmvn°"“T^®’i'" Scotland and Ireland. Fr. un- 

nrecedinc.^ fm be united with the 

P o > ni winch it diflers only by the characters above given. 

• Linn, {ciliated Jungermamiki); stem procumbent 

pmnatedly nranched, leaves very convex unequally 2-lobed the 
lobes and lobules ovate bipartite with long slender cilia, fruit 
lateid perianal obovate, the moutb contracted toothed. Linn. 

w 1^- 14. E. Bot. t. 2214. 

Hook. Br. Jung. t. 65. Lindenb. Syn. Hepat. p. 1 ^.—J. mdcher-, mS.-Viep Cr. Fuse. 1./ t.%1 it 
^^eaths and rocks especially m subalpine countries, frequent. Fr 
seen ’witli ^ beautiful species has never, so far as I am aware, been 

‘ Even the calijces are rare. Mr. 

Iv\ Walet.^ specimens with them, near the top of Carnedd Llewelyn, 

65. J. Woodsii, Hook. {Mr. Woods’ Jungermannia); stem pro- 
cumbent bi-tripinnate, leaves very convex unequally 2-lobed 
the upper lobes bipartite spinuloso-dentate the lower ones very 
minute oblong nearly entire, stipules large ovate bipartite 
spinuloso-dentate with the base spurred on each side. Hook. 


b-eland; first found by J. JVoods, Esq. on 
the ascent of Mangerton from Cwm na Capel. In great abundance at 

lareer unknown.-Allied to the last, but a 

rilSr p unt, with toothed and laciniated, but not 

ciliated, and cellules placed wide apart. 

66. J. tomentella, Ebrb. {spongy Jungermannia); stem sub- 
erect bipinnate, leaves nearly plane unequally 2-lobed capillari- 
multihd, upper lobes bipartite the lower ones minute, stipules 
subquadrate laciniated, fruit axillary, perianth oblong cylindrical 
hairy, the mouth open. Ehrh. Bekr. 2. n. 150. Dicks Cr 
Faso. 2.p. 14. E. Bot. t. 2242. Hook. Br. Jung. t. 36. h 1. Br^. 
Mosses v.\. n. 113. lAndenh. Syn. Hepat. p. \d.—Dill.3Iusc. 

i tJ* OO* 

Plentiful in moist places, in various parts of the south-west and nortli 
of England, as well as in Scotland and Ireland : yet by no means of 



Jungerinannial] nx.irn.iivj*-.. 

1 Af Allan’s Ford, near Durham, Mr. Thornhill 

S”"tos“rco“<l loaded a can with it Jr,. ra,e, March, 

Apr to June, (at Cotteral wood, Cheshire), il/r, H tlson. _ 

This is a very peculiar plant and like no other European species. I s 
leave, are so crowded and so cut into fine 

that the whole has almost the texture of sponge. 1 >ie co/ou? is peculia y 
X Tnd tl' ereisnoappareat ce/y,.<™.at least at the tune ,vhe,. the f.u.t 
is in perfection. 

** Loicer or smaller segments (of the leaves) involute. 

67. .J. Machdii, Hook. (Mr. 3Iackaf s Jungeinnam^^^ 
creeping irro!?ularly hrancliecl, leaves unecpially 2-lobed the 
upper lobes rounded the lower ones minute involute, stipu es 
liiL roundish obcordate, fruit lateral and terminal, perianth 
obcordate compressed gibbous below, the mouth connoted ele- 
vated toothed. Hooh. Br. Jung. p. 53. E. Bot.t. 2o/3. Hobs. 
Br. 3Iosses, v. 2. n. 97. Lindcnh. Syn. Hepayp.2(). 

Trunks of trees and rocks, especially in a limestone country, raie. 
Dar<rle J. T. Mackay, Esq., and Ballilicky near Bantry, J/m/c/umj. 
Killarney, Mr. IVilson. Lowdore, Cumberland ; and Mt. Edgecombe, 
Lvon, C. Lyell, Esq. Throughout the limestone tracts >^he south of 
Devon particularly in the fissures of rocks near Toi quay, W. J. 1 • 
River side, Aber, N. Wales. Mr. Wilson. Fr. Winter and 
A very distinct and little known species. The capsule (of delicate 
texture) is globose and the spiral filaments are enclosed in transparent 
ISes, as indie remaining species of this and the following subdivision. 

68. .T. serpyllifolia, Dicks, (thyme-leaved Jungerniannia); stem 
creeping irregularly pinnated, leaves unequally 2-lobed upper 
lobes rounded lower ones minute involute, stipules rounded acute- 
ly bifid, fruit lateral, perianth broadly obovate pentagonal, the 
mouth contracted elevated and somewhat toothed, capsule pe - 
lucid quadrifid. Dichs. Cr. Base. 4. p. 19 Hook. Br Jung 
t. 42. E. Bot. t. 2537. Hobs. Br. filosses, v. 2. n. 108. Lindenb. 


Trees and rocks in alpine and subalpme districts, fr. Apr. May. 

A small pale green plant, forming, with the three fo lowing species, 
a most natural and beautiful little groupe, distinguished by their angular 
perianths, white, membranous, transparent, reticulated, quadrifid capsule 
and green seeds. By its affinity to J. Mackaii, however, it is connected 
with ,7. Hutchinsia; and other species. 

69. .J. hamat folia. Hook, (hook-leaved Jungermannia); stem 
creepino- irregularly branched, leaves unequally 2-lobed the 
upper lobes ovate acuminate often curved at the point the lower 
ones involute, stipules ovate acutely bifid, fruit lateral, perianth 
obovate pentagonal, the mouth contracted elevated tootlmd, 
capsule transparent quadrifid. Hook. Br. Jung. 51. E. Bot. 
t. 2592. Lindenb. Syn. Hepat.j)‘ 23. — 13. echinata; leaves beauti- 
ful echinated. Hook. 1. c. Suppl. t. 3. 

Rocks and trees, but local and in subalpine districts. Yoikshire, 
Cumberland, Devonshire. About Dublin and in the south of Iieland, 
where Miss Hutchins found it growing on the stems of Ulex nana. 




along with J. culyptrifolut. Fr. March. — A singular little plant, form- 
ing small green tufts, whose foliage is not distinctly visible to the naked 
eye; yet it is larger than in the following species. “ A curious var. is 
found by Dr. Taylor at Woodlands, near Dublin, incrusting Anomodon 
viticidosum ; its stipules are hardly to be discerned and the perianth is desti- 
tute ot the winged angles and tubular mouth usually seen in the species.” 

70. J. niinutissbna, Sm. (^minute round-leaved J linger manyiiaf; 
stem creeping irregularly branched, leaves unequally (and 
imperfectly) 2-lobed the upper lobes liemispbaerical the lower 
ones minute almost obsolete, stipules ovato-rotiindate bifid, 
fiuit lateral, perianth obov^ate-rotundate pentag'onal, the mouth 
contracted slightly toothed, capsule transparent quadrifid. 
fj. Idol. t. 1633. Hook. Dr. Jung. t. 52. Hobs. Dr. JSIosses, 

V. 2. n. 99. Lindenb. Syn. Hepat. p. 23.— Dill. Muse. t. 12. 
f. 29. 

Balk of Holly, Ash and Fir; as well as on rocks, principally in the 
south of England and Ireland : first discovered by C. Lyell, Esq. Near 
Dublin, Br. Taylor. Not rare in Clieshire. Fr. Apr. May.— This well 
deseives the name which Sir J. E. Smith has given to it, for it is cer- 
tainly the most minute species with which I am acquainted ; its tufts 
form small green granulated patches. Mr. Wilson observes that sti- 
pules are seen upon the barren branches only. 

71. J. c'dyptri folia, Hook, (liooded-leaved Jungermannici) ; 
stem creeping branched, leaves unequally 2-lobed, the upper 
lobes larger calyptriform the lower ones obtusely quadrate cir- 
cumvolute, fruit lateral, perianth oblong depressed and plane at 
the apex quinquedentate, the mouth minute contracted, cap- 
sule transparent quadrifid. Hook. Br. Jung. t. 43. E. Hot. 
t. 2538. Lindenb. Syn. Hepat. p. 24. 

On the stems of Ulex nana, near Bantry, Miss Hutchins. Killarney, 

W. J. H., whereat Turk Cascade it is more plentiful on Fir-trees than 
on Ulex, and always grows in very small detached tufts. Mr. IVilson. 
Lowdore, C. Lyell, Esq. Fr. Oct. Nov. — This species is not only 
among the most minute, but amongst the most singular in structure of 
all the Jungermannice. Its leaves almost exactly resemble the calyptra 
of a moss, and they are remarkably attenuated at the point ; the open- 
ing at the base is almost covered by the circumvolute lesser lobe. 

*** Lower or smaller segments (of the leaves saccate.) 

12. J. HutchmsicE, Hook. (Miss Hutchins' Jungermannia); stem 
creeping branched, leaves unequally 2-lobed the iqqjer lobes 
ovate spinuloso-serrate the lower ones minute saccate at the 
base frequently unidentate, stipules roundish-ovate subserrate 
acutely bifid, fruit lateral, perianth obcordate triangular. Hook. 
Br. Jung. t. 1. E. Bot. t. 2480. Lindenb. Syn. Hepat. p. 18. 

First discovered in the south of Ireland, at Glengariff near Bantry, 
along the banks of the first river, going from Bantry, above the water- 
fall ; and in gloomy caverns at the side of other mountain rivulets, by 
Miss Hutchins. Turk waterfall and other places near Killarney; Bal- 
linhasig Glen, near Cork ; and in a barren state in the pass of Llanberis 
at the foot of Glyder Mountain, N. Wales. Fr. March. — This bcauti- 




ful and very distinct species seems almost wholly confined to the soiitli 
of Ireland and there only has it been found in fructification. 

73. J. dilatdta, Linn, {dilated Jimgermannia); stem creeping 
irregularly branched, leaves nnecpially 2-lobed the upper lobes 
roundish acute the lower ones roundish saccate, stipules round- 
ish plane emarginate, fruit terminal, perianth obcordate tuber- 
cnlated triangular. Linyi. Sp. Pl. p. 1600. Hook. Br. Jung, 
t. 3. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 2. «. 91. Limlenh. Syn. Hepat.p.Vl.— 
Lejeunia, Libert. — tamariscifolia, Schreb. — E. Bot. t. 1086. 

Dill. Muse. t. 72. f. 27. , e c 

Trunks of trees ; very frequent. Fr. Winter and Spr. One of the 
most general of all Jungermannice, colouring the trunks of trees with 
brown spots or blotches. It must be carefully distinguished from the 
following, which is often confounded with it. 

74. J. Tamarisci, Linn. {Tamarisk Jimgerma7inia); ^tm\ 
creeping pinnatedly branched, leaves unequally 2-lobed, the 
upper lobes ovato-rotnndate the lower ones minute obovate 
saccate, stipules subquadrate emarginate the margins revolute, 
fruit on short terminal branches, perianth obovate smooth tri- 
angular. Lmn. Sp. Pl. p. 1600. Hook. Br. Jung. t. &. E.Bot. 
t. 2480. Hobs. Br. Mosses, v. 2. «. 112. Lindenb. Syn. Hepat. 

p. 17. — Dill. Muse. t. 72. f. 31. . • u i 

On the ground and creeping over low bushes, especially m subal- 
pine countnes, common. Fr. July, Ang.-Besides the characters above 
given, this may be distinguished by its longer and more regularly pinnated 
stems, which grow in large lax tufts. A var. is found by Mr. Wilson on 
Turk mountain, Ireland, with the larger lobe of the leaf evidently and 
sharply apiculate, as well as the segments or lobes of the stipules. 

II. Frondose. 
a. Fronds destitute of nerve. 

75. J. pinguis, Linn, {slippery Jimgermannia); frond oblong 
decumbent nerveless fleshy plane above, beneath tumid irregu- 
larly branched the margins sinuate fruit from the lower part 
near the margin, perianth very short, the mouth dilated fimbri- 
ated, calyptra exserted oblongo-cylindrical smooth. Linn. Sp. 
PL p. 1602. E. Bot. t. 185. Hook. Br. Jung. t. 46. Lindenb. 
Syn. Hepat. p. 98. — Metzgeria pinguis, Corda. — Dill. Muse, 
t. 74. /. 42, {excl.Jig. B, S, K .) — /3. angustior ; frond elongated 
almost linear simple or bipinnatedly branched. 

Bogs and watery [ilaces.— 13. in pools of water among confervee and 
other aquatics. Fr. Summer. 

76. J. nmUifida, Linn, {many-lobed .Tungermannia); frond 
linear nerveless fleshy compressed bipinnatifidly branched, fiuit 
marginal, perianth very short, the month dilated fimbriated, 
calyptra exserted oblongo-cylindrical tubercnlated. Linn. Sp. 
PL p. 1602. E. Bot. t. 186.' Hook. Br. .Tung. t. 45. Hobs. Br. 
Mosses, V. 2. n. 100. Lindenb. Syn. Hepat. p. 98. — Anthoceros 
multijidus, Dirks.— Dill. Muse. t. 74./. 43.— /3. sinnnta ; fronds 




Inoader branched the margin sinuated. J. sinuata, DicJis. Cr, 
Fasc. 2. p. 16. — Dill. 3Iusc. t. 13. f 44. — y. palmata ; short 
(mnse upriglit, fronds branched in a somewhat palmated manner. 
J. furcata, Hediv. 

\\ et places, upon heaths, in marslies and by the sides of ditches; 
both a. and 9>.— y. mostly on decayed stumps of trees. Fr. Spr.— Allied 
to the preceding, but tridy distinct. Its fronds are far narrower, evi- 
dently reticulated, equally compressed on both sides, and the caluptra 
is tuberculated. 

h. Fronds furnished with a nerve or costa. 

* Perianth single. 

77. J. Bldsia, Hook, (^flask-hearing Jungermannia); frond ob- 
long suhmembranaceoiis dichotonions costate with scattered 
toothed scales below, fruit arising from the upper side of the 
costa, perianth and calyptra within the frond. Hook. Br. Jung, 
t. 82, 83, and 84. Hobs. Br. Jlosses, v. 1. n. 109. Lindenh. Syn. 
Hepat. p. 96 . — Blasia Hookeif Corda in Sturm Deutschl. pi. 
cum Ic.~ Blasia pusilla, Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1605. E.Bot. t. 1328. 
— Dill. 3Iusc. t. 31. y. 7. 

Moist heaths, on^ sandy ground occasionally inundated ; not uncom- 
mon in the mountainous and subalpine parts of England, Scotland and 
Ireland, hr. (rare} March and April — 7'his is a truly e.xtraordinary 
plant, of which ample details are given in the Monograph of British 
•JungermannicB quoted above. Anthers? oblong and reticulated are im- 
bedded^ in the costa. Genimce of two kinds are found : the one con- 
tained in a hollowed receptacle within the nerve, having a long tubular 
beak. These are pale green, globose, reticulated, having a fibrous radi- 
cle, and, when I’eady to escape, flowing in considerable numbers through 
the mouth of the tube. The 2d kind consists of small almost black 
sphaerical masses of a granular or pulpy substance, appearing within the 
epidermis on the underside of the frond, often covered by the scales. 

pistils o? the female flowers are seen upon the nerve, on the out- 
side of the frond, quite exposed. In a more advanced stage, the ferti- 
lized pistil is found in an oval cavity within the substance of the frond, 
and surrounded by a membranous bag or perianth, whose summit is at- 
tached to an umbilicus on the upper side of the closed cavity. At 
length, the frond bursts with an irregular opening near the extremity, 
and the calyptra in part, and the capsule and elongated entirely, 
are protruded. Spiral fllamcnts of a double helix. Seeds of 2 to 4 
grains combined together and enveloped in a pellucid membrane.— The 
late Mr. Hobson discovered this species with fructification near Filan- 
chester; and Mr. Wilson finds it near Aber, N. Wales, and in Dela- 
mere Forest, Cheshire. 

78. J. epiphylla, Linn, fn'oad-leaved Jungermannia); frond 
oblong submembranaceons irregularly divided obscurely costate 
the margin entire or somewhat lobed and sinuated, fruit from 
the upper side of the frond and near the apex, perianth subcy- 
lindrical plicate, the mouth somewhat dilated inciso-dentate, 
calyptra exserted smooth. Linn. Sp. PL p. 1602. E. Bot. 
t. 771. Hook. Br. Jung. t. 47. Hobs. Br. flosses., v. 1. n. 108. 




Lindenb. Syn. Hepat. p. 97 . — PoUm, Corda. — Dill. Muse. t. 74. 
f, 41. — g. iongifolia ; fronds elongated simple or only here and 
there divided by innovations. J. endivicefolia, Dicks — y.fui'ci- 
gera ; fronds at the apex dichotoniously divided with narrow 

Moist ground, frequent. — (i. Bogs and ditches. — y. Not imcornmon in 
rather dry situations, especially in the winter months. Fr. Spr. and 
Aut. — This fine species may frequently be seen in damp shady places, 
by the sides of springs and wells, with its white sparkling silvery threads, 
which are of most rapid growth, bearing at their summit the pale-brown 
capside, which, when the valves are fidly expanded, bears the spiral 
^laments in a beautiful tuft or pencil in the centre. 

79. J. fiircdta, Linn, (forked .Jungermannki); frond linear 
dichotomous membranaceous costate glabrous above, beneath 
and on tlie margin more or less hairy, fruit from the midrib on 
the underside, perianth 2-lobed conduplicate the margin ciliated, 
calyptra obovate crisped. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1602. E. Pot. t. 1632. 
Hook. Pr. Jung. t. 55, 56. Hobs. Pr. Mosses, v. l.y>. 110. Lin- 
denb. Syn. Hepat. p. 94. — Ddl. Muse. t. 74. f. 45. — /3. elongata; 
frond larger more elongated and straighter. — J.furcata, (3. max- 
ima ; JVeb. — y. ceruginosa; frond broader blue-green, the extre- 
mities (except in the gemmiferous plant) dilated very obtuse. 
J. fruticulosa, E. Pot. t. 2514. — Riccia fniticulosa, Dicks. Cr. 
Fuse. \. p. 8. 

On trunks of trees and sometimes on low bushes, heathy ground, 
rocks, &c., abundant. — /3. on rocks in subalpine countries. — y. on trees 
in the West of England, (Mr. Wilson,) Scotland, and Ireland. Fr. 
Winter and Spr.— I’he fruciificalion of this, again, is very peculiar. 
Anthers are found on the costa, on the underside of the frond, enclosed 
in and attached to a costate scale, rolled up like a ball. Gemma; appear 
on the aeruginose var., terminating narrow prolongations of the forking 
of the frond. 

80. J. pubescens, Schrank, (downy Jtmgermannia') ; frond 
linear dichotomous membranaceous costate pubescent on both 
sides. Schrank, Salisb. p. 231. Hook. Pr. Jung. t. 7^. Hobs. 
Pr. Mosses, v. 2. n. 104. Lindenb. Syn. Hepat. p. 95. — J. tomen- 
tosa, Hoffm. 

Moist rocks, frequent in alpine situations. Fr. unknown. — Although 
so nearly allied to the preceding as not to be distinguished but by its 
larger size and its fronds thickly downy on both sides, }'et it appears 
constant to these characters. The fruit has never been found; but 
anthers are frequent and enclosed in a receptacle similar to that de- 
scribed under J . furcata, only it is densely hairy. 

** Perianth double. 

81. J. Lyellii, Hook. (Mr. L^yelVs Jungermannia) ; frond ob- 
long somewhat dichotoniously branched membranaceous costate, 
fruit from the costa above, periantli double the exterior very 
short toothed and laciniated the inner much exserted cylindrical 
subplicate . — ». scales of the anthers much laciniated crowded. 




^*77. Lindenb. Syn. Hepat. p. 96. 
Diploniitrion, Corda. — /5. larger, scales of the anthers lax scarcely 
toothed. J. Hibernica, Hook. Hr. Jung. t. 78. Lindenb. Syn. 
Hepat. p. 93. 

Fiist found in boggy plains in the New Forest, Hampshire, and at 
Hiuinly Airy, a waterfall on the Noran, Angusshire, by C. Lijell, Esq. 
Near Bantry, Ireland, Miss Hutchins. Near the bridge at AherfFraw, 
growing in small radiated tufts, soon covered (before the capsule is ripe) 
by the drifted sand of the sea-shore, Mr. Wilson. — p>. Lough Bray, near 

Dublin, L)r. Faylor. Catlaw, Angusshire, C. Lyell, Esq. Fr. Spr. 

At the suggestion of Mr. Wilson, 1 readily unite the J. Hibernica of the 
Eritish Jungermannicc with J. LyclUi. I had laid some stress upon the 
lelative length of the calyptra and inner perianth, but 1 am now inclined 
to believe it is a fallacious character, and that none better can be 
found (and those certainly liable to vary) than the difference in the size 
of the plants, and in the scales of the midrib on the underside which 
conceal the anthers. 

Obs. There being already a J. affinis, of Nees Von Esenbeck, the 
plant which bears that name at p. 1 1 1, n. 18. of this volume should be 
altered to J, turbinata, Wilson in E, Bot. Supq>l. ined. 


Ord. IV. LICHENES.' Ach. Lichens. 

Perennial Plants, varying' exceedingly in their form, appear- 
ance and texture, always constituting a thallus, crust, ov frond 
(^ttniversfd receptacle, Aclid), which frequently spreads liorizontally 
iqjon soil, rocks, stones, tlie bark of trees and dead wood, and 
is pnlvernlent, ineinbranaceous, coriaceous, gelatinous, filanien- 
tose, and variously lobed and divided : sometimes it is erect, 
frnticulose and much branched ; at other times pendent ; variously 
coloured, rarely green : often the substance is simply composed 
of cellules, at other times the cellules are mixed with fibres. 
Imperfect I'oots are sometimes formed, hut more for the pur- 
pose of fixing the plant to its place of growth than of deriv- 
ing nutriment, which appears to be afforded solely by the 
air. Fructification is of two kinds: ^powdery substance, form- 
ing indeterminate masses, or collected into more or less evident 
Teceptacles ; and, what is considered a higher state of fructifica- 
tion, apothecia, or partied receptacles, which have received 
ditfeient names according to their forms: — scutellce or shields, 
as in Lecanorct and Parmelia : jxdellulee (spangles, Sni,^ as in 
Lecidea ; lirellcB, clefts, as in Opegraphn ; mycince, as in Pevo- 
rnyces ; pilidia (pitffs, Sm.) as in Ccdicium ; orbdlce, as in 
Usnea ; peltce, targets, as in Peltidea ; tricce or gyrdmata (buttons, 
as in Gyrophora ; tubercida, tubercles, as in Verrucaria ; 
cifulcE, ((cellules, Sm.) as in Spheerophoron ; cephalodia, (knobs, 
as in Scyp)hophorus, (when the stalk Avhich bears them is 
called podetium); jmlvimdi (uedted sporules), as in Spiloma ; 
variolce (p^istules), as in Variolaria : — these, for the most part, 
lire sessile, perennial, and contain a somewhat waxy plate or 
layer, (lamijia proligera, Ach.) in which are imbedded seeds, 
or sporules, enclosed in little membranous tubes or theca;. 

The Lichens are, perhaps, more nearly allied to the Funeji 
than to the Alyce., in general appearance. Some Pezizoe, among 
the former, resemble certain Lichens, destitute of, or with an 
imperfect, tludlus ; and the Genus LJehina is considered by 
many to have as great a claim to rank with the Lichens as 
among the Algce, in which it is usually placed. By the Genus 
Endocaipon they approach the Hepaticco. They are among the 

_ ' Fi'om a wart, which tho fructifications often resemble. 




first plants which clothe the bare rocks and form a humus for 
others of a higher organization to live and flourish in. In the 
arts, in domestic economy, (scarcely in medicine,) many of them 
are highly valuable, as will be mentioned under the respective 

The Genera of Acharius, being those in most general use, are 
here adopted, Avith some modifications : and the arrangement 
followed is founded on that of M. Fee (published in his 
“ Essai sur les Cryj)togcums des ecorces exotiques officinales”),^ 
Avhich arrangement appears to me to be the most natural ot 
any that has hitherto appeared. Eschweiler, Fries, Agardh, 
Meyer, Walrotb, and Chevaliei’, have likewise proposed new 
methods ; but I have not yet had the opportunity of studying 
their respective merits. It will be seen in this and the remain- 
ing Orders of Cryptogamia, that the plant itself, independent of 

fructification or reproductive organs, by whatever name they 
may be called, is essential in distinguishing the genera, as is 
also the fructification. 

It is to be regretted that no publication of specimens of the 
Lichens of Great Britain, (which have been so successfully 
ascertained and described by the labours of Dickson, Smith, 
Turner, and Borrer) similar to those of Mosses by Drummond 
and Hobson, and of Hepaticee by the latter, has appeared. 
Such a woi’k (including other Cryptogamic Plants,) was begun 
by Mr. Baxter of Oxford, but the author died before it had 
reached the 3d. Fasciculus ; and no one has undertaken the con- 
tinuation. Upon the Continent many have appeared of consider- 
able merit, and which have proved ot great utility in tlie study of 
Cryptogamic Botany. I may particularly mention the Stirjjes 
Cryptogamicce Vageso-Elienance of Mougeot and ^Nestler, the 
Cryptoganiische Gewdchse hesonders des Fichtelherg of Funck, 
the Lichenes Exsiccati of Reichenbach and Schubert, and'above 
all the Lichenes Helvetici Exsiccati of my A^alued and learned 
friend M. Schaerer, Minister of Lanperswyl, in the Canton of 
Berne, AAUth Avhom I have collected many of the specimens 
contained in his work, in one of the most delightfid excursions 
I ever made upon the Alps of S\A'itzerland. These publica- 
tions, liOAA^eA^er, are rare in this country, and I shall limit my 
references to that of M. Schaerer, than AA’hom no one has studied 
the family AA’ith more ardour and enthusiasm, nor under more 
favourable circumstances ; AAdiether his situation be consideied, 
surrounded as is his place of residence by lofty mountains and 
the noblest forests, or his extended correspondence AA'ith the 
most eminent Lichenographists ot Europe. W ith such^ helps 
as these uoav enumerated, and such figures as those of English 
Botany, the difficulty of studying this extensive and intricate 
ti'ibe AA'iU be found much diminished. 



Synopsis of the Genera. 

I. Thallus adherent, crustaceous, amorphous. 

A. Apothecia more or less stipitate. 

a. Apothecia rounded, fleshy, xoith the stij^es solid (tnycince). 


FA3I. I. B^omyce^. 

1. B.eomyces. TVia/te crustaceous^ spreading, adnate. Apo- 
thecia (inycinai) orbicular, convex, capituliform, not bordered, 
sessile upon a solid stipes. 

b. Apothecia hollow, goblet-shaped fpilidki). 

Fam. II. Calicioide^. 

2. Calicium. crustaceous, spreading, adnate, imiforin. 

Apothecia (^pilidui) goblet-shaped, more or less stipitate, filled 
with a compact pulverulent mass which constitutes the disk and 
is plane or subglobose. 

B. Apothecia sessile. 

a. Apothecia linear Qirellcef Pseudo-Hypoxyla. 

Fam. III. Graphide.®. 

3. Arthonia. Thallus crustaceous, spreading, adnate, uni- 
form, cartilagineo-membranaceous. Apothecia innately sessile, 
roundish, but varying in form, sometimes elongated, nearly 
plane, not bordered, black, covered by a subcartilaginous mem- 
brane, within subgelatinous, uniform. 

4. Opegrapha. Thallus crustaceous, membr.anaceous or 
leprose, spreading, adnate, uniform. Apothecia (Jirellce') elon- 
gated, simple or branched, sessile or immersed, the disk narrow 
with a proper border and sometimes with an additional one de- 
rived from the thallus. 

b. Apothecia hemisphcerical {tuber culcd), enclosing a nucleus. 

Fam. IV. Verrucarie.®. 

5. Verrucaria. Thallus crustaceous or cartilagineo-mem- 
branaceous, spreading, adnate, uniform. Apothecia (tubercidaij 
hemispba?rical or subglobose, innate and immersed or sessile, 
corneous, of a different colour and substance from the thcdlus, 
(mostly a black crust or shell) enclosing a nucleus, the apex 
papillary, often at length perforated, sometimes covered by the 
wart-like processes of the thallus. 



6. Endocarpon. Thallus crustaceous or cartilaginous often 
lobed or foliaceous. Apothecia globose, imbedded in the thallus, 
with a slightly prominent apex and including a nucleus. 

7. Pertusaria. cartilagineo-membranaceous, spread- 

ing, adnate, uniform. Apothecia verruciform, formed of the 
thallus, one-or many-celled, each cell containing a nucleus, the 
apex depressed, coloured, often distorted. 

8. Thelotrema. Thallus crustaceo-cartilaginous, spreading, 
adnate, uniform. Apothecium double, the outer consisting of an 
open wart formed of the thallus, the inner (one or two) thin, 
membranaceous, breaking away at the top, its dish containing a 

(True Lichens). 

c. Apothecia ? naked sporules (^gongyli or jndvinulV). 


9. Lepraria. Thallus crustaceo-leprose, spreading, adnate, 
uniform. Apothecia none. Sporules naked, forming the thal- 
lus, scattered and conglomerated, free. 

10. Spiloma. Thallus crustaceous, spreading, adnate, uniform. 
Apothecia none. Sporules naked, coloured, collected into com- 
pact tumid masses. 

d. Apothecia opening into depressed or hollow shields or pustttles 


Fam. VI. Variolarieas. 

11. Variolaria. Thallus crustaceous, membranaceous, ad- 
nate, spreading, uniform. Apothecium a suborbicular, scutelli- 
form cup, formed of the thallus, filled with a powdery or floccu- 
lose substance, which covers an immersed waxy dish containing 
imbedded thecai. 

e. Apothecia bordered, discoid, sessile (^patellulce^. 

Fam. VII. Lecanore.®. 

12. Urceolaria. Thallus crustaceous, spreading, adnate, 
uniform. Apothecia (patellulw) orbicular, the disk concave, colour- 
ed, immersed in the crust, border formed of the crust and 
of the same colour. 

13. LecideA. Thallus crustaceous, spreading, adnate, uniform, 
Apothecia {patellulw) orbicular, sessile, plano-convex, having 
a border of the same colour as the dish. 

14. Lecanora. TTfo/Zi/s crustaceous, spreading, plane, achicate, 
uniform. Apothecia (patelhdw) orbicular, thick, sessile and 
adnate, the dish plano-convex, its border thickish, formed of 
the crust and of the same colour. 



II. Thallus suhfoliaceous, consisting of scales attached to the sub- 
stance on ivhich they grow and more or less combined together. 

Apothecia always bordered and discoid, sessile fpatellulce). 


15. Psora. Thallus defined, thick, formed of distinct flattish 
or convex tubercles or scales. Apothecia (^patellulce^ bordered, 
plane, at length convex, placed at the side of the scales, the 
border of the same colour as the disk. 

16. Squamaria. Thallus defined, scaly, spreading, orbicular 
and stellate, the scales distinct or adherent, often imbricated, 
diverging. Apothecia {^patellulee) bordered, the border of the 
same substance and colour as the thallus. 

17. Placodium. defined, oi’hicular and stellated, the 

scales adherent, indistinct, subpulverulent, foliaceons in the cir- 
cumference. Apothecia (^patellulce) in the centre of the thallus, 
bordered, the border of the same colour as the dish. 

III. Thallus loose, scarcely attached, except by fibres or radicles 

or a small base, to the substances ivhereon it grows. 

A. Upper surface difierent from the under. 

a. Attachment of the thallus diffuse, (piot fixed by a central point). 

a. Apothecia scutelliform, discoid, bordenxd, attached by the centre 


* Thallus more or less membranaceous. 


18. Parmelia. Thallus foliaceous, membranaceous or cori- 
aceous, spi'eading, lobed and stellated or laciniated, more or less 
fibrous beneath. Apothecia (scutellce) orbicular, beneath form- 
ed of the thallus, free, fixed only by a central point, dish con- 
cave, coloured, its border formed by the inflexed thallus. 

19. Sticta. Thcdlus foliaceous, coriaceo-cartilaginous, 
spreading, lobed, free and downy beneath, with little cavities or 
hollow spots (cyphellcc) often containing a powdery substance. 
Apothecia (^scutellce) beneath formed of the thcdlus to which they 
are appressed and fixed by a central point, the disk coloured, 
plane, surrounded by an elevated border formed of the thallus. 

** Thallus (in a moist state) of a gelatinous substance. 

Fam. X. CollematejE. 

20. CoLLEiMA. Thcdlus entirely of one substance, gelatinous, 
when dry generally becoming hard and cartilaginous, poly- 
morphous, gramdated, foliaceous, lobed, laciniated or branched. 
Apothecia (^sailellce) orbicular, sessile (rarely substipitate,) bor- 



tiered, entirely formed of the substance of the thallus, the disk 
sometimes coloured. 

/3. Apothecia uniform, not, or scarcely, margined, snborhicidar, often 

having the appearance of the nail of the human hand (^peltcef 


21. SoLORiNA. foliaceous, coriaceous, lobed, free, be- 

neath having- fibrous or woolly veins. Apothecia ( peltce) adnate, 
sometimes immersed, orbicular (distant from the margin), not 

22. Peltidea. Thcdlus foliaceous, coriaceous or membran- 
aceous, spreading, lobed, with woolly veins beneath, the lobules 
fertile. Apothecia ( peltce') suborbicular, adnate on tlie upper 
side of the lobules or proper portions of the thallus and having 
a border formed of the thallus. 

23. Nephroma. Thallus foliaceous, coriaceous or membran- 
aceous, sjjreading, lobed, naked or hairy beneath, the lobules 
fertile. Apothecia (jpeltce) orbicular, reniform, adnate on the 
underside of the lobules or proper portions of the thallus and 
having a border formed of the thallus. 

b. Attachment of the, more or less orbicular, thcdlus by the centre. 

Fa31. XII. Umbilicarie^. 

24. Gvrophora. foliaceous, coriaceous or membran- 

aceous, fixed by the centre, peltate. Apothecia (trices or gyromata) 
orbicular, subscutelliform, sessile and adnate, covered by a black 
membrane, the disk marked with concentric circles or pliccs with 
a border of its own substance. 

25. Umbilicaria. Thcdlus foliaceous, coriaceo-membrau- 
aceous, pustuled, fixed by the centre, peltate. Apothecia orbi- 
cular, somewhat concave, adnate, covered by a black mem- 
brane, the disk at length tubercled, with a border of its own 

B. Upper and under surfaces of the thallus alike. 

a. Thallus usually compressed and laciniated. Apothecia scidel- 

liform (^scutellce). 

Fam. XIII. Ramaline.e. 

26. Cetraria. Thcdlus foliaceous, cartilagineo-membrana- 
ceous, ascending or spreading, lobed and laciniated, on each side 
smooth and naked. Apothecia orbicular, obliquely adnate with 
the margin of the thallus, the lower portion being free (not 
united with the thcdlus); the disk coloured, plano-concave, with 
a border formed of the thallus and indexed. 



27. Roccella. Thallus coriaceo-cartilaginous, rounded or 

plane, branched or laciniated. Apothccia orbicular, adnate 
Avith the thallus; the disk coloured, plano-convex, with a border 
at length thickened and elevated, formed of the thallus and 
covering a suhlentiform black compact pulverulent con- 

cealed within the substance of the thallus. 

28. Borrera. Thallus cartilaginous, branched and laciniated, 
the segments free, generally grooved beneath, the margins fie- 
quently ciliated. Apothecia orbicular, peltate, formed of the 
thallus beneath ; the disk coloured and surrounded by the ele- 
vated and indexed border formed also of the thallus. 

29. Evernia. Thallus subcrustaceous, branched and lacini- 
ated, angled or compressed, cottony Avithin, (^bitus stuppeus'). 
Apothecia orbicular, scutelliform, sessile ; the disk concave, co- 
loured, Avith an indexed border formed of the thallus. 

30. RAiNtALiNA. Thcdlus cartilaginous, branched and lacini- 
ated, someAAdiat shrubby, generally bearing powdery warts, 
compactly cottony Avithin. Apothecia orbicular, scutelliform, 
stipitate and peltate, plane, bordered, entirely formed of the 
substance of the thallus and nearly of the same colour. 

b. Thallus subcylindrical, filamentous, mostly pendent, 

». Thallus with a central thread. Apothecia scutelliform, xcitkout 
a border, ciliated {prbillcB). 

FaM. XIV. UsNEiE. 

31. UsNEA. Thallus subcrustaceous, rounded, branched, 
generally pendulous, Avith a central thread. Apothecia (orbillce^ 
orbicidar, terminal, peltate, entirely formed of the substance of 
the thallus and nearly of the same colour, the circumference 
mostly Avithout a border and (generally) ciliated. 

(3. Thallus without a central thread, sometimes slightly compressed. 

Apothecia scutelliform. 


32. Alectoria. Thallus cartilaginous, subdliform, branch- 
ed, prostrate or pendulous, someAvliat dstulose and cottony 
within. Apothecia orbicular, thick, sessile, plane or convex, more 
or less bordered, entirely formed of the thallus and of the same 

33. CoRNicuLARiA. Thdllus cfirtilagiuous, branched, Avithin 
nearly solid and cottony. Apothecia orbicular, terminal, ob- 
liquely peltate, entirely formed of the substance of the thallus, 
at length convex, more or less bordered and often toothed. 



c. Thallus shruhhij, rounded, ttsually much branched, mostly erect. 

Solid. Apothecia globose, Jilled with a black powder (cistulce^ 

or solid. 

Fam. XVJ. Sph^rophoreas. 

34. IsiDiUM. Thallus crustacemis, spreading", adnate, bear- 
ing- solid erect brandies {or podetia?) Apothecia orbicular, con- 
vex, at length subglobose, solid, terminal upon the pwdetia and 
more or less sunk in the extremity, so as to leave a border of 
the substance of the podetium. 

35. Sph.erophoron’. Thallus crustaceo-cartilaginous, branch- 
ed, suifrnticose, solid within. Apothecia (cistulcB) subglobose, 
sessile, terminal on the branches of the thallus and formed of it, 
breaking with a torn margin and containing within a pulveru- 
lent black mass collected into a ball. 

36. Stereocaulon. Thallus cartilaginous or somewhat 
woody, branched and fruticulose. Apothecia turbinate, sessile, 
solid, plane, scarcely rising above the border; the dish at length 
spreading, covering the border and reflexed. 

/3. Tliallus (or podetium .?) Jistulose. Apothecia hemisplucrical, 

jieshy (cephalodki). 

Fam. XVII. Cladonieaj. 

37. Ceadonia. Thallus somewhat shrubby, branched, rarely 
simple, leafy with scales which are at length often evanescent ; 
branches (^podetia, Ach.') cartilaginous, rigid, fistidose, all attenu- 
ated and subulate, divided, fertile, generally perforated in the 
axils. Apothecia (cephalodki) sessile, orbicidar, convex, capitu- 
liform, not bordered, fixed by the circumference, free beneath 
in the centre, the sides reflexed, nuiform within. {Tee). 

38. ScYPHOPHORUS. foliaceous, imbricated ; 

fistulose, cylindrical, dilated upwards, bearing cups, or attenu- 
ated and subulate, cups closed with a membrane, or cleft at the 
extremity, often rayed in a somewhat digitated manner, the 
rays all fertile. Apothecia {cephalodki) convex, capitnliform, 
not bordered, free in the centi-e beneath, arranged around the 
edges of the cnp, the margin reflexed, uniform within. {Tee). 

39. PvcNOTHEfJA. Thallus subcrustaceous, uniform; pode- 
tia (mostly simple sliort) hollow. Apothecia {cephalodki) or- 
bicular, not bordered, capitnliform, thickened, inflated beneath, 
terminal, reflexed at the margin, uniform within. {Tec). 





I. Thallus adherent, crustaceous, amorphous. 

A. Apothecia more or less slipitale, 

a. Apothecia rounded, fleshy, ivith the stipes solid {jnychuE'). 


Fam. I. BaiOMYCE.®. 

1. Beomyces. Pers. 

Tiudlus crustaceous, spreading', adnate. Apothecia {inycince) 
orbicidar, convex, capituliform, not bordered, sessile upon a 

solid stipes Name ; (3xioi, small, and pvKu, a Funyns or 3Iush- 

room. This genus approaches the Fungi in many respects, even 
in its odour. The^wrfe^/a are solid, fleshy and of the same tex- 
ture as the apothecia ; hence, and on account of the different 
nature of the thallus, the species are widely separated from the 
CenomycecE, near which they were arranged by Acharius. 

1. B. roseus, Pers. (pose-coloured Mushroom P(p.omyces'); 
crust uniform granulated greenish- white, stipes very short 
cylindrical, apothecia suhglohose wrinkled pale flesh-coloured. 
Ach. Syn. p. 280. Hook. Scot. P. II. p. 65. Schcer. Lich. Ilelv. 

p. 16. n. 31 Lichen Pccomyces, Linn. — E. Pot. t. 374. — Ddl, 

3Iusc. t. 14. y. 1. 

Heaths, upon the ground, not unfrequent. Sir Jas.E. Smith compares 
the fructification of this to some minute Helvella ; but the presence of 
a crust confirms the propriety of jdacing it among the Lichens. 

2. B. rufus, Wahl, (brown Mushroom Eceomyces'); crust uni- 
form granulated and pulverulent greenish-white, stipes short 
somewhat compressed, apothecia flattish at the top sometimes 
conglomerate reddish-brown. Ach. Syn. p. 280. Hook. Scot. 
P. II. p. 65. — PcBomyces byssoides, Schcer. Lick. Helv.p. .n. 32. 
— Lichen rufus, Huds. Angl. p. 527 . — L. byssoides, Linn. — Dill. 
Muse. t. iA.f. 3, and 5. 

Rocks, old walls and, less frequently, on the ground in sandy soil. — 
Crust generally thinner and more pulverulent than the preceding ; stipes 
more slender ; apothecia smaller, more regularly orbicular, less wrinkled 
and of a dull red-brown colour. 

3. B. placophyllus, Wahl, fthick-ernsted Eceomyces); crust or- 
bicular wrinkled and plicate suhimhricated whitish and glauces- 
cent formed in the circumference into rounded lobes and cre- 
nated, stipes a little swollen compressed, apothecia slightly 
convex simple red-hrown. Ach. Syn. ji. 281. Meth. Lich. p. S23. 
t. 7.f 4. 




Wall top at Ach-na-drain, Ross-shire; Borrer and Hook. Appin, 
CajHain Carmichael.~\ have not seen the fructification of this, but the 
thallus well agrees with the description and figure of Acharius. 

b. Apothecia more or less stipitate, hollow, goblet-shaped (^pilidia). 


2. Calicium. Ach. Calicium. 

Thallus crustaceous, spreading, adnate, uniform. Apothecia 
{pilidud) goblet-shaped, more or less stipitate, filled with a com- 
pact pulverulent mass of sporules, which constitutes the disk and 
is plane or suhglobose. — ^Named from -/.axvTuov, a little cup, from 
tlie form of the apothecia. Tliis remarkable and beautiful 
genus has been ranged among the Fungi by Pei’soon. The 
arrangement and characters are taken from Turner and Borrer s 
Lichenographia Britannica, still, unfortunately for the botani- 
cal world, unpublished. 

* Apothecia sessile. 

1. C. sessile, Pers. (^parasitic sessile Calicium^; crust none? 
pilidium sessile pyriform black polished with a thick indexed 
border, sporules black. Turn, and Bor. Lich. Br. p. 128. E. 

Bot.t. 2520 C. stigonellum, Ach. Syn. p. 56, et Lich. Un.t. 5. 

f. 5. — C. turhinatum, Ach. Syn.p. 56. Schcer. Lich. Helv. p. 3. 
n. 6. — Lichen gelasinatum. With. Bot. cum Lc. — Sphceria sphinc- 
terica. Sow. E. Fung. v. 3. t. 286. (hut not Hypoxylon sphinc- 
tericum. Bull.') — /3. marginatum ; border of the capitulum white 
or greyish. 

Common on the crust of Borina j)erlusa. — Crmt apparently none. 
PUidium minute, inversely conical or turbinate, the lower solid part con- 
stituting a very short stipes. The apothecium is at first convex with a 
minute dot in the centre which soon becomes depressed, and at length 
opens, disclosing an opaque powdery disk of a regularly circular outline 
and in every stage surrounded by a thick, polished, elevated, 'entire and 
indexed border. The place of growth of this plant is very remarkable ; 
its apothecia are parasitic in the cracks of the thallus (where they are 
crowded) or in the depressions formed by the apertures of the verrucce 
(in which they usually stand single) of Borina j^ertusa Ach. ; or accord- 
ing to the observations of the late Sir T. Gage, upon Lccanora Berella. 

2. C. microcephalum, Sm. (small-headed .short-stalked Calicium'); 
crust granulated tartareous rugulose olive-coloured, pilidia ses- 
sile pyriform black polislied with a tliick indexed border, spo- 
rules black. E. Bot. t. 1865. Turn, and Borr. Lich. Br.p. 130. 

Oak rails by the sea, at Caister, near Yarmouth, Mr. Turner. Pack- 
ington, Lfldy Aylsford. — The pilidia very much resemble those of C. 
scllile, but they arise from a crust belonging to the plant of an olive- 
brown colour, when moist a little inclining to green, and they are more 
decidedly stipitate: still the able authors of the Lichenographia Brilan- 
uica seem to think it possible that these two species may be the same. 




3. C. tigilldre, Pers. (tjellow sessile Rail Calicmyti); crust 
granulated tartareous bright greenish- yellow with large warts 
scattered over the surface, pilidia somewhat immersed in the 
warts (sessile) plano-convex black with an elevated tumid 
border, sporules black. Timi. and Borr. Lick. Br.p. 133. Acli. 
Syn. — Lichen tigillaris, Ach. Metli. p. 46. t. 2. f. 1. 

Old pales and rails, rarely on trees, in Essex and Suffolk. — This ex- 
tremely beautiful Calicium is distinguished by its bright-coloured wide- 
spreading crust, with black, apparently entirely sessile, apothecia sunk in 
the crust; so that the plant looks, at first sight, like a hccidea: but the 
apothecia are those of a Calicium, and Acharius says that they are some- 
times borne on a very short stipes. 

4. C. tijmpanellum, Ach. {sooty -fruited Caliciuni) ; crust 
granulated tartareous greyish-white, pilidia turbinate (sessile) 
partly immersed black with a thin erect whitish border, sporules 
pruinose. Ach. Syn. p. 56. Turn, and Borr. Lich. Br. p. 134. 
— Lichen inciuinans, E. Bot. t. 810. 

On old pales, and especially on the tops of posts, not uncommon : 
sometimes on the bark of trees. — This, from its almost entirely sessile 
and immersed pilidia, differs remarkably from the really stipitate Calicia. 
Its fructifications are, however, large, and the plant may be easily 
recognized by the readiness with which the profuse sporules detach 
themselves on being touched ; so that on the application of the finger, 
an impression is received of as many apothecia as have been eovered by 
it. The favourite situation of this plant is the tops of old posts, growing 
upon them, and therefore, transversely with the grain of the wood. 

5. C. ferrugineum, Turn, and Borr. (yusty Caliciuni); crust 
granulated tartareous whitish with scattered rust-coloured 
spots, pilidia stipitate and sessile, capitulum turbinate, sporules 
rust-coloured covering the border. Turn, and Borr. Lich. Br. 
p. 136. E. Bot. t. 2473. 

Old pales, Norfolk and Suffolk. — Crust of several inches in extent, 
composed of loosely cohering greyish granules, of a greyish-white, 
marked with yellowish rust-coloured spots, which render the plant con- 
spicuous. Pilidia sometimes confluent, sometimes partially immersed in 
the crust. Stipes very short and thick. 

** Apothecia stipitate. 

6. C. clavellum, Turn, and Borr. {^grey-crusted Calicium); 
crust granulated tartareous Avhitish, pilidia stipitate, capitidum 
turbinate csesious beneath with a thin elevated csesious border, 
spondes black. Turn, and Borr. Lich. Br. y?.138. — C. clavicidare, 
Ach. Syn. p. 37. — Lichen clavellus, E. Bot. t. 1463. 

Frequent on boarded buildings, in England. Auchindeny, Scotland, 
Br. Greville. — Crust greyish-white, spreading in wide but interrupted 
patches. Stipes straight, moderately long. Apothecium covered at first 
with a grey pellicle. 

7. C. hyperellum, Ac\\. {Imight-yellow Ccdicium) ; crust granu- 
lated somewhat tartareous, pilidia stipitate, capitulum nearly 
hemisphserical brownish-black, sporules fuliginous covering the 

LICHENES. [Caltcium. 

border. Ach. Syn. p. 59. Turn, and Borr. Lich. Br. p. 140. 
Lichen hyperellus, Ach. — E. Bot. t. 1832. 

In the fissures of the hark of old trees, mostly upon oak, in Norfolk, 
Sufiblk, and Sussex. — The colour of the crust is as bright as in C. ligil- 
la?'e, but the structure is different, and the inlidia nearly resemble those 
of the preceding species. 

8. C. chrysocephalum, Acli. (gold-headed Caliciwni); crust 
granulated bright greenish-yellow, pilidia (obconical) stipi- 
tate, ca]>itnluin slightly convex black with a thin elevated 
yellow border, sporules brown with a tinge of orange colour. 
Ach, Syn. GO. E. But, t. 2.501. Turn, and Borr. Lich. Br. 
p. 143. Schccr. IJch. Helv. p. 5. — Lichen chrysocephalus^ Turn, 
in Linn. Trans, v. 7. p. 88. t. 8, f. 1. 

On old pales, posts, and rails, Norfolk, Suffolk, and Sussex. — One of 
the most beautiful of this very pretty genus, differing remarkably from 
C. hyperellum, its nearest ally, in the form and especially in the colour of 
the apothccia. 

9. C. phecocephalum, Turn, and Borr. (broion-headed Cali- 
ciuni); crust granulated dark-brown, pilidia shortly stipitate, 
capitnlnm plano-convex brownish-black dotted with yellow 
prnina particularly at the thin erect border, sporules dark 
chestnut-brown. Turn, and Borr. Lich. Brit.j). 145. — C. scepicu- 
lare, Ach. Lich. Un. — Lichen trahineUus, E. Bot. t. 1 540, (excl. 
syn.) — Lichen plueocephcdus, Turn, in Linn. Trans, v. 7. 
p. 260. t. 6. 

On boarded buildings. Barns at Bruisyard, Suffolk. Lakenham, 
Norfolk. Hurst Pierpoint, and Albourn, Sussex. — Very different 
from any other British species of this Genus. The bright greenish- 
yellow hue of the apothccia, arising from a kind of pruina or bloom, is 
most conspicuous in a dry state and with the aid of the microscope. 
The general colour of the whole plant is olive-brown, and it forms 
widely extended patches. 

10. C. chlorelluni, Ach. (snicdl greenish-headed Calicium); 
crust filmy very thin whitish, pilidia stipitate, capitulum ob- 
conical covered with a yellow pruina, sporules olive-brown 
covering the border. Ach. Syn. p. 60. Turn, and Borr. Lich. 
Br. p. 146. — C. trachelinum, y. hispiduluni, Ach. Syn. p. 59 — 
Lichen acicidaris, E. Bot. t. 2385, (excl. syn.). 

On Elms and Oaks at Esher, Surrey, and Elms at Hurst Pier- 
point, Sussex. Scotch Firs, near Bury St. Edmunds. — This has the 
smallest and most inconspicuous pilidia of all our Ca/icia. The yellow- 
green pruina is sometimes entirely nibbed oif the capitulum, and the 
whole pilidium is then of a dark dull brown, the usual colour of the 
stipes; but sometimes the stipes is tinged with the green pruina. 

11. C. curtuni, Turn, and Borr. (short-stalked Caiiemm); 
crust very thin whitish, pilidia stipitate, stipes thickish upright, 
capitulum subcylindrical obovate or hemisphterical black, spo- 
rules black forming a loose prominent mass and covering the 
border. Turn, and Borr. TJeh. Br. p. 148. E. Bot. t. 2503. — 
/3. popuTnium ; thallus white even, stipites slender, capi- 




tula plano-convex with a slightly convex disk. Ttirn. and 
Borr. 1. c. 

Very common on decaying wood in shady places. — /3- on Poplars, at 
Killarney, Ireland, Sir T. Gage.— Distinguishable from the preceding, to 
which, of all the British species, it is most nearly allied, by its stouter 
and straight stij^es and wholly black colour. 

12. C. debile, Turn, and Borr. (^slender Caliciuni); crust 
filmy very thin white, pilidia stipitate, stipes slender flexuose, 
capitulum plano-convex black with a recurved margin, sporules 
black forming a slightly convex compact disk. Turn, and Borr. 
Lich. Br. p. \b\.— Lichen dehilis, E. Bot. t. 24G2.— 
Muse. p. 78. t. 14. / 3. A. ? 

On old timber, frequent under the eaves of thatched buildings. 
When viewed under a glass, Messrs. Turner and Borrer observe that the 
perfect pilidiutn has precisely the appearance of a small black Agaricus, 
the capitulum being convex above and recurved and rounded at the 
edges- The stij)es is incrassated at the base. 

13. C. sphcerocephnlum, Ach. {round-headed Caliciuni); crust 
filmy very thin greyish sprinkled irregularly with yellowish- 
grey powder, pilidia stipitate, capitulum subglohose rusty- 
browm with a narrow somewhat inflexed border, sporules black. 
Ach. Syn. p. 57. Turn, and Borr. Lich. Br. p. 153. Schcer. 
Lich. irlelv. p. 4. n. 8. — C. salicinum, Pers. in Ust. Ann. v. 7. 
p. 20. t. 3. f. 3. — Lichen sphcerocepludus, Web. — E. Bot. t. 414. 
— Dill. Muse. t. 14. /. 3. — /3. crustosum; covered with a pale 
greenish-yellow powder, forming an almost continuous crust. 

On old wood, on the bark and in the hollow trunks of trees, in Nor- 
folk, Suffolk, Sussex, and the North of England.— “ Allied to C. curium, 
and C. debile, but seeming to differ essentially from the former, by its 
longer stipes, and from both, by the colour of its piUulia and the powdery 
appearance of the thallusl' 

14. C. ceruginosum. Turn, and Borr. (^Verdigris Caliciuni); 
crust a very thin whitish film every where covered with pow'- 
dery granulations of verdigris grey, pilidia stipitate, capitulum 
subglohose pruinose with a thin erect border, sporules blackish- 
brown pruinose. Turn, and Borr. Lich. Br. p. 156. E. Bot. 
t. 2502. — jS. ccerulescens ; crust small, tumid patches of bluish- 
grey granulations, dispersed on a white film. Turn, and 
Borr. 1. c. 

Old pales near Bury, Suffolk, Ttev. G. R. Lealhes. — /3. on the boards 
of a hovel near Cuckfield, Sussex.— Among the British CaHcia,the present 
most approaches C. hyperellum and C. sphccrocephalum />.; but the 
different and much duller colour of the fhallus suffices to distinguish it at 
first sight. The second var., it is observed in the Lich. Brit., resembles 
C. clavellum rather closely in the granulations of the Ihnllus, and some- 
what in the colour of the pilidia; but the latter are much more slender 
than in that species, and the sporules are not black. 

15. C. peronellum, Ach. Meth. {cinnamon-headed Caliciuni); 
crust a very thin film irregidarly sprinkled with powder white, 
pilidia stipitate white, capitulum plano-convex, sporules flesh- 

LICHENES. [Arl/wnir/. 

coloured covering the border. Turn, and JBorr. Lich. Br. 
p. 158. Winch, Bot. Guide, v. 2.p. 42. (Sm.) — C.cantharellum, 
E. Bot. t. 2557. Ach. Syn.p, 61. — C. stilbemn, Schcer. Lich. Helv. 
p. 4 . 71. 7. — C. pallidum, Pers. in list. A7in. Ease. 1 . p. 20. t . 3. 
f ' 12. — Lichen pero7iellus et C. cantharellus, Ach. Prod. 

On decayed wood near Egleston, Durham. Northern Botanist's Guide. — 
“ Nothing can be more distinct from all that we have hitherto seen 
of the same genus. The ci-ust is white, powdery, or, as Persoon says, 
downy, but very thin and evanescent. Siijjes ascending, not very slender, 
of a light red-brown, clothed with white deciduous powder. Heads 
convex above and below, but not globose, their disk of a light reddish 
brown, or pale cinnamon-colour, clothed at first with a copious, dense, 
white powder, which after a while disappears.” Sm. 

16. C. furfurdceimi, Pers. {stdphureom CaliciuiiT^; crust 
powdery greenish-yellow, pilidia stijjitate, capitulum globose 
at first closed and of the same colour as the crust at length 
bursting and then becoming covered entirely by brown sporules. 
Pers. Tent. Disp. Fu7ig. Siqypl. t. 60. Tumi, and Borr. Lich. 
Br. p). 159. Schccr. Lich. Helv. j). Q. n. 14. — C. capitellalum, 
Ach. Syn.p. 61. — L. capitatus, Scln'eh. — E. Bot. t. 1539. — Mucor 
fu7-furaceus, Lm7i. Sp. PI. p. 1655. 

Shady parts of broken sandy banks, often spreading over the roots of 
trees, occasionally on decaying wood, in various parts of the kingdom. — 
This remarkable and extremely pretty species forms a section of Acharius’ 
Calicium ; being distinguished by the disk of the capitulum swelling into 
a subglobose shape and surrounding the margin. 

B. Apothecia sessile. 

a. Apothecia linear (lirellce). Pseudo-Hypoxyla. 

Fam. III. Graphideje. 

3. Arthonia. Ach. Arthonia. 

Thallus crustaceous, spreading, adnate, uniform, cartila- 
gineo-membranaceous. Apothecia innately sessile, roundish, 
but varying in form, sometimes elongated, nearly plane, not 
bordered, black, covered by a subcartilaginous membrane, within 
subgelatinous, uniform. — Named from to according 

to Acharius, because tlte numerous apothecia are, as it were, 
sprinkled over tlie crust : — but IM. Fee justly remarks that upbu 
(and not is to sprmhle, and that therefore the name ought to 
be Ardonia. T\\c, fructification of this Genus, INIr. Borrer has ob- 
served to differ from that of Opeyi'ctpha by tlie absence of a 
proper margin to tlic ; whidi latter too are less elonga- 

ted, though very polymorplious, and not marked with a depressed 
line. Fee says that they are liard and almost horny in a dry 
state, but become soft and subgelatinous when they^ have 
absorbed moisture, which they do very readily. Hence, he 
remarks, tliat Arthonia is to Graphis (part of our Opegrapha^ 




with regard to its apothecia, what Collema is to the foliaceous 
Lichens, as respects the thallus. All are found on the hark of 

1. A. impoUta, Bon*, (pruinose Arthonia); crust somewhat 
tartareous thin ci’acked uneven white, apothecia immersed 
flat confluent hrownish lead-coloured pruinose. Borr. in E. Bot. 
Svpj)l.t. 2692./. 1. — Arthonia pruinosa, Ach. Lick. Univ.p. 147. 
t. \.f. 3. et Syn. p. 7. — Lichen impolittis, Ehrh. Or. (iiot E. Bot. 
which is prohuhhj taken from a common appearance of Spiloma 
gregarium, — S. tumidulum, Ach., — of lohich a more perfect state is 
represented at t. 2\b\. Borr.) — Verr maria impolita, Hoffm . — 
Parmelia impolita, Ach. Meth. 

Frequent on boarded buildings and on the rugged bark of old oaks. 

2. A. lurida, Ach. (lurid Arlhoymi); crust obsolete continu- 
ous smooth dull lead-coloured or hrownish, apothecia sessile 
roimdislt slightly convex reddish-black. Borr. in E. Bot. 
Sitppl. t. 2692. f. 2. Ach. Syn. p. 7 — Spiloma paradoxum, Ach. 
Syn. t. 3. 

Probably not rare on bark, in shady places. On Holly and Oaks, 
Sussex, Mr. Borrer. Fir-trees in Ireland, Sir Thomas Gage. — The 
crust of this is so thin, that Mr. Borrer questions whether it is anything 
more in reality than a discolouration of the bark, and whether it has a 
just claim to rank among the Lichens. The synonym of Acharius Mr. 
Borrer has given upon the authority of original specimens in the Museum 
of the Linnaean Society. 

• 3. A. Swartzidna, Ach. (Swartzian Arthonia); crust thin 

cartilagineo-membranaceous cracked cream-coloured, apothecia 
roundish repand wavy and depressed uneven sometimes con- 
fluent. Ach. in Schrad. N. Journ. v. 1. fuse. 3. p. 13. t.A.f. 1, 
et Syn. p. 5. E. Bot. t. 2079. 

On the smooth bark of trees, Sussex. Mr. Borrer — It is upon this 
species that the genus Arthonia was founded byAcharius. Other Lichens, 
which he has referred to it, should be separated from it, in the opinion of 
other Botanists. I have followed Mr. Borrer’s suggestion in removing 
Arthonia lyncea of Ach. to Opegrapha. The A. astroidea of Acharius, 
Mr. Borrer thinks is too nearly allied to this ; but the species so called 
in E. Bot. he suspects rather to belong to Opegrapha atra. 

4. Opegrapha. Ach. Opegrapha. 

Thallus crustaceous, membranaceous or leprose, spreading, ad- 
nate, uniform. Apothecia (lirellw) elongated, simple or branch- 
ed, sessile or immersed, the disk narrow with a proper border 
and sometimes wdth an additional one derived from the thallus. 
— Named from oerrj, hollmo, and y^xipyi, luriting : from its curious 
lireUce resembling inscribed characters. — The character of this 
genus depends upon the elongated apothecia or lirellce, with a 
raised proper border : and Mr. Borrer, whose arrangement and 
synonyms of the species, obligingly communicated to me, I en- 
tirely follow, includes jilsothe of Adiarius; considering 




them as a section, only, of Opegrapha, ith which they perfectly 
agree in appearance. “ Tlie accessory border to the lirellce, more 
or less complete in different species, is hut an unsatisfactory 
distinction, and the other characters assigned by the g)‘eat 
Swedish Lichenist, are, if constant, too minute for general use.” 

* Apotliecia destitute of an accessory border. (OPEGUAPHiE verae.) 

1. O. lyncea, liorr. Mss. (prey specMed Opegrapha^; crust 
white suhtartareous ev^en uniform, apotliecia numei’ous de- 
pressed oblong ciirv'ed rounded at each end somewhat im- 
mersed caisio-pruinose with a black border. — Arthonia lyiicea, 
Acli. Syn. p. 7. — Lectdea lyncea, Ach, Meth. — Lichen lynceus, 
E. Bot. t. 809. — Opegrapha notha, y, ccesia, Ach. Syn. p. 76. 

On the rugged bark of Oak. — This forms patches of considerable 
extent, spotted with the numerous oblong curv^ed apotliecia, whose 
ratlier broad disk is prninose while the slightly raised border is black. 

2. O. epipasta, Ach. (^smooth dotted Opegrapha!^; crust very 
thin irregularly circumscribed smooth shining varying from 
grey to pale copper-colour, apotliecia innate minute scattered 
somewhat parallel slightly convex oblong or roundish mostly 
simple with a narrow black edge. Ach. Syn. p. 74. E. Bot. 
t. 1828? {Borr A — (3. inicroscopica ; crust coppery glossy, apo- 
thecia not unfrequently branched. Ach . — O. inicroscopica, E. 
Bot. t. 1911. — Graphis inicroscopica, Ehrh. 

On the smooth bark of trees, especially of young oaks. — This is 
remarkable for its very thin smooth crust, and the minute dots of 

3. O. rubella, Pers. {reddish Opegraphaf crust continued 
limited reddish ash-coloured slightly rugged, apotliecia short 
rounded somewhat ciirv'ed their disk broader than the border. 
Pers. in list. Ann. fasc. 7. /). 31. t. \. f. 2. A. a. E. Bot. 
t. 2347 — O. herpetica, (3. Ach. Syn. p. 72. — Lichen rubellus, 
Ach. Prodr. p>. 22. 

On the trunks of large trees ; communicated by Mr. D. Turner, to 
Engl. Bot. Crust of a reddish smoky hue. Apotliecia like dots, numerous, 
short, rounded-oblong, almost all separate, their disk black, flattened, 
at least as broad as the margins, frequently broader. 

4. O. rufescens, Pers. (rusty Opegrapiha); crust cartilagineo- 
membranaceous pale ferruginous, apotliecia innate variously 
shaped flexuose simple branched and substellated, the disk 
grooved nearly plane. (Ach.') Pers. in Ust. Ann. fasc. 7. p. 29. 
t. 2. f. 3. A. a. — O. siderella, Ach. Syn, p. 79. — O, phcca? 
Ach. Syn. j3. 78. — 0. herpetica, Ach.? E. Bot. t. 1789. 

On the bark of trees, Mr. Borrer, who suspects that O. herpetica, 
Ach. and E. Bot, belongs rather to this than O. rnbcllu, and who is by 
no means certain that the different crust and the lireHcc more sheathed 
by it (“innald’) constantly distinguish O. rufescens from 0. atra. 




5. O. dtra, Pers. (black Opegrapka); crust very thin mem- 
branous smooth whitish, apothecia sessile variously formed the 
smaller ones globose or oblong the larger very long narrow 
terete subrugulose flexuose coal-black simple or divided. Pers. 

P‘ 30. 1. f. 2. C. c. — 0. denlgrata, Ach. 

Metli. E. Bat, t. 1753. — O. stenocarpa, Ach. Syn. p. 75, and 
O. hapalea, p. 79 — O. ustroidea ? E. Bot. t. 1347, (not Ach.) 
— O. nimhosa, E. Bot. t. 2346 ? (^not Ach.) 

_ On the smooth bark of trees.— “ Perhaps O. nstroidea, E. Bot. t. 1347, 
IS a state of this, and distinct from Arthunia astroidca, Ach. Even this 
last is much like some young specimens of O. atra.” 

6. O. vidgdta, Acli. (common Opegrapha); crust cartila- 
gineo-membranaceous broken up into little scales somewhat 
even gieenish- white, apothecia sessile variously formed the 
onger ones somewhat terete wavy and shining with a very 
narrow disk. Ach. Syn. p. 73. E. Bot. t. 1811? 

In the clefts and hollows of the bark of trees.— “ The more exposed 
and the less considerable crust distinguish this from O. rufescens • 
and the less expanding disk (essentially?) from O.varin. 1 am in 
doubt whether O. rimalis, Ach. should be referred hither, or to O. varia." 

7. O. hetidina, Pers.? (Birch-hark Opegraphct); “ crust very 

t im dilated white bordered with black, apothecia mostly simple 
prominent linear wdth an extremely narrow disk.” Sm. — Pers. in 
Ust Ann. fuse. 7. 31. t. 3. /. 5. A. a. P E. Bot. t. 2281. 

— Graphis hetuligna, Ach. Syn. p. 83? ' 

On the smooth bark of the common Birch.— “ I am not sure that this 
E. Bot. Eichen is the species of foreign authors, nor that it is distinct from 
U. varia. 1 hese doubts are sufficiently confirmed, I should think, as far 
as Achanus is concerned, by his comparing this species with O. scripta, 
ol which he considers it a variety. ^ 

Pers. (variable Opegrapha); crust thin powdery 
white dispersed, apothecia sessile prominent scattered roundish 
and oval or oblong wavy, the disk plane at length convexo- 
Immisplnerical somewdiat tuberculose, the border subevanescent. 
I ers. in Ust Ann. fuse. 7. 30.— O. lichenoides, Pers. 1. c. 

30. t. 2. /. 4. a. b.~0. notha, E. BoL t. 1890. Ach. Syn. 

icith vars. (excl. var. y.)—0. diaphora, E. Bot. f. 2280. O. tri- 

dens, a., O . fulvella, and O. rimbosaP Ach. Syn. 

trees. — "The E. Bot. nimhosa I cannot refer to any 
ing. Specimens from Mr. Turner, with this name, are, I think, 0. atra 
in a spoiled state.” j 

. O. saxdtilis, De Cand. (stone Opegrapha); crust tarta- 
reous pulverulent w'hite often wanting, apothecia sessile slightly 
prominent minute roundish-oblong or linear very short often 
confluent into small roundish spots, disk concave, the margins 
^xuose and at length obliterated.” Dnbis.—De Cand. El. 
Er. ^- 2. ^.312. Schcer. Lich. Helv. p. 49. n. 94.— O. calcarea, 
E. Hot. t. 1/90 — O. Persoonii, E. Bot. t. 2345. — O. saxicola, 


IJCHENES. [Opegvapha. 

O. lithyrga, O. eulcarea, O. tridem, and O. Fersoonii, (excl. 

var. c.) Ach. Syn. . 

On rocks, walls, sandstone, old mortar, &c. Mr. Borrer thnms t ns 
should be united to O. varut.—iie& Mr. Borrer’s remarks under Opegra- 
pha tesserata, in E. Bot. Suppl. t. 2G32. f. 2. 

M). O. cerebrum, De Cand. {tumid-crusted Opegraphci)-, crust 
tartareous continuous very wliite, apothecia naked piomi- 
nent short obtuse simple or variously divided and deformed their 
border broad inflexed at length expanding and obliterated. 
Borr.~De Cand. FL Fr. v. 2. /i. 312. Cbev. Hist, des Hypox. 
p. 57. t. 12. /. 4. Borr. in E. Bot. Suppl. t. 2632./. \.—Lecidea 
jdocina, Ach. Syn. p. \5.— Patellar ia cerehrina, Duhs. 

Hare; on calcareous stone, Mr. Diclcson. North of Englan , 
Rev. J. Harriman. — This appears to be a very little known Lichen; and, 
out of England, according to Mr. Borrer, only to have been found in 
the Pyrenees. Its crust is unequally thick, pure white. Apothecia, or 
lirellce, full black, sometimes polished, not very numerous, mostly in 
clusters, occasionally solitary, at first oblong, or almost orbicular, with 
an inflexed, convex, even border closed over the dish, soon cloven at one 
or both ends, becoming triangular, quadrangular or more irregular in 
figure, and the border expanding and disclosing the often so widely 
as to give to the lirellce a close resemblance to an irregular patellula, with 
sometimes a prominent and crenulate, sometimes an obliterated border. 
Often, too, the lirellce become confluent, and the clusters assume the 
appearance of the imperfect tricce of a Gyrophora : — their base is sun in 
the crust and even into the stone beneath. Borr. 

11.0. tesserdta, De Cand. {tessellated Opegrapha) ; crust tarta- 
reous areolate brownish-grey, "apothecia naked prominent short 
obtuse simple or slightly divided with a broad inflexed margin. 
Borr.—De Cand. FI. Fr. v. 2. p.3l3. Chev. Hist, des Hypox. 
p.5\.t.\\.f.\. Borr. in E. Bot. Suppl t. 2632./. 2.— O. petreea, 

Ach. Syn. p. 72. , , v i 

Rocks, Scotland, Acharius. On Holwick Scaur, by the lees, York- 
shire, Mr. IV. Robertson.— The lirellce ol this species considerably le- 
semble those of O. Persoonii, but the urceolate crust distinguishes it at 
once both from that plant and from 0. saxatilis “ This crust forms 
patches of considerable extent, and is said to be bordered with a black 
line when perfect. It is of a structure, not unconnnon in various 
genera of Z/ic/ 2 c«s, but not hitherto observed in any other Opegrapha, 
being composed of granulations, at first scattered and convex, a terv ar s 
crowded together and forming small angular areolce irregular m shape 
and size, the interstices of which are barely visible to the naked eye , 
the general surface is rather uneven, unpolished, brownish-grey with 
a tinge of red, the internal substance white.” Borr. 

** Apothecia with a raised accessory border formed of the crust. 

Graphis. Ach. 

12. O. elegans, Sm. {elegant grooved Opegrapha?); cnist oi- 
bicular granulated white, apothecia immersed scattered divaii- 
cated mostly simple with a grooved border and an accessory one 
formed of the crust. Borr. in E. Bot. t. IS12.— Graphis elegans, 
Ach. Syn. p. 85. 




On the smooth hark of trees, Sussex, il/r. Borrer . — The proper bor- 
der of the Hrellce of this species is very remarkable, having a deep lon- 
gitudinal furrow, or being, as it were, itself a double border. 

13. O. scripta, Ach. (black-letter Opegraplui); crust thin 
membranous more or less smooth somewhat shining greyish- 
white indistinctly bordered with black, apothecia partly immersed 
naked or pruinose flexuose simple or branched in a parallel di- 
rection subrimiform surrounded by an accessory raised border 
formed of the crust. Ach. Lick. Univ. p. 265. Schcer. Lick. 
Helv. p. 46. n. 87—92. (not E. Bot, according to Mr. Borrer, 
hut) O. pulverulenta, E. Bot. t. 1754, O. Cerasi, t. 2301, cmd O. 
serpentina, t. 1755. — Graphis scripta, Ach. Syn. p .^\. — G. ser- 
pentina, Ach. Syn. p. 83. 

On the smooth bark of trees. — So sportive is this species that it is 
scarcely possible to define its limits : the crust is more or less smooth 
and shining, the lirellcE more or less branched, and the disk naked or 
pruinose. In the type of this species, the «. of Acharius, the lirclla’ are 
naked and shining ; in his/3., the O. jiulveridcntafVcrs. and E. Bot., they 
are pulverulent, in the y., 0. cerasi E. Bot, the Hrellce are small and 
parallel with each other, mostly simple ; and in the O. serpentina of E. 
Bot. the crust is tartareous and uneven, the Hrellce somewhat powdery, 
— and all intermediate states of these may be met with ; in short, it would 
appear that almost all the European true Graphides may be referred to 
one and the same species. 

*** Apothecia loith a raised accessory border formed of the crust, 
the proper border obsolete. Platygramme. Aleyer. 

14. O. Lyellii, Sm. (white-bordet'ed Opegrapha); crust smooth 
membranous pale olive, apothecia prominent turgid crowded 
curved obtuse greyish and powdery destitute of proper border 
with an elevated white powdery accessory border formed of the 
crust. E. Bot. t. 1876, and O. scripta, E. Bot. t. 1813, (ac- 
cording to Mr. Borrer, but surely very unlike the plant.) — O. 
marginata, Bubis, Bot. Gall. v. 2. p. 643. — Graphis Lyellii, Ach. 
Syn. p. 85. — Platygramme Lyellii, Meyer in Spreng. — Artkonia 
marginata, Dtfour. 

On the nigged bark of trees. New Forest, Hants, C. Lyell, Esq., in 
compliment to whom this most beautiful Lichen was named by Sir J. E. 
Smith. It has very large and 'provamexxtfructification, pulverated and sur- 
rounded by the broad and much elevated powdery border of the crust. 

15. O. dendritica, Ach. (Tree-like Opegrapha); crust tartare- 
ous determinate very white somewhat powdery, lirellse immersed 
depressed tyithout any proper border repeatedly branched 
zigzag tapering at each end, partly covered by the elevated ac- 
cessory border of the crust. Ach. Metk. p. 31. t. 1./. 10. 
E. Bot. t. 1756 — Graphis dendritica, Ach. Syn. p. 83. — Platy- 
graniine dendritica, Meyer in Spreng . 

Smooth bark of trees, Sussex, Mr. Borrer. New Forest, Mr. LyclL 

Ihe English Bot. figure of this plgnt is very good and characteristic ; 




yet, well marked as it appears to be, Mr. Borrer observes that there are 
varieties most puzzlingly intermediate between it and 0. Lycllii. 

16. O. venosa, Pei’S. (veiny Opegrapha); crust tartareous de- 
terminate reddisli-wliite, apotliecia immersed convex without any 
proper border repeatedly branched curved parallel and equidis- 
tant obtuse at the ends, surrounded by a slightly elevated acces- 
sory border formed of the crust. Pers. in Annal der Wetterav. 
V. ^.p. 15. t. 10./. 2. E, Bot. t. 2454. 

On the trunks of Beech in the New Forest, Hampshire, and almost 
always surrounded by Perlusaria crassa, C. Lyell, Esq. — Sir Jas. E. Smith 
well describes “ the Urellce as curiously and regularly disposed, much 
branched, twisted; but their ramifications, however complex and varied, 
keep generally at equal distances from each other, like the walls of an 
artificial maze. They are deep sunk in the crust, but convex above, in- 
tensely black with obtuse terminations; not tapering to a point, as in O. 
dendrilica, nor do they, as in that, spread radiating from a centre.” Mr. 
Borrer, in a letter, doubts the correctness of the reference to Persoon: 
but although it must be confessed that his short description is very un- 
satisfactory, the figure seems to be sufficiently characteristic. The same 
acute observer has already, in E. Bot. SuppL, under Arthonia impolita (t, 
2692), remarked that “ Meyer has perhaps done well in placing O. den- 
dritica and O. Lyellii in a new Genus, his Platygramme, to which our 
O. venosa also must belong. They appear to differ from Opegrapha by 
wanting a proper border to the apothecici and they can scarcely be 
placed In ArthoniaP Most of the species referred to Platygramme by 
Sprengel are exotic, natives of China. Our own 3 species^ appear to 
prefer the warmer parts of Europe, and in Britain they inhabit the 
southern districts only. 

Obs. The Opegrapha macidaris of Ach. and O. epiphaga Ach. and E. 
Bot., are altogether to be excluded from the Lichens, as species of Hy- 
$terium.{ Borr.) M. Fee, however, still ranks them among the Lichens, and 
in the present family, forming of them a Genus which he calls Hetero- 

b. Apothecia hemisphcericol {tuherculd), enclosing a nucleus. 

Fam. IV. Verrucarie.^:. 

5. Verrucaria. Pers. Verrucaria. 

Thallus crustaceous or cartilagineo-membranaceous, spread- 
ing, adnate, uniform. Apothecia (tuhercida?) liemispliserical or 
subglobose, innate and immersed or sessile, corneous, of a dif- 
ferent colour and substance from the thallus, (mostly a black 
crust or shell) enclosing a nucleus, the apex papillary, often at 
length perforated, sometimes covered by the wart- like processes 
of tiie thallus, (when it constitutes the Pyreaixda, Ach.) — Name: 
verruca, a icart, from the wart-like processes on the thallus. 

qpPe characters of this genus are not satisfactorily defined. 

Pyremda, separated from it by Achariiis, is, by almost general 




consent, now combined with it ag-ain. Mr. Borrer goes farther 
and unites with it the Genus Endocarpon, and even thinks that 
the Acharian J^on’wa (^Pertusariu, DC.^ should not he kept dis- 
tinct. His character, as given in the Supplement to E. BoL, runs 
thus ; “ Tubercles of a ditterent substance from the thallus, sim- 
ple, convex, not expanding, hut furnished with a central pore and 
inclosing a somewhat gelatinous nucleus." 

* Growing on the bark of trees. Corticolue. 

1. \ . nitida, ScXwaA. (^Wax-like Bark Verrucaria); crust de- 
terminate somewhat tartareous continuous smooth waxy brown 
marked with minute pale dots and swelling about the tubercles, 
apothecia rather large hemlspliaerical black immersed, at length 
pai’tially exposed. Borr. — Schrad. in Journ. 1801,y"t/5c. l.^j. 79. 
Borr. in E. Bot. Suppl. t. 2607. f. 1. Schcer. Lick. Helv. 
p. 57. 71. 111. — Pgrenula iiitida, Ach. Sgn. p. 125. — Spkceria 
nitida, Weig. — Soic. E. Fungi, t. 275. 

Frequent on smooth bark, particularly that of the Ash. 

2. \ . dennatbdcs, Jiovw (^Vellum-like Baik Vorucariaf crust 
determinate between filmy and tartareous continuous very 
smooth cream-coloured swelling about the tubercles, apothecia 
hemisphserical black immersed at length exposed. Borr, m E. 
Bot. Suppl. A 2607. y. 2. 

^ Trees in Ireland; near Bantry, Miss Hutchins, and near Killarnej', 
bir T. Gage, Bart . — Miss Hutchins observes that the living plant is con- 
stantly suffused with a reddish tinge, probably of an extraneous nature, 
of which some traces remain on Mr. Borrer’s long-dried specimens. — 
“ Allied, at first sight, to V. epidermidis as it usually grows on Birch-trees, 
or to a variety of it which spreads over the trunks of young Ash-trees ; 
but in the real nature of the crust it more resembles V. nitida, although 
not in the structure of its tubercles, the shell of which does not, as in 
that, inclose the base of the nucleus ; but the colour and remarkable 
vellum-like appearance of its thinner and polished crust and the entire 
want of dots distinguish it.” Borr. 

3. y. ci)ierea, Pers. (greyish Bark Vei-rucarioV); crust grey- 
ish uninterrupted thin smooth and polished swelling about the 
tubercles, apothecia minute convex black protruding through and 
elevating the crust. — V . stigmatella, Ach. Syn.p.^^. — Liche 7 i stig- 
matcllus, E. Bot. t. 1891. Pers. in Ust. Ami. fasc. 1. p. 28. t. 3. 
f. 6. A. 

On the smooth bark of trees. New Forest, Hants ; C. Lyell, Esq. 

4. V. epidermidis, Acli. (Birch-Bark V en'ucariu') ; crust very 
thin spreading cream-coloured, apothecia black very minute 
roundish convex the circumference depressed witli an hemi- 
sphserical point in the centre. Ach. Syn.p.8^. Schcer. Lick. 
Helv. p. 56. 71. 107, 108. — /3. analepta ; crust olive-coloured in- 
clining to coppery, apothecia elevated hemisphserical scattered 
black with a central dot. J . analepta, Ach. Syn. p. 88. — 
Lichen analept., E. Bot. t. 1848. 




a. On the thill epidermis of the Birch. /3. on the sniooth hark of 
young Oaks in Sussex, Mr, Borrer, who now considers it a variety oi 
V. ejndermidis. 

5. V. jmnetiformis, Pers. (broivnish 13ark Verrucarid); crust 
determinate very thin smooth continuous rusty-hrown, apothe- 
cia very minute black hemispluerical umbilicaterl. Ach. Syn. 

p. 87 . — LicJmi punctif., E.Bot. t. 2412. r •; 

Smooth bark of Ash-trees, Mr. Borrer. — Closely allied to 1 . epider- 
midis, g>. analeptn ; but the ernst is of a more reddish-brown or rusty 
hue, the apolhecin are still more minute and so much umbilicated as to 
be occasionally almost cup-shaped. 

6. V. olivdcea, Pers. (olive-crusted Bark Verrucaria^; crust 
determinate filmy continuous or slightly cracked roughisli olive- 
green, apotbecia prominent hemisphserical or somewdiat conical 
black slightly rugose, the crust rising about their base or in- 
vesting the whole surface. Borr — Pers. inllst. Ann. fasc. 1 ,p. 28. 
p. 3. /. 6. B.a.h. Borr. in E. Bot. SuppL p. 2596./. 1. V. 
carpinea, Ach. Syn. p. 88. 

On the smooth trunks of Thorns, Ash-trees, &c., Mr. Borrer, 
remarks that it is indeed closely allied to V. cpidermidis, and ditiers 
from it chiefly by the more considerable and somewhat rugged crust. 

7. V. rkyponta, Ach. (black-stain Bark P'crritcaria) ; crust 
roundish filmy continuous roughisli as if minutely flocculose 
black, apotbecia very minute prominent hemisplitencal blacdc 
for the most part slightly rugose. Borr, — Ack. Syn. p. 
Borr. in E. Bot. t. 2397. f, 2. 

On the trunks of young trees. New Forest, Hants, C. Lyell, Esq. 
Sussex, Mr. Borrer.— It grows parasitically on Oq^egrapha senjHa, or 
rather, to all appearance, Mr. Borrer observes, it is formed beiieath the 
crust of that plant and gradually bursts through and destroys it m little 
stain-like spots. The less spreading ihallus and t m more minute tuber- 
cles seem to distinguish this little plant from V. ohvacea; yet Mr. Lyell 
has found on Beech bark, in the New Forest, a dark olive-crusted \a- 
rucaria, nearly intermediate in both respects. 

8. V. genimdta, Ach. (large-fruited Bark Verrucaria); crust 
indeterminate almost filmy continuous or soniew lat ci ac 'e 
nearly sniooth whitish, apotbecia large prominent leniisp^ii 
cal or deformed naked or invested with a very thm h\m. B^r. 
—Ach. Syn. p. 90. Burt. El. v. 3. p. 162. iJorr. inE. Bot. 
t. 2617. f. 2.— V. alba, Sckrad.—Schccr. JacIi. Heir. 5o. n. 105. 

Frequent on the trunks of trees, especially of Ash.-- The largest of 
the British Verrucarice growing on bark, if we except the 1 . mtida ; but 
most allied to the following species. 

9. V.biformis, Borr. (deceptive Bark T errttcanw); crust in- 
determinate filmy continuous or sparingly cracked slightly lu- 
ffose or smooth or somewhat powdery greyish, apotbecia small 
prominent hemispluerical invested ivith a thm film. 

E. Bot. Siippl. 2617./. 1. Sekevr. Licli. Helv.p. o7 . n. 109. 

Not unfrequent on young Oaks, sometimes on Ash and other trees. 
Mr Borrer.— An obscure and puzzling lichen ; m some states ap- 




proaching to V. olivacea, although tlie wliite crust and broken appear- 
ance of the older tubercles tolerably well distinguish it. From V. ciiurea, 
the latter character and the* thicker shell and greater protuberance of 
the apot/iecia, will keep it separate, without adverting to the difference 
of crust. It very closely resembles V. gemnuita; but the tubercles do not 
attain half the size usual in that species, although they seem liable to all 
the same variations in figure, except perhaps that tliey never become 
mammillated ; their shell also passes under the base of the 7iucU us, 
which does not appear to be the case in V. gemviata.” Borr. 

10. V. niveo-dtra, Borr. {snounj -crusted Bark Verrucaruij; 
crust indeterminate thin rugose somewliat powdery white, apo- 
tliecia very minute orbicidar half- immersed their apex naked 
depressed rugose. Borr. in E. Bot. Suppl. t. 2637,/. 1. 

On old timber, in the wall of a house at Bamber, and on Elms at 
PortsladC) Sussex, M?\ Borrer. Hengrave, Suffolk, Sir T. Gage. — This 
differs in its crust from V. bi/ormis, the hcberctcs of that plant are also 
larger and of a different structure. 

11. V. rtulis, Borr. (p'ugged Bark Verrucarui); crust inde- 
terminate somewhat gelatinous thin continuous uneven with 
granulations grey or blackish, apothecia very minute prominent 
irregularly sphajrical very rugged dull black. Borr. in E. Bot. 
Suppl. t. 2637. f. 2. 

On boarded buildings and on rugged Oaks, llurst-pierpoint and Al- 
bourne, Sussex, and at Esher, Surrey, Air. Borrer. — This obscure ])roduc- 
tion is known from V . niveu-utra by the colour and texture of its crust 
and more dingy^ hue of its tubercles, as well as the more generally con- 
spicuous nucleus. It has some affinity with V. leucocephala in the struc- 
ture of the tubercle, the shell being thinner and apparently softer than 
in the generality of the crustaceous Verrucarice, and small imperfect 
patches are so intermixed with all our specimens of V. ritdis upon bark, 
as almost to lead to a suspicion that the two are not really distinct. 
Yet the tubercles are not powdered, nor do they partake at all of the 
tendency to a cylindrical figure, so observable both in the denudated state 
and in the more common appearance of V. leucocephala; and they differ 
farther by their minute size, rugged surface and hardly discoverable 
orifice; the nature of the crust too, seems dissimilar. To distinguish V. 
rudis in its palest state from V. bifortnis and V. olivacea, it is only neces- 
sary to advert to the more even crust and the larger and more distinctly 
perforated tubercles of both those species. Borr. 

12. V. dphanes, Borr. (^inconspicuous Ba?'k Verrucar-ia'); crust 
indeterminate very thin continuous minutely rugose olive, apo- 
thecia very minute nearly globose covered with a pale olive 
powder. Borr. in E. Bot. Suppl. t. 2642./. 1. 

Probably not unfrequent, on old Elms, Henfield, Sussex, and near 
Yarmouth. This is rendered visible to the naked eye only by a dull dark 
olive tinge, so that it may well have been passed over as the mere surface 
of the bark. Different in appearance as are the figures of these two spe- 
cies, given in E. Bot. Suppl., yet Mr. Borrer observes that “ the pow- 
®rirface of the tubercles of the present one seems to indicate an 
affinity between this most inconspicuous little lichen and the following, 
and the state of our knowledge of these obscure vegetables is by no 
means /ich as to warrant a positive assertion that it is not an infant 
state of that species, in the company of which we have hitherto found 



[ Vcrrucaria. 

it growing. Yet the structure of the crust seems very different, as well 
as the colour both of that part and the fructification.” — The tuber- 
cles are much more minute than those of any other British Verrucaria. 

13. V. leucocephnia, Acli. {xoliite-fruHed Bark Verrucaria^; 
crust between filmy and tartareous g'rey pruinose, apotliecia 
largish prominent sphrerical or almost cylindrical brown covered 
with white powder their apex at length hare. Borr — Ach. 
Meth.p. 116. Borr. in E. Bot. Supph t. 2642./. 2 — Pyrenida 
leucocepkala, Ach. Syyi. p. 126. — Cyphelium leucoceplialumd^ Ach . 
in Stochl. Trans, for 1817, p. 226. t. 8. /. 7.” — Sphania leucoce- 
phala, Ehrh. and Pers. — S. lichenoides, Sow. Br. Fungi, t. 373. 
/. 12. — amphihola ; apothecia larger clustered often irregular. 
Ach. Syn. 

On the trunks of old trees, near the ground. — Among the tubercles, 
as they appear to Mr. Borrer, of this plant, Mr. Lyell and Mr. Bobertson 
find patelhdce of a dull purplish-black, covered with an inseparable super- 
ficial buff powder. The same palellulw occur on sandstone rocks in 
Sussex, intermixed with what may possibly be abortive tubercles of the 
Verrucaria. These are figured on the plate in E. Bot. t. 2642./. 2. c., 
and look externally very much like the fructifications of a Lecanora. 
But whilst Mr. Borrer knows of no other Lichen to which these palel- 
lulcB can be referred, he yet believes that they do not belong to our 

** Growing on rocli or stone. Saxicolm. 

14. V. rupestris, Schrad. {immersed Pock Verrucaria^; crust 

indeterminate very thin whitish smooth, apothecia small black 
globose umbilicate sunk in a hollow of the crust and of the 
stone. Schrad. Spied, p. 109. t. 2./ 7. — V. Schraderi, Ach. 
Syn. p. 93. — Lichen Schrad. — E. Bot. t. 1711. Scluer. Lich. 
Helv.p. 55.71. 103, 104. — Vei'rucaria inxmersa, Hoffm. PI. Lich. 
L12./2— 4.? ‘ 

On chalk and calcareous stone, in which the apothecia form cavities 
often larger than themselves. — Mr. Borrer suggests that the V.immersa 
of Hoffln. should be distinguished from this, and he observes that both 
appear to have grown intermixed, as they frequently do on chalk, in the 
specimen figured as Lichen Schraderi 'm E. Bot. But 1 am not aw'areof 
the essential differences between them. 

15. V. coxicinna, Borr. {7ieat Rock Verrucai-ia'); crust deter- 
minate very thin tartareous contiuuous even grey somewdiat 
pruinose, apothecia of a middle size prominent hemispliserical 
umbilicate black. Borr. hi E. Bot. Snppl. t. 2623./. 1. 

Durham, Mr. Robson. Limestone rocks on the Durham shore of the 
Tees, near Eglestone ; and on chalk on the Sussex Downs, Mr. Borrer. 
Killarney, sCr T. Crtge.— This differs from the V. rupestris by its limited 
and even crust and its more prominent and larger tubercles. 

16. V. elceina, Borr. {olive-gi-een Rock Vei rucarki) ; crust 
thin tartareous cracked smooth slightly tumid above the tuber- 
cles greenish-olive, apothecia small immersed black between 
hemisphserical and conical at length emerging. Borr. in E. 




Bot. Suppl. after t. 2623. f. 2. — Lichen viridulus, E. But. 
t. 2455, (excluding the synonyms). 

On fissile slate rocks, in shady situations in the west of Ireland, Miss 
Hutchins. — The black apolhecia burst through an irregular star-like 
crack in the crust and rise above the surface. 

17. V. Icevdla, Ach. {greyish Water Verrncaria); crust thin 
tartareous cracked smooth dirty-white or brownish-grey, apo- 
thecia small partially emerging somewhat conical black. Ach. 
Syn. p. 94. Borr. in E. Bot. Suppl. t. 2623. f. 2. 

Rocky beds of streams in mountainous districts, in the north of Eng- 
land, Air. Teesdale, liev. J. Harriman. Killarney, Sir T. Gage. 

18. V. Harrimdni, Ach. {Mr. Harriman s Bock Verrucarict); 
crust tartareous continuous limited mouse-coloured with very 
minute depressed dots, ajjothecia minute immersed globose with 
a prominent bordered orifice dirty white within. Sm. — Ach. 
Syn. p. 93. — Lichen Harrimani, E. Bot. t. 2539. 

On hard grey calcareous rocks, in Durham, Itev. J. Harriman. — “ Its 
patches, though inseparable from the stone, are very distinctly limited 
and visibly prominent above its surface, of a hard tartareous texture, 
white within, greyish or pale mouse-coloured on the outside, which is 
thickly besprinkled with innumerable depressions or dots. The tuber- 
cles are deep sunk in the crust, blackish, their little bordered orifices only 
projecting slightly above its level.” Sm. 

19. V. pliimbea, Ach. {lead-coloured Rock Verrucarict); crust 
tartareous minutely cracked and rugged lead-coloured limited, 
apothecia half-immersed globose black pale within. Sm . — 
Ach. Syn. p. 94. Schcer. Lich. Helv. p. 54. n. 102. — Lichen 
plumbosus, E. Bot. t. 2540. 

Limestone rocks, near Cheddar, Somersetshire, Air. Borrer. “ This 
species differs sufficiently from V. Harrimani ; not so much in the bluer 
colour, as in the tessellated configuration of its which moreover is 
destitute of minute dots. 

20. V. Gdyei, Borr. {Gagean Rock Verrucaria); crust 
continued calcareous smooth brownish-Avhite irregularly cracked 
when dry, apothecia very minute blackish sunk in the crust. 
Sm — Lichen Gagei, E. Bot. t. 2580. 

Rocks of Glena and Glen Flesk, near Killarney ; but not common. — 
Sir Jas. E. Smith referred this to the Acharian Genus Urceolaria: but 
Mr. Borrer ranks it with Verrucaria. 

21. V. viridula, Ach. {Alosaic Rock Verrucaria); crust of 
polygonal granulato-crenate scales thickish tartareous rugose 
greenish olive-brown, apothecia largish black partially immersed 
conical. Borr. — Ach. Lich. Univ. Add. p. 675. Borr. in E. 
Bot. Suppl. after t. 2623. f. 2. — Endocarpon viridulum, Schrad. 
Spied, p. 192. t. 2.f. 4 — Pyrenxda tessellata, Ach. Syxi. p. 126. 
— Lichen tessellatus, E. Bot. t. 533, (bad as to figure and de- 

On bricks and tiles. — A common and very variable species, which has 
been involved in much obscurity ; partly on account of the indifferent 



[ Vcrnicaria. 

and unsatisfactory figure and description given in E. Bui. under the 
name of Lichen tessellatus, and partly because Acliarius had considered 
the plant as a var. of the Lichen fuscellus of Turn, and E. But. t. 1500. 

22. V. 7nurdlis, Acli. (^wall Verrucarici); crust indeterminate 
composed of tliin scattered or confluent scales between pulver- 
ident and tartareous pale grey, apothecia prominent nearly 
globose unpolished umbilicate. Borr. — Ach. Syn. j). 95. Borr. 
in E. Bot. Sttppl. t. 2647. f. 2. — Sphccria muralis, Soio. E. 
Fungi, t. 295, tcpper figure. 

Upon walls, chiefly on the mortar. — Allied toV. rupcstrisjhntits scarcely 
perceptible crust is less continuous and its tubercles not so deeply immersed 
and less regular in figure, as well as usually larger. Mr. Borrer likewise 
compares it to a state of V. viridula when injured by insects ; “ but the 
proper state of the surface of that plant is almost abvays to be traced 
in some parts of the patch, and its tubercles are larger and more conical. 
Still the most experienced Lichenists will not, perhaps, be the most 
forward to decide whether these two productions be truly distinct 

23. V. epipolaa, Ach. {large-fruited Rock Verrucarut); crust 
indeterminate thin tartareous somewhat powdery greyish, apo- 
thecia large prominent mostly conical brownish-black pruinose. 
Borr. — Ach. Syn. p. 285. E. Bot. t. 2647. /! 3. 

St. Vincent’s Rocks, Bristol, Mr. Borrer. North of England, Mr. 
Briinton, and the Rev. J. Harriman. Wales, Rev. H. Davis. Ireland, 
Sir Thomas Gage. — This is so nearly allied to V. gemmata of the pre- 
ceding section, having equally large tubercles, that Mr. Borrer observes 
it might be supposed a mere “varietas loci;” yet its more tartareous 
crust, with a powdery surface, and its rugose, brownish, less variable 
tubercles afford, perhaps, constantly distinctive marks. Its larger tuber- 
cles and continuous crust distinguish it from V. muralis. 

24. V. trachona, Ach. (ygreen Rock Verrucctrki); crust inde- 
terminate thin between pulveraceous and tartareous continuous 
or slightly cracked greyish-green, apothecia small prominent 
nearly globose pruinose at length deformed. Ach. Syn. p. 96. 
Borr. in E. Bot. Suppl. t. 2647. y! 1. 

Slaty rocks in different parts of Ireland, Miss Hutchins and Sir T. 
Gage. — “ The general aspect of this Lichen is so much like Lepra- 
ria botryoides, E. But., not Ach., (the Chtorococcum vulgarc, Grev.) 
that it might easily be mistaken for that plant, somewhat faded and 
sprinkled w'ith a minute parasite. Under a glass, however, the crust 
is found to be thinner and more coherent than that formed by the “ prn- 
pagula'” of the Lepraria, and the tubercles seem really to belong to it.” 

25. V. maura, Ach. (^Black-moor Rock Verrucaria'); crust 
thin continued imperfectly circumscribed coal-black smooth 
wdth innumerable minute cracks, apothecia black immersed 
swelling under the crust and marked by an nmbilicated dot. 
Sm. — Ach. Syn. p. 95. — Lichen maurus, E. Bot. t. 2456. 

Frequent on the coast, on a reddish porphyritic sandstone. 
In the .sea. First noticed at Dunbar bv IMr, Borrer. 




26. V. nigrescens, Pers. (dark-stained Rock Verrucaria'); 

crust of a deep olive-black solid most minutely cracked, apo- 
tliecia of the same colour half-immersed slightly convex with a 
central pore. Sm. — Pen's, in Ust. Ann. 14. j). 56 — Pyrenida 

nigrescens, Ack. Syn. p. 126. — Verrucaria umhrina, Ach. 3Ielk. 
p. 122. — Lichen umbrinus, Ach. Prodr. — E. Pot. t. 1499. 

Common on shady rocks and stone walls, even about houses. 

27. V. slridtula, Ach. (sharp-tulercled Rock Verrucana'); 
crust defined dendritic greenish-hlack limited with the areolie 
somewliat separated imperfectly branched radiating, apotliecia 
cone-shaped at length slightly concave and margined at the ex- 
tremity, the nucleus punctiform and transparent. Ach. Syn. 
p. 95. — [3. acrotella ; crust scarcely any, apotliecia minute 
scattered somewhat confluent black unequal convex jiointed 
umhilicated. Sm . — V. acrotella, Ach. Meth. j). 123. — Lichen 
acrotellus, E. Pot. t. 1712. 

P>. On flint-stones, Sussex, Mr. Borrer. 

*** Groioing on earth or decayed mosses. Terricolae. 

28. V. Hookeri, Borr. (Hookerian Ground Verrucaria'); crust 
thick of pure white tumid tartareous scales covering a black 
spongy substance, apotliecia ampulliform black immersed ex- 
cept the conical or truncated apex. Porr. in E. Pot. Suppl. 
t. 2622. f. 2. 

On dead mosses, on the micaceous soil of Ben Lawers, in the hollow 
near the summit where Saxifraga cernua grows, Air. Borrer. Also in 
similar situations on Maelgreadha and the other Breadalbane mountains, 
not unfrequently growing on the bare soil composed of comminuted 
schist. — This, Mr. Borrer observes, “ is very unlike any other Verrucaria 
with which we are acquainted, both in its lhallus and fructification. The 
thick, turgid, somewhat lobed, tartareous scales are similar in figure to 
those of Lichen frustulosus, E. Bot- 1. 2273, but of a much smaller size : 
their internal substance is green.” 

29. V. ej)igcka, Ach. (greenish Ground Lichen); crust pale 
yellowish-green or grey somewhat fihrillose slimy when moist, 
apotliecia minute globose immersed black within and with a 
minute point. Ach. Syn. p. 96. Schcer. Lich. Helv. p. 56. 
n. 106 — Sphccria epigeca, Pers. Syn. Fung. App. p. 27. — 
Lichen terrestris, E. Pot. t. 1681. 

On dry barren banks, near Norwich, Rev. G. R. Leathes. 

6. Endocarpon. Hedw. Endocarpon. 

Thallas crustaceous, often lobed or foliaceous. Apotliecia 
globose, imbedded in the thallus, with a slightly prominent apex 
and including a micleus. — Name ; ivhov, within, and the 

fruit, from the situation of the fructification. — The limits of this 
genus are not well understood, nor its situation among the 
Lichens. If we consider the nature of the apotliecia, it will 




undoubtedly rank near to Verriicaria, with wliicli Mr. Borrer 
unites it ; but then the thallus is in general of a widely different 
nature, scaly, coriaceous or foliaceous, not unfrequently peltate 
and umbilicated. Some of the species flourish upon constantly 
dripping rocks, within the spray of waterfalls, which is contrary 
to the habit of Lichens in general ; hence, and on account of the 
deeply immersed fructification, the Genus has been considered 
to be a connecting link wdth the Hepaticoe., through the Genus 
Riccia. ]\L Fee places it apart from the true Lichens, in a 
section which he calls Pseudo- HepaticcE and which lie charac- 
terizes by an entirely “ globose immersed apotheciuni and a 
coriaceous or foliaceous thcdlus.” These upothecia are so much 
at variance with those of the other foliaceous Lichens, that I 
have preferred arranging the Genus next to Verrucaria, although 
many of its species have not “ the thcdlus crustaceous, adherent 
and amorphous.” The attentive student of Nature will meet 
with difficulties such as these at every step, in attempting to ar- 
range her works according to a system of his own. 

1. E. minidtiun, Ach. (^grey cloudy Endocarpon); thallus 
foliaceous coriaceous suhumbilicated variously and broadly lobed 
olive-grey tawny beneath. Schcer. Licit. Helv.p. 59. — x. um- 
hilicatum ; urabilicate simple spreading and lobed. Schcer. Licit. 

Helv. p. 59. n. 112. — E. miniatum, Ach. Syn. p. 101 Lichen 

miniatus, Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1617. E. Pot. t. 593. — /3. compli- 
calum ; subumbilicate csespitose polyphyllous, the lobes imbri- 
cated erect. Schcer. Licit. Helv. p. 59. n. 113. — E. complica- 

tum, Ach. Syti. p. 102 Lichen miniatus, fS. amphihius, With. — 

E. Hot. t. 593 ? — y. acptalicum ; caespitose polyphyllous, the 
lobes crowded in the middle convolute, the exterior spreading 

and cut. Schcer. Licit. Helv. p. 60. tt. 114 E. Weberi, Ach. 

Syn. p. 102. — Lichen aquaticus, Weis. — E. Hot. t. 594. 

On rocks, a. On such as are perpendicular and dry. )S. On rocks 
suffused with water or within reach of the spray of cascades, y. On stones 
or rocks under water, in subalpine rivulets. — I cordially coincide with my 
valued friend, the Rev. Mr. Schaerar, in uniting the three species, as these 
have been considered, into one ; and indeed, 1 had hinted at the 
propriety of doing so, in the Flora Scotica, many years ago. The plant 
is most variable, depending for many of its appearances upon moisture 
and exposure. When dry, it often assumes a reddish or tawny 
hue with a minute powdery covering, especially the var. a.-. — but, when 
moist, the colour is usually an olive-green. 

2. E. Hedwigii, Ach. (^Hedtvigian Endocarpoti); thallus a 
subcartilaginous scattered flat somewhat lobed and angled grey- 
ish-brown scale pale at the margin at length blackish fibrillose, 
points of the apothecia protruded brownish-black. Ach. Syn. 
p. 99. Schcer. Licit. Helv.p. 61. n. 115. — Lichen trapeziforniis, 
Dichs. — E. Hot. t. 595. — /3. lachneum ; lobes of the thallus aggre- 
gated somewhat imbricated, the margin elevated repan do-1 obate 
waved beneath black and woolly. Ach. Syn. p. 99. — E. lach- 




neimi, Ach. Lich. Univ. p. 290. — Lichen lacJmeiis, Ach. Prodr, 
p. 140. E. Bot. t. 1698. — y. squamidosum ; lobes of the thallus 
ag-gregate sub-imbricated lobato-crenate pale fibrillose and 
woolly beneath. Ach. Syn. p. 99. — Lichen Icptophyllus, E. Bot. 
t. 2012, (excluding the synonyms). 

а. On barren heaths, near Croydon, Mr. Dickson ; and in Norfolk, 
Mr. D. Turner, fi. Common on the Sussex clowns, and on rocks at 
Cheddar and Bristol Hot-wells, Mr. Borrer. y. Hill of Kinnoul, near 
Perth, and other jdaces in Scotland. — This varies much in colour and 
a good deal in form, and constitutes, with the following five species, a 
little groupe, which might, as it appears to me, be considered as states 
of one and the same species, without much violence to nature. 

3. E. pallidum, Acb. (^pale-leaved Endocarpoii); tballus foli- 
aceous sometvbat imbricated lobed crenate pale greenisb-grey 
slightly spongy and black beneath the outermost lobes pale and 
naked on the underside, apothecia immersed black. Sm . — 
Ach. Syn. p. 100. — Lichen pallidus, E. Bot. t. 2541. 

On rocks thinly covered with earth, Ireland, Sir Thomas Gage. — 
This Mr. Schaerar unites with E. Hedwiini. 


4. E. psoromoieles, (bark Endocarpoii); scales between 
tartareous and leafy small crowded somewhat imbricated ap- 
pressed lobed waved tumid olive-green wdtli slightly elevated 
crenate whitish downy edges underside black and spongy, apo- 
tbecia immersed nearly globular pale except the slightly promi- 
nent blackish-browm apex. — Verrucaria psoromoides, Borr. in 
E. Bot. Siippl. t. 2612.yi ]. 

Probably rare. On Elm bark at Hurst-pierpoint, and on Ash at Deed- 
ing, Sussex. — With the exception of E. pulchellum, no other Endocar- 
pon has been observed to grow on trees. It differs, Mr. Borrer tells us, 
from its nearest affinity, 7?. in its less truly imbricated and more ap- 

pressed mode of growth, the edges only of the scales being slightly raised ; 
in the really fibrous texture of the underside; and, in some degree, in the 
figure of the scales and incisions of the edges; and not less in the 
tubercles. “ These, in the present species, have in the immersed part a 
thin perithecium, of no darker colour than the nucleus ; such, w'e pre- 
sume, as Acharius held essentially characteristic of a genuine Endocar- 
pon ! whilst those of E. pallidum have, in every part, a thick black shell. 
In this respect E. sorediatum agrees with E. pallidum; and it fur- 
ther differs from E. j^sorojnoides by the peculiar aj^e.v of its tubercles, by 
the larger scales of its thallus and their much more downy or rather 
spongy edges.” 

5. E. leptophyUum, Ach. (^small-leaved Endocarpori); thallus car- 
tilaginous foliaceous orbicular peltate blackisb-brown or inclining 
to grey, the circumference spreading flexuose, beneath smooth 
and naked wrinkled stibplicate and black, points of the apothecia 
black somewhat prominent. Ach. Syn. p. 102. — Lichen lepto- 
phyllus, E. Bot. t. 2012. /. 2. only, ( according to Mr. Borrer^. 

Rocks by the shore of Loch Lomond, Mr. Borrer. Rocks b)' 
Bassenthwaite water, Cumberland, Mr. Robertson. 

б. E. evplocum, Ach. (curled peltate Endocarpon^; a coria- 




ceous peltate leaf deeply lobed with jagged curled recurved edges 
naked on both sides olive-green above tawny beneath, apothe- 
cia immersed nearly globular pale except the slightly prominent 
apex. JBorr. — Acli. Syn. p. 102. — E. miniatum, (3. pusillum, 
Wahl. Lapp. p. 462. — Verrucaria euploca, Borr. in E. Bot. 
Sup]}!, t. 2602. jf. 2. 

On sandstone, exposed to the tide by the Tyne, a little to the west 
of Newcastle, Mr. JV. Robertson. “ The deep, laciniated lobes and the 
colour of the underside, distinguish this plant from E.leptophyllum yet 
so closely is it allied to that species, that the propriety of separating it 
may admit of doubt: both are fixed by a central callus and are destitute 
of fibres on the underside.” Borr. 

7. E. soredidtwn, {j}oiudery- speckled Endocarpo}i) ; scales 
between tartareous and leafy rather wide mostly scattered 
appressed flat irregularly orbicular lobed olive-green, underside 
brownish, the edges slightly elevated notched spongy pale grey, 
apothecia black immersed except the powdery blackish-grey 
apex. Verrucaria sorediata, Borr. in E. Bot. Suppl. t. 2612./’. 2. 

Mud walls at Thetford, Norfolk, Mr. D. Turner. 

8. E. pidchellum, Borr. (little filmy-leaved Endocarponfi scales 
leaf-like very thin membranous smooth greenish-grey roundish 
with an elevated incurved edge at length crowded n aved cut 
into rounded lobes and sprinkled with powdery granules, under- 
side pale brown with woolly fibres, apothecia nearly globular 
black immersed the apex oidy at length exposed. Verrucaria 
pulchella, Borr. in E. Bot. Suppl. t. 2602./’. 1. 

“ Growing on Lichen plumheus on stems of Heath, on a mountain near 
Bantry,” Miss Hutchins, who alone has found it in fructification. The 
plant itself is of frequent occurrence on mossj^ trees in Sussex, usually 
on Jungermannia dilatata, Mr. Borrcr. — A very curious species and quite 
unlike any other Endocmpon : its thallns has very much the appearance 
of some small Thelephora, to which genus Acharius, to whom it M'as sent, 
referred the barren frond. 

9. E. Icete-virens, Turn, (hright-green Endocarpon); scales 

leaf-like thin smooth grass-green irregularly orbicular witli 
shallow rounded lobes, underside white appressed and fib- 
rous in the central part, free elevated and naked at the edges, 
apothecia — ? Verrucaria Icete-virens, Borr. in E. Bot. Suppl. 

t. 2658. — Endocarpon viride, Ach. Syn. p. 100. 

On mosses in the mountains of Scotland, particularly on Sphagnum; 
also near Esher, Surre}q and Black Down, Sussex, Mr. Borrer,w\\o finds 
it likewise on tlie wet parts of the sand-rocks in the neighbourhood of 
Tunbridge Wells. Ireland, Miss Hidchins and Sir T. Gage. This has 
never been found with apothecia and Acharius was disposed to refer 
the barren ihallus to his genus Cenoniyce ; but Mr. Borrer justly re- 
marks that in the appressed mode of growth and in the manner in 
which the scales are attached to the substance on which they are found, 
it agrees with other species of Endocarpon (or leafy Verrucaria, Borr.) 
and he would assign it a place near V. psoromoides and V.pidchella. 

10. E. smctrdgdulum, Acb. (little Emerald Endocarpon'); tbal- 




lus of simple depressed cartilaginous peltate roundish smooth 
greenish- yellow scales, apothecia immersed their points red- 
brown depressed. — Ach. Syn. p. 98. Schcur. LicJi. Helv. p. 62. 
n. 117. — Lichen smaragdulus, E. BoL t. 1512. 

On sandstone rocks in Durham, Rev. Mr. Harrbnan. Near Sheean 
Ferry, Ross-shire, Borr. and Hooker. Fissures of rocks, Ardtur, Argyle- 
shire, Cap/. Carmichael. 

11. E. tephroides, Ach. {ctsh-coloured Endocarpon'); thallus 
crustaceous of depressed areolated and separated lobed or angled 
glaucous ash-coloured smooth scales the circumference wavy, 
tubercles immersed coal-black the apex depressed margined. — 
Ach. Syn. p. 98. — Lichen tephroides, E. Bot. t. 2013. 

On the ground at Burgh Head in Stronsa, one of the Orkneys, Borrcr 
and Hook. — In habit, this species seems to be the connecting link be- 
tween our genera Endocarpon and Verrucaria. M. Schserar, in his 
“ Observationes Criticse,” refers it to the former. 

12. E. fuscellnm, {dark-grey Endocarpoii); crust smooth 
spreading cracked dark grey somewhat pruinose, apex of the 
apothecia flat not prominent black. — Lichen fuscellus, Turn, in 
Linn. Trans, v. 7. p. 90. t. 8.f. 2. E. Bot. t. 1500. — E. teph- 
roides, ^.polyihecium, Ach. Syn. p. 89. 

On the walls of Gorlestone Church, Suffolk, ilf?'. Z’eiraer, and in similar 
situations in other parts of Suffolk and in Norfolk. — Acharins unites 
this with E. tephroides, but I think not justly : the colour, form, and 
texture are considerably different, and this has still more the habit of a 
Verrucaria, than the last. 

13. E. sinopicnm, Ach. {Sinoper Endocarpon); crust spread- 
ing determinate tumid smooth cracked and tessellated scarcely 
lobed of a rusty red, ajiothecia minute sunk black depressed in 
the centre. Ach. Syn. p. 98. Schatr. Lich. Helv. p. 62. n. 116. 
— Lichen sinopicus, E. Bot. t. 1776. 

On yellow hone schist, Anglesey, Rev. H. Davis. — This again, like 
the last, appears to have as good a claim to rank with Verrucaria as 
with the present Genus. Air. Turner has suggested that Urceolaria 
diamarta, Ach., is probably no other than this plant : but Acharius him- 
self says that in E. Bot. the lower magnified figure belongs to that plant, 
while the upper one is the E. sinopicum. The name, according to Sir 
J. E. Smith, is derived from a red stone, called Sinoper, which this 
Lichen resembles in colour. 

Obs. — The Endocarpon parasiticum, Ach. {Lichen 2^arasiticus, E. Bot. 
t. 1866 ,) is now universally considered to be a portion of the thallus of 
Parmelia saxalilis or omphalodcs ; deformed by a parasite. 




7. Pertusahia. Ach. Pertusaria. 

TliaUus cai’tilagineo-membranaceous, spreading, adnate, uni- 
form. Apothecia verruciform, formed of the thallus, one-or 
many-celled, eacli cell containing a nucleus, opening by a de- 
pressed pore. — Named from pertusus, full of holes ; in allusion 
to the pores or depressed points in the wart, like excrescences 
of the thallus. 

1. P. communis, DC. {common Pertusaria); crust greyish- 
white smooth, warts of the apothecia crowded suhglohose with 
many depressed points. Pe Cond. FI. Fr. ed. 1. p. 330. — 
Porina pertusa, Ach. Syn. p. 109. — Lichen pertusus, Linn - — 
E. Bot. t. 677. — Schcer. Lich. Helv. p>. 64. n. 118. 

On trunks of trees, abundant. 

2. P. ceuthocdrpa, {cream-coloured Pertusaria'); crust calca- 
reous continued cream-coloured tessellated unequal smooth, 
warts of the apothecia tumid globose smooth with black de- 
pressed j^oints. — Lichen ceuthocarpus, E. Bot. t. 2372. 

On slate rocks in Ireland, where it grows in large uninterrupted 
patches, Mhs Hutchins and Sir T. This has a cracked or tessel- 

lated crust, fewer, more globose warts, and larger dots than F. communis. 

3. P. fdllax, Ach. {doubtful Pertusaria); crust somewhat 
spreading plicato-rugose grey, warts of the apothecia crowded 
irregular depressed above bordered by the swollen almost 
gibbous and wavy circumference, pores solitary or many large 
somewhat confluent distorted black. Porina fullax, Ach. Syn. 
p. 110. — Verrucaria fcdlax, “ Pers.” — Pertusaria Wulfenii, Be 
Cand. Thelotrenia hymeneum, Ach. Meth. — Lichen hymenius, Ach. 
Prodr. — E. Bot. t. 1731. 

Not unfrequent on the bark of old Oaks and other trees. — Sir James 
E. Smith compares the warts of this species, cut perpendicularly, to the 
grinders of some quadruped. There is, indeed, a peculiarly deformed 
and distorted appearance about this plant ; and it is, along with two 
other Pertusaria, four Variolariee, and two Isidia, (as forms of one and 
the same species,) made synonyms to P. communis, by Sprengel, on the 
authority of Meyer. — Mr. Borrer considers the present plant to rank 
with the Tlielotremata, as is evident from his remarks at the end of the 
description of his T. Hutchinsice, E. Bot. Suppl. t. 2652. 

4. P. isidioides, {Isidium-like Pertusaria); “ crust thick 
tartareous frustuloso-areolate yellowish-brown, tubercles small 
globose pale immersed in tumid roundish warts except the 
darker slightly prominent apex.” — Verrucaria isidioides, Borr. 
in E. Bot. Suppl. t. 2622. f. 1. 

Rocks, Glangariff, near Bantry, Miss Hutchins. — “Acharins would, 
perhaps, have placed this singular Lichen in his genus Porina : yet the 
manner in which their apex usually emerges appears to point out a 
closer affinity to the other Verrucaria. It is, in fact, one of the many 
links which connect the Pyremdcc of Acharius with his EndocatpaA 

5. P. crdssa, {thick Pertusaria); crust cartilaginous undu- 




lated olive-brown smooth black-edged, warts of the apothecia 
very large and irregidar with numerous cells and numerous 
black slightly depressed often confluent and then linear curved 
points. — Opegrapha crassa, DC.—Stigmatidium crassiim, Dubis 
in Bot. Gall. v. 2. p. 643. — S, obscurum, Spr. (^excl. Syn. Pevs.^ 
— Enterographa crassa, Fee. — Lichen obscnrus, E. Bot.t. 1752. 
(excluding the Syn.^ — Porina aggregata, and P. saxicola, Ach. 
according to Sprengel. 

On the bark of old trees. — This, Sir James E. Smith referred to Ar- 
thonia of Acharius, and supposed it was the A. obsczira of that author : 
while others. Fee and Meyer, have n)ade of it a distinct Genus, the former 
under the name of Jbnterographa, the latter of Stigmatidium, still arrang- 
ing It with the GraphidecB. But the real nature of the fructification is 
well represented in F. Bot., and Mr. Borrer justly observes that it is 
only when the tubercles (or, in allusion to the structure of Pertmaria, 
the depressed points of the warts) become confluent, that the plant 
assumes the appearance of an Arthonia. 

8. Theeotrema. Ach. Thelotrema. 

Thcdlus crustaceo-cartilaginous, spreading, adnate, uniform. 
Apothecium double, the outer consisting of an open icart formed 
of the thallus. the inner (^one or two) thin, membranaceous, 
breaking away at the top, its disk containiiig a nucleus . — Named 
from 6r[kri, a wart, and a perforation; an open or per- 

forated^ wart. — This Acharian Genus is retained by Mr. Borrer, 
and if it were confined to our fix-st and second species, it 
would appear to have a structure very unlike that of the other 
Lichens, and they may be considei’ed the type of the Genus. 
But the other species differ considerably in habit, and assuredly 
in their fructification also. 

1. T. lepadinum, Ach. (wide-mouthed Thelotrema^; crust 
smooth cream- coloiu-ed, Avarts of the apothecia smooth conoid 
tnxncated, inner apothecia (1—2) hollow pale-brown with a 
thin indexed edge. Ach. Syn. p. 115. Schcer. Lich. Helv. 
p. 67. n. 121 — Lichen inclusus, E. Bot. t. 678. 

On the bark of trees, not unfrequent. 

2. T. melaleucum, Turn, and Borr. (smcdl-motdhed Thelo- 
trema); crustaceoiis cream-coloured, w^arts of the apothecia 
convex opening by an irregular indexed orificS, inner apothecia 
depressed brown with a thin obsolete jagged border. Turn 
and Borr. in E. Bot. t. 2461. 

On the smooth bark of young Oaks, Sussex, Mr. Borrer; on that of 
Beech, Argyleshire, Capt. Carmichael . — This appears to me to be only 
a young state of the preceding, and, if 1 am not mistaken, Capt. Car- 
michael entertained the same opinion. 

3. T.? exanthemdticum, Ach. {eruptive Thelotrema); crust 
subtartareous thin continuous ash-coloured, warts of the apo- 
thecia hemisphterical with a radiated orifice (their cavity sinik 
into the stone), inner apothecia concave flesh-coloured depressed 





in the centre. Ach. Syn. p. 1 1(5. — Thdotrema clauswu, Svha:> . 
Lich. Helv. p. 08. n. \'2^.— Lichen clausus, Hoffm.—L. exanthe- 
maticKS, Sm. in Linn. Trans, f. 1. jw. 81. 4; /.I. E. Bot. 

1184. — L. volvatus, Vill. 

On exposed calcareous rocks. — Acharius observes tliat this curious 
little plant recedes in character from its congeners ; and Mr . Borrer that 
it has, in its nature, the closest affinity with Lecidea marmorea, Ach. 

4. T. I/nfchinsicB, Borr. (Miss Hutchins Thelotrema); crust 
very white, warts of the apothecia crowded obsolete of iriegulai 
figure at length expanding with a broken flocculose indexed 
orifice, tbe nucleus (inner apotbeciurn) forming a dark-grey 
pruinose concave disk with a white lacerated margin. Boir. in 
E. Bot. Suppl. t. 2652. 

On the ground, encrusting fragments of heath, moss, &c., near 
Bantry, Ireland, Miss Hutchins.— This resembles a good deal the varwtip 
as it probably ought still to be. accounted, of the Acharian IHceolaria 
scruposa, which in the Synopsis is called Gyalecta bryophitn. Yet in the 
structure of the fructification, it appears to agree essentially with the 
type of the Genus Thelotrema, (T. lepadinum,) particularly m the 
presence, in an advanced stage, of a thin margin to the discoid nuclexis, 
separate from the spurious one, formed from the substance ot the 

(True Lichens.) 

c. Apothecia ? naked sporules (gongyli or pidvinidi). 


9. Lepraria. Ach. (Lepra, Had.) Lepraria. 

Tludlus crustaceo -leprous, spreading, adnate, uniform. Apo- 
thecia none. Sporules naked, forming the thallus^ scattered, 
and conglomerated, free — Named from Aevg«, leprosy; from 
the scurfy appearance of the species. — This genus is assiiredly 
among the most simple of what are called True Licluns by M. 
Fee. ” Though the infant granules may sometimes form an im- 
perfect apparent crust distinct from the sporules; yet, in general, 
this plant consists of an uniform stratum, more or less thick, of 
minute granules, which some have considered merely as the 
thallus of a plant of which the fructifications are unknowm, 
others as a mass of sporules, gongyli or pulvimdi of some authors, 
propamda of Messrs. Turner and Borrer. These last-mention- 
ed Botanists have, fortunately for science, written their History 
of this Genus and I gladly adopt their arrangement and chai- 
acters, only removing those species (L. ceruginosa and L. 
chlorina) wdiich have filaments mixed with the granules, to the 
Fungi. Dubis and De Candolle remark on Lepraria, “ Genus 
vix hiijus familise et ex elementis heterogeneis (Licbenum crusta 
sterili, Fungorum, Algarum prima evolutione) probabiliter con- 
flatiim.” Hence the L. ceruginosa has been referred to the Al- 




gm by Nees and Sprengel, wiiile Dr. Groville's Chlorococcum (a 
genus of AlgcE) vulgare, which he has most judiciously sepa- 
rated from the Palmella hotrgoides, witli which it had been 
confounded, is the Lepraria viridis of Messrs. Turner and 
Borrer. But it appears to have an equal claim to rank .with 
the other Leprarue ampng’ the Lichens, as with tlie Algce. No 
distinct fructification has been found, and the character of the 
Genus Chlorococcum is in reality the same as that of Lepraria, 
'’’•Gramda omnino libera minima aggregata absepie gelatina.” If 
therefore L. viridis be i-einoved to the Algm, so should the rest of 
the Lep>rari(e. 

1. L, viridis. Turn, and Borr. (^common green Leprarui); crust 
none, sporules extremely minute bright green globular col- 
lected into a continuous thin crustaceous powdery mass. Tarn, 
and liorr. Lich. JBr. p. 6. — L, hotryoides, (excl. the syn. of Linn, 
and Dill.'). Ach. Syn. p. 331 .? — Lichen viridis, Schreh. Spied, 
p. 139. — Chlorococcum vulgare, Grev. Scot. Cr. FI. t. 262. 

On pales, old buildings, trees and walls, abundant. — The granules are 
often clustered together, and Dr. GreviUe observes them to be so in 
fours. — The membranous base to this species, noticed by Sir J. E. Smith, 
has not been remarked by other Botanists. 

2. L. murdrum, Grev. (yvcdl Lepraria); sporides green sim- 
ple minute oval-oblong. — Chlorococcum murorum-, Grev. Scot. Cr. 
FI. t. 325. 

On walls and stones, frequent. Dr. GreviUe. — This forms small spots 
of a yellowish-green colour, the spots at length becoming confluent. 
It IS so closely allied to the preceding, that whether that be placed 
with the Algas or with the Lichens, the present should rank next to it. 

3. L. ochrdcea, Turn, and Borr. (ochry Lepraria); crust none, 

sporules extremely minute ochraceous-yellow collected into thin 
scattered patches. Turn, and Borr. Lich. Br. n. 8. E. Bot 
t. 2408. ‘ 

Trails of old trees, at Hurst-pierpoint and Poynings, Sussex. Trees 
about Yarmouth and Halesworth, generally upon' Hypmon sericcum. 

4. L.Jldva, Ach. (bright-yelloio Lepraria); crust none, spor- 
ules extremely minute bright yellow collected into a continuous 
crustaceous powdery mass. Ach. Syn. p. 331. E. Bot. t. 1350. 
Turn, and Borr. Licit. Br. p. 9. — Lichen flavus, Schreh. — Bt/ssus 
candelcms, Linn. 

Frequent on the rugged trunks of Oaks, on boarded buildings and 
pales, rarely on walls. 

5. L. dlha, Ach. (pohite Lepraria); crust grey edged with 
white downy fibres, sporules extremely minute snowy-white 
densely collected into continuous crustaceous patches. Ach. 
Meth. p 3. E. Bot. t. 1349. Turn, and Borr. Licit. Br. p. 15. 

Ach. Syn. p. 24? — Byssus lactea, Linn.? 

i runks ol trees and boarded buildings, common : sometimes, but rarely 

on wn Q ■> '- r 




G. L, virhcens, Sin. (Jull-green Lepraria); crust filmy grey- 
ish, sporules ratlier large subgelatinous deep green greyish 
when dry collected into a thickish crustaceous mass. Turn, and 
Borr. Lich. Br. p. 17. E. Bot. t. 2149. 

Trunks of old trees, principally Elm, in Sussex, Surry, Suffolk and 
Norfolk ; generally near the ground. 

7. L. cinerec-s^dphurea, Ach. (jjellow-grey Lepraria^; very 
thin submemhranaceous whitish the surface scattered over 
with very minute aggregated grannies greenish-yellow at first 
afterwards cinereous. Ach. Syn. p. 330. Grev. FI. Edin. 
p. 352. 

On the trunks of Scotch Firs, near Edinburgh, Dr. Greville. 

8. L. Jolithus, Ach. ? (violet-scented Lepraria^; crust filmy 
greyish, sporules extremely minute very red collected into a 
thin even powdery mass. Turn, and Borr. Lich. Br. p. 19. 
E. Bot. t. 2471. — L. ruhens, Ach. Syn. p. 331. — Byssus Joli- 
thus, Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1638 ? 

On boarded buildings, old pales, and trunks of trees ; on rocks in 
mountainous countries, sometimes on walls. — This plant is no less re- 
markable for its colour, than for the violet odour which it yields on being 
rubbed, and which remains with the plant long after it has been dried. — 
Under Byssus Jolithus, two plants have been described, one filamentous, 
the other pulverulent. The latter is our Lepraria the former is the 
Chroolepus Jolithus of Ag. Syst.Alg. p. 34 ; nearly allied to the Chr. lichen- 
icola of the same author. Conferva lichenicola, E. Bot. t. 1609. 

9. L. nigra, Turn, and Borr. (black Lepraria); crust filmy 
greyish, sporules extremely minute black collected into a con- 
tinuous thin even powdery mass. Turn, and Borr. Lich. Br, 
p. 2\. E. Bot. t. 2409. 

On squared timber. It forms large ink-like stains on the square tops 
of posts and other timber. 

10. Spiloma. Ach. Spiloma. 

Thcdlus crustaceous, spreading, adnate, unifonn. Apothecia 
none. Sporules naked, coloured, collected into compact tumid 
masses. — Name; a-'Ki'hwy.ot,, scattered spots ; from the appearance 
of the fructifications. — “ The transition” say Messrs. Turner 
and Borrer (to whom we are indebted for all that is most valu- 
able respecting this Genus) “from Xh^Lepraricr to the Spilomata, 
is easy and simple ; a single step, and that a short one, seems 
sufl&cient to lead us from the propagula (sporules) of the former, 
scattered indiscriminately and constituting altogether what 
appears to be a barren crust, to those of the latter, collected in- 
deed here and there into little clusters, called pulvinuli, but, at 
the same time, destitute of any integument or even margin, and 
wholly simple in their construction ; except that in some species 
may be discerned, by accurate observation, a small fleshy disk ; 
which probably AVQpld be found to exist equally in all, did not 




the extreme minuteness of the parts prevent its being detected; 
and which, in one individual (S. gregarium) actually rises above 
the surface of the thallus, and is often found quite bare, forming 
what appears a very conspicuous apothecium.” 

1. S. 7 nicroscdpicum, Turn, and Borr. (^microscopic Spilonm); 
crust spreading widely filmy very thin greyish, apothecia ex- 
tremely minute black lead-coloured when dry. Turn, and Borr. 
Lich. Br. p. 30. E. Bot. t. 239G. 

Common on boarded buildings, &c. — “ Thallus or crust a most obscure 
grey film, spreading indeterminately and very widely, so thin as merely 
to tinge the fibres of the wood on w’hich it grows. Apothecia, (or pul- 
vinuli, as they are called by Messrs. Turner and Borrer,) not discernible, 
except with a microscope of considerable power. Sporules bluish when 
dry, black when wet, readily adhering to the fingers.” 

2. S. murdle, Turn, and Borr. (wall Spiloma); crust none ? 
apothecia extremely minute confluent black. Turn, and Borr. 
Lich. Br. j9. 31. E. Bot. t. 2397. 

On plastered walls of cottages, in the parishes of Hurst-pierpoint and 
Albourne, Sussex; and on the walls of Burgh Church, Suffolk. — The 
absence oi thallus is accounted for by the authors oi Lxchenographia Br . 
by the circumstance of this plant having as yet been detected only on 
mortar and coarse-grained stone, on which substances the thallus of other 
lAchens is known to grow very thin and sometimes altogether to dis- 

3. S. sphcerdle, Ach. (globose parasitic Spiloma); parasitic, 
apothecia minute subglobose scabrous black opaque. Ach. Syn. 

p. 2. 

Upon the crust and podetia of Isidium coraUlnum and other Lichens. 
— This is enumerated in Mr. Borrer’s list of the British species; but 
I am unacquainted with it. 

4. S. dispersum, Turn, and Borr. (dispersed Spiloma); crust 
filmy very thin greyish, apothecia mostly dispersed hemisphse- 
ricai sooty-black internally of a yellowisb-green. Turn, and 
Borr. Lich. Br.p. 32. E. Bot. A 2398. 

On old rails, not unfrequent. — This agrees with S. microscopicum in 
its obscure filmy thallus, but differs abundantly in the size, disposition 
and structure of the apothecia. “ It is not unfrequently foui;d inter- 
mixed with it ; insomuch that we would by no means be understood as 
speaking with certainty, when we mention its thallus, whether this (hal- 
lus may not, in reality, belong to the other, and S. dispersum be alto- 
gether destitute of one.” 

5. S. anrdtum, Sm. (golden Spilomai); crust inclining to tar- 
tareous thin white, apothecia rather convex at length confluent 
deep brown internally yellow. E. Bot. t. 2078. Turn, and 
Borr. Lich. Br. p. 33. — S. tricolor, Ach. Syxi.p. 2. 

Common on timber, in old walls, &c., Sussex ; on Elm-bark at Port- 
slade : on the church-walls at Henfield, Sussex, and Wrentham, Suf- 
folk ; and very fine on churches near Bury St. Edmunds. — Of this very 
curious and beautiful species, the apothecia are “ about the size of 
poppy-seed, round, more or less convex, soon becoming confluent and 


frequently almost covering the ihallus. Spornles so minute that the 
highest powers of the microscope are insufficient to discover their figure ; 
those of the surface, which are deep brown with a fuliginous tinge, 
rub off with the slightest touch and discover the dull but full yellow (or 
orange-) colour of those which compose the internal part of the apo- 
theciuni.” — In E. Bof., S. auratum is described and figured with a crust, 
not belonging to it ; for it often spreads over the thick tartareous lhalli 
of Verrucaria and Ojyegrapha, &c. 

0. S. nigrum, Turn, and Boit. (black Spilomd); crust inclin- 
ing to tartareous thin wliite with a narrow black edge, apotlie- 
cia roundish nearly flat at length confluent black. Turn, and 
Borr. Lick. Br. p. 35. — «. variolosum ; crust powdery pure 
white, apothecia convex hut little confluent black. Coniocaipuni 
nigrum, Be Cand. FI. Fr. ed. 2. v.2. p. 324. Duhis and De 

Cand. Bot. Gall. v. 2. p. 695 Spiloma variolosum, E. Bot. 

t. 2077. — S. melaleucum, Ach. Syn. p. 2. — /3. versicolor ; crust 
inclining to powdery grey variegated with greenish-yellow, 
apothecia flat very confluent. S. versicolor, Ach. in Web. et 
Mohr Arch. p. 108. E. Bot. t. 2076. — y. erubescens; crust tar- 
tareous reddish ci’acked into areolm, apothecia small shapeless 
for the most part distinct. 

Not unfrequent on old trees, chiefly Oaks ; sometimes on bare wood 
in sheltered places. Old Church-walls in Suffolk, Sir T. Gage, Bari. — 
/3. On smooth bark, as on Hornbeam, in Norfolk and Suffolk, and on 
Walnut at Albourne, Sussex. — y. on smooth trees in Norfolk and Suf- 
folk, and at Henfield and Albourne, Sussex. 

7. S. fuliginosum. Turn, and Borr. (sooty-fruited Spiloma); 
crust inclining to tartareous but still very thin nearly white with 
a fuliginous edge composed of downy fibres, apothecia very 
minute punctiform confluent sooty-black. Turn, and Borr. 
Lich. Br.p.Ql. — S. niicroclonium, E. Bot. t. 2150, (not^ch.). 

On the rugged trunks of old trees. In Windsor forest, Mr. Sowei by. 
Near Esher, Surrey ; Belton and Blundeston, Suffolk. — Allied to S. 
nigrum, from which it is distinguished by the colour, size and indistinct 
figure of its innumerable apothecia, which are so uninterruptedly scat- 
tered over the thallus as to render the plant liable to be mistaken for a 

8. S. decolorans. Turn, and Borr. (^staining Spiloma); crust 
spreading widely very thin and for the most part filmy, apothe- 
cia flat inconsjiicuous confluent of a purplish-grey. Turn, and 
Borr. Lich. Br. p. 39. E. Bot. t. 2399. 

Common on old walls, boarded buildings and pales. — This is, in habit, 
allied to some V ariolarice ■, but as the fructifications appear to be jmlvi- 
nuli rather than soredia, the plant is arranged here. 

9. S. pnnctdtum. Turn, and Borr. (dotted Spiloma); crust 
filmy somewhat powdery thin Avhite, apothecia scattered mi- 
nute punctiform solid, spornles blackish-brown superficial. 
Turn, and Borr. Lich. Br. p. 40. E. Bot. t. 2472. 

On old oaks at Coltishali, Norfolk. — Of doubtful genus, in some re- 
spects allied to Arthonia, in others to S. gregarmm. 




10. S. greydrhun, Turn, and Borr. {fed clustered Sjjdoma^; 
crust filmy thin greyish, apothecia clustered shapeless solid of 
a livid hue, sporules vermillion-coloured superficial. Turn, and 
Borr. Lich. Br. p. 42. — cinnaharinum ; apothecia somewhat 
convex covered with a profusion of vermillion-coloured sporules. 
Comocarimm cinnctharimini. Be Cand. — Splieria gregana, 
“ Weigel. 43. t. 2.f. 1 0.” Bichs. Or. Base. t. 22. Sourer. Br. Fung. 

t. 375. /: 5 Spiloma tumidtdum, Ach. Syn. p. 1. B. Bot. 

/. 2151. — Lichen impolitus, E.Bot.t.9S], — /3. rosacenm ; 
thecia collected into flat clusters which have the appearance of 
being lobed, spondes copious vermillion-coloured. y. margi- 
natum ; apothecia somewhat convex party-coloured, sporules 
few chiefly confined to the margin. — h. concolor ; apothecia con- 
vex of nearly the same colour as the crust, sporules scarcely 
any. — s. duhium ; apothecia rather convex Inrid prninose, spo- 
rules none.— detritum ; apothecia depressed lurid nearly 
naked, spornles none. — jj. nucrostigma; apothecia minute solitary 
depressed covered with a whitish prnina, spornles none. 

a. and y. are common on bark, chiefly on smootli tree.s. ^ f ^ \ 
Oak on Poynings Common, Sussex. — S. and e. grow on Oak and 
Ash. — ?. chiefly on Hazel. — »!. on Ash in shady places. ‘ j lie large 
size of the compact base or internal disk ot the putvinuli, sufficiently c is- 
tinguishes the present plant, through all its variations, from its con- 
geners; as in every other Sjnloma, hitherto detected, S. punclatum alone 
excepted, this part, if present at all, is very minute and entiiely con- 
cealed by the spondes.'^ The two last varieties s. and bear a 
resemblance to Arthonia impollta ; but the lltallus ot the Arthonia is 
stated to be always thicker and more uneven, and its apothecia, though 
larger, are generally less conspicuous than those of the Spdoma, being 
scarcely, if at all, elevated above the level of the thallus : their internal 
substance likewise is very different, presenting a more waxy appearance 
when cut. 

11. S.? tuberciddsum, 8m. (warty Spiloma); crust calcareous 
greyish-white, apothecia scattered somewhat confluent unequal 
elevated granulated black. E. Bot. t. 2556. Schcei. Lich. 
Helv. p. 2. n. 5. 

On sandstone rocks, in the neighbourhood of Newcastle.— INIr. Borrer 
considers the thallus to be probably that of some Lecidea. 

Qjjs. — The Spdoma melanopum of Sm. in E. Bot. t. 2338, described 
as having “ the crust very thin greyish, apothecia flat dilated irregular 
somewhat confluent black,” and communicated by Mr. Borrer to Sir Jas. 
E. Smith, is now considered to be a doubtful production, being mixed 
with comparatively large jointed filaments, probably belonging to some 
Conferva or filamentous Fungus. The Spdoma melanopum o(Ach. Meth. 
p. lO. t. 1./. 3., to which it is referred, seems to be something very dif- 
ferent, as far as can be judged from the description and figure, and is 
indeed now, by Acharius himself, stated to be formed of his Arthonia 
melanthera, upon a stratum of his Lepraria a/ra, Licli. Univ. (Lccidea 
melanopa, of llie Syn.) 



[ Variolaria- 

6 . Apothecia opening iiUo depressed or hollow shields or pustules 


Fam. VI. Variolariea:. 

11. Variolaria. Pers. Variolaria. 

Phallus crustaceous, membranaceous, adnate, spreading, uni- 
form. Apothecium a suborbiciilar, scutelliform cup, formed of 
the tballus, filled with a powdery or flocculose substance, which 
covers an immersed waxy disk containing imbedded thecce . — 
Name ; variolce ; from the apothecia resembling the pustules of 
the measles or small-pox. — “ The Genus appears a natural one, 
but bordering upon many others. By S. Vitiligo it is connected 
with Spiloma ; by V. multipunctata with Thelotrema, (or rather 
perhaps Pertusario); by V. argena (still more by V. velata) 
with Parmelia, (^Lecanora, Ach. Syii.) ; and by V. agelcea with 
Urceolaria ; while by Isidium paradoxmn there is a close 
affinity witli that genus. ’ Purn, and Porr.; whose arrange- 
ment and character are here followed.^ — In. V. velata the place 
of the poivder or soredia in the apothecia is occupied by a thin 
membranous veil drawn over the disk. 

1* y^’ Vitiligo, Turn, and Borr. (leprous Variolaria^; crust 
elliptical almost filmy very thin smooth AvhitisJi indeterminate, 
apothecia very numerous minute oblong’ confluent with a very 
narrow elevated margin, powder lead-coloured. Turn, and 
Borr. Lick. Br. p. 53. — Spiloma Vitiligo, Ach. Meth. p. 10. 
t. \.f. 4. E. Bot. t. 2073. Lecanora apochrcea, Ach. Syn.p. 162. 

Common on old rails and gate-posts. 

2. V. griseo-virens. Turn, and Borr. (greyish-green Vario- 
laria'); crust elliptical inclining to tartareous thin slightly 
rugged grey nearly indeterminate, apothecia small nearly 
orbicular with a very narrow elevated border, powder greenish- 
grey. Turn, and Borr. Lich. Br. p. 54. E. Bot. t. 2400. 

Birch-trees on Stratton-Strawless Heath, Norfolk, Mr. D Turner 
On Cherry bark at Killarney, Sir T. Gage. 

3. V. conspurcdta. Turn, and Borr. (dusty Variolaria); 
thallus suborbicular tartareous thick whitish surrounded when 
young by a zonate border of various colours, apothecia minute 
inconspicuous with a depressed evanescent border, powder grey. 
Turn, and Borr . Lich. Br. p. 57. — Lichen conspurcatus, E. 
Bot. t. 964. (with black jmrasiticcd bodies represented in the 

magnified figure.) — Lecidea? conspurcata, Ach. Meth. p. 50. 

L. margaritacea, /3. Ach. Lich. Un. p, 187. — (3. lateritia ; crust 
very thin copiously sprinkled with lead-coloured apothecia. 
Turn, and Borr. 1. c. — y. albella ; crust continuous but slightly 
rugose, both it and the apothecia wliite. Turn, and Borr. 1. c. 




On calcareous stones, in the walls of old churches, &c. frequent ; 
sometimes on plastered walls. /3. on brick walls, y. on limestone 
rocks, Killarney, Sir T. Gage. 

4. V. ylohuUfera, Turn, (^globuliferous VariolaruC) ; crust 
orbicular somewhat tartareous thickish glaucescent rugose 
sprinkled all over with white soredia and surrounded by a 
somewhat zonate border of various colours, apotbecia large 
spherical depressed at the apex Avhere they at length burst 
irregularly becoming scutelliform w'ith a lacerated border, 
powder white. Turn, in Linn. Trans, v. 9. p. 139. t. 10. f. 2. 
Turn, and Borr. Licit. Br.p.QQ. Ach. Syn. p. 130. — V. gloniu- 
lifera, Ach. Licit. Univ. p. 322. t. 5. f. 9. — Lichen glohuliferus, 
E. Bot. t. 2003. 

On old Oaks at Hurst-pierpoint, and on Beech-trees in the Sussex 
Forests, Mr. Borrer. 

5. V. discoidea, Pers. (irisipid zoned V ariolarici) ; crust orbi- 
cular somewhat tai’tareous thickish glaucous-white surrounded 
by a zonate border of various colours, apothecia numerous flat 
with a thick border, po^vder snowy-wbite. Turn, and Borr. 
Lick. Br. p. 61. — V. amara, c. discoidea, Ach. Syn. p. 132. 
— Lichen discoideus, Ach. Prodr.? E. Bot. t. 1714. — Bill. 
Muse. p. 18. y. 11. B. 

Common on the bark of trees, and,, occasionally, on pales, walls, and 

6. V. faginea, Pers. (bitter zoned Variolaria'); crust orbicular 

somewhat tartareous thickish glaucous-white surrounded by a 
zonate border of various colours, apothecia very abundant 
convex with an obsolete border, powder snowy- white. Itirn. 

and Borr. Lich. Br. p. 64. — V. communis, b. faginea ? Ach. 
Syn. p. 130. — Lichen fagineus, Linn. — E. Bot. t. 1713. 

Common on the bark of trees, especially of old Beech, and on pales. 
— “ The intensely bitter taste jpf this Lichen distinguishes it from every 
species hitherto discovered. It is upon this circumstance, which we 
have never found to vary, that we have been induced to place our 
chief reliance in making V. faginea and V. discoidea, distinct; for it 
must not be dissembled that they are two plants which nearly agree in 
almost every other particular; and which have been confounded by the 
great majority of authors.” Turn, and Borr. — M. Braconnot detected 
in this and several other crustaceous Lichens, oxalic acid; in the present 
plant in such abundance that 100 parts yielded 18 of lime, combined with 
29.4 of oxalic acid; and nearly the same quantity in several other crus- 
taceous Lichens. And he remarks that the oxalate of lime bears the 
same relation to the Cryptogamia as carbonate of lime to corals, and 
phosphate of lime to the bony structure of the more perfect animals. 
It diminishes, however, gradually in the family of Lichens, in proportion 
as the species lose their general crustaceous texture and approach more 
and more to the membranous or cartilaginous, although the latter 
also contain a considerable quantity of salt-* M. Braconnot strongly 
recommended the adoption of V. faginea in the production of oxalic acid, 

' Edin. N. Pliil. Jourii. v. 13. p. 103. 




and an eminent French Chemist now informs me that it is so employed 
in France, and upon a ver}' extensive scale. 

7. V. aspergilla^ Acli. Lich, Univ. {sprinliled Variolarui); 
crust orbicular soinewliat tartareous thickisli dull-white wrinkled 
surrounded by a smooth polished somewhat zonate border of 
one colour, apothecia scattered elevated liemisphaerical with 
scarcely any border, powder very white. Tarn, and JBorr. 
Lich. Br. p. 67. E. Bot. t. 2401. — V. communis, g. aspergilla, 
Acli. Sgn. 

()n Oak and Beech, park-pales, and on rocks. 

8. V. Idctea, Pers. (pnilhy -white Variolarui); crust subor- 
bicular tartareous thick white smooth areolate tinged at the 
edges with flesh-colour, apothecia copious suborbicular flattisli 
with an elevated border when young which afterwards dis- 
appears, powder very white. Acli. Syn. p>. 132. Turn, and 
Borr. Lich. Br. p). 69. E. Bot. t. 2410. — Lichen lacteus, Linn. 
Mant. — arenaria ; crust continuous dirty lead-colour, apo- 
thecia elevated nearly sphterical. Turn, and Borr. 1. c. 

Rocks, in mountainous countries. / 3 . sandstone rocks, Sussex, Tlfr. 
Borrer. Ireland, Mr. J. T. Mackay. 

9. V. cinerea, Sm. (ash-coloured Vaidolarhi); crust orbicular 
tartareous thin ash-coloured cracked its circumference indeter- 
minate, apothecia orbicular very small white with an elevated 
margin and a flesh-coloured disk. E. Bot. t. 2411. 

On vvhinstone, in Durham, liev. Mr. Harriman.Sir Jas. E. Smith 
remarks upon this (with which I am unacquainted); “ It has been con- 
sidered a variety of V. lactea, but we presume to think it as distinct as 
any otlier of the genus, differing from V. lactea in the grey ashy colour 
and greater tenuity of the crust, but especially in the margin being inde- 

10. V. midtipunctdta. Turn, (many-dotted Variolaria); crust 
orbicular between filmy and tartareous thin rugulose glaucotis- 
white surrounded by an even polished very thin white border, 
apothecia abundant hemispbserical compound dotted with an 
indexed border, powder white not copious. Turn, in Linn. 
Trans, v. 9. p. 137. /. 10. y. 1. Ach. Syn. p. 129. Turn, and 
Borr. Lich. By. p. 73. — Lichen multipunclaius, E. Bot. t. 206 1 . — 
/3. hxvigata ; crust cream-coloured scarcely cracked or rugose, 
apothecia depressed. Turn, and Borr. 1. c. 

Beech-trees in Sussex, common, Mr. Borrer. New Forest, Mr. Lyell. 
Durham, Mr. Robson and Air. ThornMll. — / 3 . St. Leonard’s Forest, on 
Beech and Oak, Mr. Borrer. 

11. V. veldta, Ach. (veiled Variolarui); crust limited inem- 
branaceo-verrucose wrinkled greyish with a pale edge, apothecia 
small crowded, the disk yellowish veiled with a Avhite mem- 
brane, border thick even of the substance of the crust, powder 
none. Ach. Syn. p. 1 19 — Parmelia velata, Turn, in Linn. Trans. 
V. 9. ]i. 143. t. 12. f. 1. — Lichen velatus, E. Bot. t. 2062. 




In this instance, only, so far as regards the present genus, do 1 diffei 
from the learned authors of the Lichenographia Brilannica, by consider- 
inff this plant rather as a Variolaria than a Parmelia (^Lecanora, Ach.), 
Its crust and general habit, as Sir James E. Smith observes are those 
of Variolaria multipunctala, where the powder of the shields is very 
deficient, and where the di&k {lamina proligera) is very evident. Here 
the disk is still more copious, the powder is entirely absent, and its P'ace 
is supplied, if I may use the term, by a white membrane, stretched 
across the whole apothecium. If, however, it be placed among the 
Lecanorre it must rank with L. Parella. 

12. V. argena, Turn, and Borr. (silvery Variolaria); cru-st sub- 

orbicular between filinv and tartareous very thin rugulose grey 
covered here and there 'in patches vvitli white powder surrounded 
by a white fibrous border, apotliecia in scattered clusters otbi- 
cular flattisb with an indexed border, powder white not abun- 
dant. Turn, and Borr. Licli. Br. 15.— Lichen argeenns, and 

L. ageleeus, (according to Ach.) Ach. Prodr. p. 8. E. Bot. 
t. 1923, (bad).—Lecidea argeena, Ach. Meth. (not Sign.)— The- 
lotrema vai'iolarioides, jS. Ach — Lichen, farinosiis, Hoffm. ■ 
Lecanora verrucosa, Ach. Lich. Univ. p. 354. y. Ach. Lich. 
Univ. p. 355. 

On the bark of Lime and other trees, not uncommon. 

13. V. ageld.a, Turn, and Borr. (inelegant Variolaria); crust 
elliptical almost filmy whitish surrounded by an obsolete border 
of the same colour, apotliecia very numerous depressed shape- 
less crowded and becoming conduent so as to appear com- 
iiound with an indexed border, potvder white, the disk at length 
bare blackish. Timi. and Borr. Lich. Br. p. IQ.— Lichen 
ageleeus, Ach. Mefh.—E. Bot. t. \12>0 —Thelotremavariolarioides, 
13. agelcea, Ach. Syn. p. 117 — Urceolaria agelxa, Ach. Meth.— 
Lecanora verrucosa, (3. Ach. Lich. Univ. p. 355. 

it will be seen by the synonyms of this and the preceding Lichen 
what different opinions have been held, even by Acharius himself, re- 
specting their generic and specific identity. At length, in his Synopsis, 
he has referred both of them to one and the same variety of Thelotrema 
variolarioides. V. agelcea is ranked by Messrs. Turner and Borrer 
among the Variolaricc, on account of the presence of the powder in the 
young and vigorous state of the plant; but they still call it an “ obscure 
Lichen.” They, observe that it differs from V. argena and V.nmlti- 
punclntn, in the thinner and more even thallus, and in the shape and 
structure, as well as in the greater number, of its apotliecia.— Qome of 
the figures in E. Bot. appear to me to bear a great resemblance to 
Pertusaria communis. 

e. Apotliecia bordered, discoid, sessile (patelhdee). 


12. Urceolaria. Ach. Urceolaria. 

Thallus crustaceous, spreading, adnate, uniform. Apotliecia 
(patellulee) orbicular, tlie disk concave, coloured, immersed in 
the crust, the border formed of the crust and of the same colour. 




——Name ; urceolus^ a Utile pitcher ; from tlie hollowed form of 
t le apothecia, which, taken in conjunction with the elevated 
border formed of the crust itself, constitutes the essential 
character of this genus. 

1. U. scruposa, Ach. {common ZJrceolariai^; crust greyish- 
white rugose granulated, apothecia with the disk deeply im- 
mersed concave black the border very thick incurved crenated. 

Ach. Syn. p. 143. Schcer. Lich. Helv. p. 75. n. 132 Lichen 

scrupoms, Dichs.—E. Bot. t. 2&&.-—Gyalecta bryophila, Ach. 
Syn.p. \Q.~Dill. Muse. t. 18./ 15. B. 

On heaths, walls and rocks. 

2. \].gihbosa, Ac\\. (^gibbous-fruited Urceolarid); crust smoky- 
brown formed of minute tessellated warts with a radiated 
marginal fringe, apothecia immersed in each Avart concave 

blackish with an undivided elevated pale border. Sm Ach. 

Syn. p. 139. — U. fimbriata, Ach. Meth. — Lichen fibrosus, 
E. Bot. t. 1739. 

On flints upon the South-downs, Sussex, Mr. Borrer. Common on 
flinty pebbles, Mr. Sowerby. — Mr. Schaerar refers this plant of E. Bot. 
and the U. fimhriata, Ach. without any doubt to U. scruposa.. 

3. U. calcdrea, Ach. (calcareous Urceolaria) ; crust indeter- 
minate greenish ash-coloured cracked and tessellated, apothecia 
immersed in the raised centre of the areolae nearly flat brownish 
with an undivided elevated pale powdery border. Sm. — Ach. 
Syn.p. 143, (var. (3.). — Lichen Hoffmanni, E. Bot. t. 1940. 
— Urceolaria Hoffmanni, Ach. Meth. — Lichen cinereus, E. Bot. 
t. 820, (L. mxdtipunctatus, under t. 1751,) excl. the Syn. 

On rocks, stones and walls, in many places.— The L. cinereus, E.Bot. 
t. 820, can surely not be distinguished from the U. calcarea. Smith af- 
terwards referred it to the Verrucaria multipunctata, Hoffin. : but that 
Acharius adduces as a synonym to Lecidea albo-cccrulescens. Indeed it 
may be said of this, and the following Urceolarice, that they have an 
equally strong claim to rank with Lecidea ; or, if a slightly raised border 
of the crust be considered to belong to the apothecia, to Lecanora. 
In all, the apothecia are nearly level with the crust. 

4. U. cinerea, Ach. (grey Urceolaria); crust grey rugged 
and cracked with a broad greenish undulated border, apothecia 
immersed solitary or clustered slightly concave black with an 
elevated entire border of the substance of the crust. Sm. — Ach. 

Syn. p. 240. Schcer. LJeh. Helv. p. 70. n. 125 — 129 Lichen 

cinereus, E. Bot. t. 1751. 

Abundant on loose exposed flints, in Sussex, Mr. Borrer. — I scarcely, 
myself, see how this is distinguishable from U. calcarea: though 
Sir J. E. Smith says it is nearly allied to U. gibbosa. 

5. U. Achdrii, Ach. (Acharian Urceolaria); crust somewdiat 
determinate smooth a little cracked pale brick-colour, apothecia 
sunk in the crust reddish, the border tumid. — Ach. Syn.p. 137. 

— Lichen Achafii, Wahl. Lapp. p. 405. E. Bot. t. 1087 /S. 

ryrtaspis, rugged greyish- wdiitc Avith a very narrow black edge, 




apothecia minute very numerous roundish black (otten brown- 
red) with a white border incorporated with the crust. !bm. 
ylc/i. Sjjn. p. 137. — Lecanora cyrtaspis, Ach. Lick. Univ. 

Lichen pimctatus, Dicks. — E. Dot. t. 450. 

On rocks and stones, frequent. — The colour of the var. a. ot this 
Lichen, on which it chiefly depends for its character, seems to me to 
be owine to the oxyde of iron, which tinges other species growing on 
the same stones. I follow Acharius in making the V. jmnctat. a var-. 
of it ; but if either be really distinct from V. cinerea or catcarea, 1 
should prefer considering the var. /3. the type of the species. 

6. U. rnfesceyis, {reddish Urceolaria); crust indeterminate 
thin tartareous tessellated brown, apothecia small dark-chestnut 
immersed at length flat with an elevated entire margin. Borr. 
— Scujedia rufescens, Ach. Syn. p. 135. — Lecidea rufescens, Borr. 
in E. Bot. Suppl. t. 2657. 

Rare. On sandstone (walls ?) at Gorleston, Suffolk, Mr. D. Turner. 
—Mr. Borrer remarks that this approaches in structure the Lecidea 
cechumena, /3. athroocarpa, which indeed corresponds in its sunken shields 
with some Acharian Vrceolarice. “ We do not understand satisfactorily, 
says Mr. Borrer, “ the distinction between the Acharian genera Urceolaria 
and 5’agedia, and since every gradation is to be found, among the crus- 
taceous Lichens, between completely immersed and completely pro u- 
berant apothecia, it is perhaps best to refer, for the present, to Lecidea, 
all those species in which the apothecium has a proper margin, whether 
it be, or be not, surrounded by an accessory margin from the thallus. 

Obs.— Mr. Borrer, in a list of species of certain British genera oi Lichens 
which he has been so good as to communicate to me, enumerates 4 
of the Acharian Genus Gyalecta ; but none is figured in E. Bot., sind 
Acharius alone seems to be the authority for two (G. epulotica and G. 
celhalea). I am myself unacquainted with them ; and the obser- 
vations of Mr. Borrer will, I think, justify me in not introducing them into 
oiu- British list. Of the 4 species he says : “ 1. G. epulotica, Ach. Syn. p. 9. 
I am so imperfectly acquainted with this as not to know how it differs 
from Urceolaria Acharii, notwithstanding Acharius’ “ toto ccelo ah hac dis- 
tincta:' 2. G. bryophila, Ach. Syn. p. 9. I still regard this as a state of U . 
seruposa, (under which plant it is quoted). 3. G. W ahlenhergiana, 
(i. Ach. Syn. p. 9. We have on Elms in Sussex what I suppose to be 
this, but I am doubtful whether it be not a var. of Lecidea marmorea. 
4. G. celhalea, Ach. Syn. p. 10. Unknown to me.” — This last is stated by 
Acharius to be found at Durham, by the Bev. Mr. Harriman, it is thus 
characterized in the Synopsis ; “ crusta determinata nigro-limitata 
cinereo-fumosa tenuissime rimosa, apotheciis minutis nigris demum 
planiusculis.” If I understand the Acharian genus Gyalecta correctly, 
it is distinguished from Urceolaria by the absence of the border formed 
by the crust to the apothecia. Mr. Schaerar refers to it the Lecidea 
marmorea, Ach. : but Acharius’ character would scarcely admit it. 

13. Lecidea. Ach. Lecidea. 

Thallus crustaceous, spreading, adnate, uniform. Apothecia 
(patellulce) orbicular, sessile, plano-convex, having a border ot 




the same colour as tlie Name ; a small shield, and 

sido?, form ; from the small shield-like appearance of the apo- 
thecia. From the Acharian Lecidcce those species are here 
separated which have a distinctly scaly or imbricated thallas : 
as the genus stands here, it difters then from the followbig one 
solely in the nature of the apothecia . — The arrangement of the 
species is that of Mr. Borrer. 

* Apothecia cdways blach. 

1. L. atrdta, \Fahl. ? {irdiy -crusted Lecideaf crust con- 
tinuous even minutely tessellated of a greyish rather opaque 
black its fragments angular slightly concave, apothecia in the 
interstices half-sunk flattish coal-black with an elevated entire 
black border. Acli. Syn. pj. 11. — Lichen atratus, E. Bot. 
t. 2335 — Lecidea coracina, Ach. Syn. jy. 11. 

Granite rocks in Glen Fsk, A'ngus-sliire. — Mr. Borrer says that the 
Lichen atratus of E. Dot., though named independently, is nerhans 
Wahlenherg’s plant. 

2. ^ L. atro-cmerea, (^ashy-black Lecidea?) ; cz’ust tessellated 
greyish-black smooth, apothecia several together depressed 
brownish-black with a pale border at length crowded elevated 
the border being obliterated. Sm. — Lichen atro-cinereus, Dicks. 
Cr. Ease. 3. p. 14. t. 2. /. 2. E. Bot. t. 2096, {excl. the sy 7 i- 

On rocks, Jldr. Dickson, This, Mr. Borrer has not noticed in his 
Ms. list : but I presume it is unintentionally omitted. 

3. L. atro-alba, Ach. (black and vdiite L^iccideaf crust inde- 
terminate very thin continuous black with grey roughish convex 
crowded warts, apothecia in the interstices coal-black flattish 

at length convex with an elevated black border. Sm Ach. 

Sy?i. p. 11. — Lichen atro-edbus, Linn. — E. Bot. t. 2336. 

Rocks in the north of England, Mr. Turner. 

4. L. yerrucidosa, Borr. Mss. (white-warted Lecidea); crust 
indeterminate very thin fibrous black with white convex crowded 
smooth warts, apothecia solitary in each wart depressed coal- 
black with a border of the same colour. Lichen verrucidosus 
E. Bot. t. 2317. 

On rocks, Durham, Mr. Winch. 

5. L. fusco-dtra, Ach. (broivnish-black Lecidea); crust grey- 
ish black thin circular with a fine radiating compound inky bor- 
der, apothecia sessile flattish coal-black with a thick elevated 
margin of their own substance and colour. Sm. — Ach. Syn. 
p. 12 . — Lichen dendriticus, Dicks. Cr. Ease. » 14 E Bot 
t. 1734. 

Rocks and stones, especially flint and quartz. — The Patellaria fusco- 
atra, Hof in. (PI. Lick. t. 54. f. 1.), Mr. Borrer remarks, is more like 
L. atro-alba or fumosa. 




G. L. ccchumaia, Ad\.Miii\\.{(^o)ifmedhlachundulive Lcckku); 
crust determinate tessellated olive-grey with blackish cracks, 
apothecia black at length convex with a black border of tlieir own 
substance. Ach. Meth.p. A2.— Lichen cechummm, E. Bot. t. 1830. 
— Lecidea, fwnosa, Ach. Sy?i. p. 12. — (S.athrocarpa ; crust detei- 
minate tessellated pale brownish-olive polished its fragments 
tumid and angular, apothecia sunk black flattish ci’owded w it i 
a narrow whitish spurious border. Sm — Ach. Lich. Univ. 
p. 157. 

a. On granite and whin-stone rocks, N. of England, Rev. Mi . 
Harrimaii.—^. Rocks in inountainons places, Durham, Rev. Mr. Harn- 
,„„„._The /S. athocarpa Mr. Borrer observes, “ Acharius makes a var. ot 
L.cec/tumcna in Lich. Univ. and in the Synopsis joins the two and gives 
them as a synonym of L./unio-ia. He also quotes the Lic/i’cn 
Dicks, as sent by Harriman.” 1 know tco little of these Lichens to otter 
an opinion. If such men as Acharius and Borrer are in doubt about a 
common Lichen, who then shall venture to decide? 

7. L. pelrcea, Ach. (rock Lecidea); crust thin orbicular lui- 
mitely wanted somewhat powdery white, apothecia innate wdth 
the crust protuberant somewhat concentric black. Ach. Syn. 
p. 13. — Lichen petreeus., Jacq. Coll. v. 3. p. 116. t. 6.f.2. L. 
Lichen concentricus^ Davies. — Dicks. — E. Dot. t. 246. 

Rocks and stones, Mr. Dickson. 

8. Li. c6?i/luens, Ach. (confluent- shielded Lecidea), ciust 
somewhat uneven tessellated of a smoky Avhite, apothecia sessile 
black with a black border at length convex confluent and angu- 
lar. Sm. — Ach. Syn. p. 16. — lAchen conjiuens, L. Bot. t. 1964. 

On rocks and stones, frequent. — Acharius observes that the crust is 
sometimes suffused with an ochraceous tinge and that sometimes it is 

9. L. lapicida, Ach. (conligxious-shielded Lecidea); crust 
glaucous-white tessellated and granulated depressed flattish 
angular black with a narrow black elevated border. 

Ach. Syn. p. 13 Lichen contirpins, E. Bot. t. 821. (vix Ver- 

rucaria contigua, Hoffni.) — (3. diacapsis; crust bluish-white tar- 
tareoiis its surface composed of minute undulations, apothecia 
clustered somewhat sunk, their disk flat black or brown their 
border thick externally black its inner edge whitish. Sm. 
Urceolaria diacapsis, Ach. Syn. p. 142. — Liche?i diacapsis, E. 
Bot. t. 1954. 

On brick-walls. — /3. Lancashire and Durham. At the suggestion of 
Mr. Borrer I refer the Lichen diacapsis, F.. Bot. ( Urceolaria, Ach.) to 
this species: — the Verrucaria contigua, the same Botanist considers as 
belonging to Lee. viridi-atra, Ach. 

10. L. prommula, Borr. (prominent small-shielded icarty Le- 
cidea); crust thin somewhat tartareous minutely wmrty smoky- 
grey or brownish, apothecia superficial small black internally 
grey, disk flat, the border slightly elevated mostly entire. Borr. 



[ Lecidea. 

in E. Bot. Suppl. t. 26S7 . f. 1 — /3, crust brown nioi'e level 
minutely cracked. 

On flints, which have been long exposed to the weather, Sussex 
owns^/3. on a block of close-grained sandstone on the sea^shore near 
ye, Mr. Borrer. “ The substratum of the thallus is more obscure and 
the warts aie more minute and less distinct in L. proiniiiula than in 
L. atro-alha. The apolhecia too are superficial, not sunk, as in that and 
^veral other of the verrucose LecidecB, in the interstices of the warts. 
Their scite, number and uniformly small size, give the plant some re- 
semblance to L. jnnicolay from which it differs widely in its thallus, as 
well as in the place ol growth ; nor indeed are the patellulce so minute as 
in that Lichen.” Borr. 

11. L. chalyhea, Borr. (inetallic-black Lecidea?); crust thin 
leaden-black glossy at length somewhat tartareous minutely 
cracked and opaque, apothecia superficial minute black, the disk 
flat, the border slightly elevated entire. Borr. in E. Bot. 
Suppi. t. 2687. y; 2. 

' On tiles and occasionally on flint, in various places in Sussex ; and 
perhaps not uncommon elsewhere, since it is likely to be overlooked 
among Lecanora exigiia and other minute Lichens, which form, in such 
situations, the first crop of vegetation. Borr. 

12. L. premnea, Ach. (p'ough-bordered Lecidea?); crust thin 

submembi’anaceous rather soft greyish, apothecia plane sessile 
black, the disk internally cartilaginous and white, the border 
elevated somewhat wrinkled at length flexuose. Ach. Sun. 
p. 17. ^ 

On trunks of trees, Mr. Borrer, (Sussex?). — I introduce this on the 
authority of Mr. Borrer, not having seen a specimen, nor is it stated in 
what part of England it is found. 

13. L.parasema, Kc\v.^lQda..{comY)\onblacli-shielded Lecidea?); 
crust thin greyish uninterrupted somewhat granulated black- 
edged, apothecia sessile flat opaque black with a black smooth 
border at length convex. Sm. — Ach. Syn.p.Xl ? — L.eloeochroma, 
Ach. Syn. p. 18. (“ certainly? Mr. Borrer.')— Lichen parasenms, 
E. Bot. t. 1450. 

On the smooth bark of trees, abundant. — Mr. Borrer refers our well- 
known L. parasema to the L. eleeochroma, Ach. Syn., (the L. paraseiiia, 
ehxochroma, Lich. Univ. p. 275.) and he observes, “if L. parasema of 
the Syn. be really distinct, I know not what it is.” 

14. L. pinicola, Borr. Mss. {Pine-barh Lecidea); crust dif- 
fuse thin brownish- white somewhat tartareous, apothecia nume- 
rous very minute very black opaque with a black smooth ele- 
vated border. Sm. — Lichen pinicola, Ach. Meth. p. 66. E. Bot. 
t. 1851 . — Lecidea parasema, b. and d. Ach. Syn. \7 and \S, 
{according to Mr. Borrer.) 

On the scaly bark of old Pine-trees. 

15. L. dubia. Turn, and Borr. Mss. {doubtful Board Lecidea); 
crust leprous pale-brownish grey indeterminate, apothecia black 




convex slightly iniinersecl in the crust bordered when young. 
Sni. — Lichen duhius, E. Bot. t, 2347. 

Common on boarded buildings. Smilh. 

16. L. Griffithii, (Griffithian Lecidea); crust thin white 
smooth, apothecia sessile scattered pale purplish waxy-hrowii 
Avith a smooth border of the same colour blackened in decay. 


Sm. — Lichen Griffithii, E. Bot. t. 1735. — Lecidea enteroleiica, 
Ach, Syn. p. 19. {Borrer.^ — Lichen corneus, With. — Hull. 

On Oak and Birch bark. 

17. L. Gagei, {rusty spongy -crusted Lecidea); crust dispersed 
minutely granulated somewhat fibrous bibulous of a tawny olive, 
apothecia minute blackish-brown with a paler border of their 
own substance finally convex and deprived of their border. Sm. 
— Lichen dolosus, E. Bot, t. 2581. {not Ach., according to Mr. 

On a rock called O’Donoghue’s prison, at Killarney, Sir T. Gage, 
Bart. — The Lecidea dolosa of Ach., Mr. Borrer informs me is only a var. 
of L. parasema. 

18. L. aromdtica, Turn. Mssi {aromatic Lecidea); crust 
strongly rooted (?) indeterminate of irregular minute croAvded 
smooth greyish-Avhite portions, apothecia in the interstices 
black round conca\'e Avith a thick black border. Sm. — Lichen 
aroniaticus, E. Bot. t. 1777, 

On old flint walls in Norfolk and Suffolk, especially where there is 
a stratum of earth or moss, Mr. L>. Turner. — The fragrant scent of 
this Lichen, when bruised, is very remarkable. Sir J. E. Smith ranks it 
with the L. ccendeo-nigricans and if that be its affinity, it would be a 
Tsora oi this arrangement. 1 rather follow Mr. Borrer, in placing it 
among the true Lecidece. 

19. L, sanguindria, Ach. {sanguineous Lecidea); crust thick- 
ish rngulose or warted greyish-Avhite somewhat polished, apo- 
thecia at length conA^ex hemisphterical subtuberculated black 
and horny Avithin upon a bright-red stratum. — Ach. Syn. p. 19. 
— Lichen sanguinarius, E. Bot. t. 155. 

On rocks and trees, especially in subalpine districts. 

20. L. musedrum, {Moss Lecidea); crust determinate granu- 
lated grey somewhat lobed and branched, apothecia croAvded 
black elevated at length someAvhat turbinated. — Lichen musco- 
rum, Lmn. 3Ieth. 3Iusc. p. 36. Belli. Cant. p. 424. t. 5. Dicks. 
Cr. PL 59.” E. Bot. t. 626. — Lecidea sabidetoruni, Fldrke . — 
Ach. Syn. p. 20. {Borrer.) 

On mosses, Gogmagog hills, near Cambridge, Mr. RcUian ; and else- 

21. h. viridi-dtra, Ac\\. {rough tartar-crusted Lecidea); crust 
continued tartareous cracked tumid uneven and granulated pale 
brownish-grey, apothecia in the interstices crowded flattish 

black at length convex Avith a very thin black border. Sm 

Ach. Syn. p.2\. — Lichen miscellus, E. Bot. t. 1831. {not lecidea 

178 LICHENES. [Lecidea. 

miscella, Ach. Syn. p. 21 ?) — Patellar ia contigiia, Iloffm. PL 

On whin-stone rocks, Durham, Bev. Mr. Ilarriman. — Mr. Borrer 
probably considers the Lccklca misccUa of Acliarius, as different from 
the Lichen viiscellns E. Bot., since lie does not notice it under that 
plant; yet Sir Jas. E. Smith says that Mr. Harriman’s specimens were 
pronounced by Acliarius to be the same. 

22. L. geogrdphica, (JMap Lecidea?); crust hriglit-yellow 
smootli cracked and tessellated with a black margin and black 
betw^een the areolte, apotbecia nearly flat and irregular often 
confluent even with the crust black tbrougbout. — Lichen geo- 
grapliicus, lAnn. Sp. PL p>. 1607. E. Bot. t. 245. — L. atro-virens, 
Umi. Sp. PL p. 1G07. — Lecidea atro-virens, var. b. geographica, 
Ach. Syn. p. ‘•2,1. — Dill. Muse. t. 18.jf. 5. 

On rocks and stones, chiefly of trap-formation, in subalpine and 
especially mountainous countries. — It seems to be generally allowed 
that the Lichen geographicus and atro-virens of Linn, constitute one 
species ; and surely the former name, so expressive of its character, is 
the one to be preferred. 

23. L. sildcea, Ach. {yelloiv ochrey Lecidea); crust uneven 
tessellated yellowisb-red, apotbecia sessile black with a narrow 
black border at length convex often confluent. — Ach. Syn. p>. 22. 
— Lichen silaceus, E. Bot. t. 1118. 

On rocks, frequent. 

24. L. (Ederi, Acb. ( Oederian Lecidea); crust thin tessel- 
lated of a rusty red, apotbecia minute somewbat globose a little 
immersed concave black with a thick black border. Sni. — Ach. 
Syn. p. 22. — Lichen CEderi, E. Bot. t. 1117 . — L. cccsius, Dichs. 

Or. Ease. 2. p. 19. t. 6./. 6 L. Dichsoni, With.— Urceolaria 

QHderi, Schcer. Lich. Helv. p. 69. n. 123. 

Hocks, in the north of England and Scotland.— This differs from the 
preceding in its deeper colour, and in its more numerous and smaller apo- 
thecia wfth their broad border. Mr. Schaerar considers it to be a true 

25. L. Jlavo-virescens, Borr. Mss. (^Lemon-coloured Lecidea); 

crust leprous granulated friable lemon- coloured, apotbecia black 
globose solitary or aggregated. Sni. — Lichen Jiavo-virescens, 
Dicks. Or. Ease. 3. p. 13. t. S.f. 9 — Lecidea citrinella, Ach. Sy?i. 
p. 25 Lichen citrin., E. Bot. t. 1877. 

On the ground, in sandy places. 

26. L. scahrosa, Acb. Metb. (rugged-shieldecl Sulphur Lecidea); 
crust powdery pale yellowisb-green, apotbecia sunk in the ciust 
aggregate black with an elevated black border. Sni. Lichen 
^ahrosus, E. Bot. t. 1878. — Lecidea citrinella, /3. scahrosa, Ach. 
Syn. p. 25. 

On tiled roofs and on flints, in Sussex, Mr. Borrer. — This has a 
great affinity to the last, with which Acharius and Wahlenberg join it: 
its crust is “ thinner, of a paler green, more truly powdery and less gran- 
ulated ; the apothecia are sunk, so as to be on a level with the ernst, and 
they have a thick border.” 




27. L. uliginosa, Ach. {earthy Marsh Lecidea'); crust olive- 
brown granulated subgelatiuous, apotliecia black flattish witli a 
black smooth border at length convex and clustered. Ach. Syn. 
j). 25. — Lichen ulig., Schrad. — E. Bot. t. 1466. 

Sand}' heaths, near Yarmouth, Mr. D. Turner. Surrey, il/r. Borrcr. 

28. L. synothea, Ach. (rninute crowded Lecidea^; crust inde- 
terminate somewhat gelatinous minutely granulose uneven 
sooty-brown, apotliecia minute dull brownish-black pale within 
at length convex, the border narrow evanescent. Borr . — 
Ach. Syn. 2 ). 26. Borr. in E. Bot. t. 2711. 

On tlie surface of squared rails of oak and deal at Esher, Surrey, and 
Henfield and Boxgrove, Sussex. JMr. Borrcr. — “ It requires a practised 
eye to distinguish this species from other obscure Lichens, which usually 
grow on rails ; but its structure is found, upon examination, to be pecu- 
liar. It has a near affinity to L. uliginosa.'" Borr. 

29. L. simplex, Borr. Mss. (^simple hlach-shielded Lecidea^; 
crust olive thin smooth scattered soon disappearing, apo- 
thecia scattered or crowded olive-black with a thick elevated 
blackish border at length rugged and contorted. Sm. — Lichen 
simplex, Dae. in Linn. Trans, v. 2. p. 283. t. 28. f. 2. E. 
Bot. t. 2132, (the figure on slate-rock). — Opeqrapha Persoonii, 
/3. Ach. Syn. p. 71. 

On slate and sandstone rocks, in various parts of Great Britain. Sm. 

30. L. immersa, Ach. {sunhen Lecidea); crust spreading thin 
snbeontinuous whitish, apotliecia plano-convex immersed in the 
stone bordered black, the disk subpruiuose blackish-red when 
moist, at length rather convex whitish within. Ach. Syn. 2^- 27. 
— Lichen immersus. With. — E. Bot. t. 193. 

On calcareous rocks. — In general appearance, this Lichen is very 
closely allied to V^errucaria Scliraderi; but the apoikecia are those of a 

31. L. rivulosa, Ach. {branching -lined Lecidea); crust brown- 
ish-grey cracked bordered and intersected by dark serpentine 
branching lines, apotliecia scattered sessile black flat with a wavy 
border of their own substance but somewhat paler. Snu — 
Ach. Syn. 2). 28. — Lichen rivulosus, E. Bot. t. 1737. 

On rocks, frequent. 

32. L. pruinosa, Ach. Meth. {frosty-shielded Lecideai); crust 
leprous thin scattered greyish-white, apotliecia slightly convex 
irregularly shaped rusty-black with a grey bloom when dry and 
a thin black smooth border. Sm. — Lichen pruinosus, Dicks. Cr. 
Ease. 3. p. 15. t. 9.f. 4. E. Bot. t. 2244. — Lecidea albo-ccernles- 
cens, Ach. Syn. p. 29. 

Limestone wall near Gainford, Durham, Rev. j\Ir. Harriinan. 

33. L. abietina, Ach. {Spruce-bark Lecidea); crust spreading 
very thin smooth even pale-glaucous, apotliecia sessile flattish 
black clothed with pale powder, their border black. Sm. — 




Ach. Syn, ]). 30. — Lichm ahietinus, Ach. Prodr. — P. Pot. 
t. 1682. 

On the bark of different species of Fir. 

34. L. speirea, Ach. (^veiled black-shielded Lecidea); crust 
tartareous uninterrupted slightly tessellated very white, apo- 
thecia sessile flat covered with a grey bloom at length elevated 
convex very black with a white (paler) border. Sm. — Ach. Sipi. 
p. 31. — Lichen speireus, E. Pot. t. 1864. — L. rimosus, E. Pot. 
t. 1736, {according to Achanus). 

On flinty pebbles on the sunnnits of the cliffs, near Newhaven, Sussex, 
Air. Boner. 

35. L. albo-dlra, Borr. Mss. {black and white Lecidea); crust 
spreading cracked somewhat mealy white, apothecia sunk even 
with the crust small crowded black clothed with a grey bloom — 
«. corticola. Verrucaria albo-atra, hi. PI. Lich. V. 1. p. 76. 
t. 15. f. 2. — Lecidea cortieola, Ach. Syn. p. 32. — Lichen corti- 
cola, E. Pot. t. 1892. — |S. saxicola. Lecidea epipolia, Ach. Syn. 

p. 32. — Lichen epip., E. Pot. t. 1137 L. candidus, E. Pot. 

t. 1138. {not Lecidea Candida, Ach.) 

a. Old trees, frequent, fi. On stone buildings, Norfolk and Suffolk. 
— At Mr. Borrer’s suggestion, I have referred the Lichen candidus of 
E. Bot. to this (as an old state of it), united the Lecidea epipolia with 
the L. corticola, and restored the old name of Hoffmann. The true 
L. Candida of Ach. {Lichen timidulus, Sm.) does not appear to be 

36. L. Lightfootii, Ach. {Lightfootian Lecidea); crust tarta- 
reous granulated greenish- white black-edged, apothecia sunk 
flat at length convex polished black with a black smooth border. 
Sm. — Ach. Syn. jj. 34. — Lichen Lightfootii, E. Pot. t. 1451. 

Bark of trees; not very unfrequent. 

37. L. imompta, Borr. {loose mealy -crusted Lecideai); crust 
indeterminate coarsely mealy uneven olive-green, apothecia 
superficial small purplish-black the disk at length convex the 
border narrow flextxose. Porr. in E. Pot. Svppl. t. 2699. 

In large patches, on the shaded parts of rugged trunks of old Elms, 
at Shermanbury and Hurst-pierpoint, Sussex, Air. Borrer. — “The 
apothecia of this bear much resemblance to those of L. ccruginosa 
and L. Lightfootii ; but the thallus is essentially different in structure, 
being formed, from the first, of coarse loose particles, not of granules, 
scattered on a filmy substance.” Borr. 

38. L. quernea, Ach. {Oak Lecidea); crust leprous pale 
brownish-yellow, apothecia slightly immersed in the crust con- 
vex dark-brown nearly black when dry, the border obsolete. 
Ach. Syn. p. 36. — Lichen quernens, Dicks. Cr. Fuse. 1. p. 9. 
t. 2. f. 3. E. Pot. t. 485. 

In tlie clefts of the bark of Oak-trees, in exposed situations. 

39. L. viridescens, Ach. {greenish horny -tubercled Lecidea); 
crust thin mealy itideterminate scattered pale-green, apothecia 




imuierous convex rugged brown seinitransparent at lengtii 
blackish. Ach. Syn. p. 36. — Lichen viridescens, Schrad — 

E. Bot. t. 2217 Lichen hypnophila, Tarn, in Ach. Lich. Univ. 

p. 199 ; hvhich Achariiis has now strangely referred to L. fusco- 
latea in the Synopsis. Borr.') 

On mosses and old walls and ruins in Norfolk. — Mr. 'rurner and Mr. 
Borrer have both expressed an opinion that this is probably not really 
distinct from L. vernalis ; but Sir J. E. Smith observes that the apolhecia 
have no elevated border, nor are they, when full-grown, of so light a 

40. L. p?dverea, Borr. (pale-green mealy hlach-sJdekled Le- 
cidea); crust indeterminate soft mealy pale greyisli-green, 
apothecia sessile Lirgisli black internally pale, the border livid 
slightly raised evanescent. Borr. in E. Bot. Suppl. t. 2726. 

On Oak-bark in the New Forest, Hants, C. LyeU, Esq. South of 
Ireland, spreading over mosses. Miss Hutchins. — “ It has been suspected 
that this Lichen might be a var. of L. incana ; but Mr. Lyell sent it as 
distinct, and Miss Hutchins maintained the same opinion, observing 
that she found the apothecia of all ages constantly black. It may be 
added that their substance is not so thick, and their border, especially 
when young, is narrower and less rounded.” Borr. 

** Apothecia brown, reddish-yellow or flesh-coloured, never 
(or rarely^ black. 

41. L. incana, (soft mealy-crusted Lecideaf crust leprous 
very mealy soft uneven greenish-grey, apothecia scattered ses- 
sile brown with a paler brown even smooth border. Sm . — 
Ach. Syn. ]). 'dQ. — Lichen incanus, E. Bot. t. 1683. — Lepraria 
incana, Ach. Lich. Univ. p. 663. — Byssus incana, Linn. ? — 
Dill. Muse. t. \.f. Q. 

On trees, shady rocks, and banks, frequent ; very rare in fruit ; first 
discovered in that state by C. LyeU, Esq. in the N. Forest, Hants. Sus- 
sex, Mr. Turner and Afr. Borrer. 

42. L. sulphiirea, Ach. (sulphureous Lecideai); crust thick 
cracked rugged dull sulphur-coloured, apothecia convex brown 
mealy with a paler margin — Ach. Syn. p. 2>1 . — Lichen sulphu- 
reus, E.Bot. 1 . 1186 — Verrucaria sulph. Hof'm. 

Rocks, stones and brick walls, in open situation's. 

43. L. expdllens, Borr. Mss. (pale yellow-green Lecidea'); 
crust thin powdery spreading pale greeiush sulphur-coloured, 
apothecia sessile pale buff with a pow'dery edge at length con- 
vex rugged w'ithout a border. Sm. — Lecanora expallens, Ach. 
Syn. p. 171. — Lichen orostheus, E. Bot. t. 1549, (^not Ach. .?) 

Trees and rocks; on the latter in shaded situations.— Mr. Borrer 
says that the L. orosthea of Ach. seems to connect this L. sulphurea. 

44. It. eeruginosa, Borr. (dark-green powdeiy Lecidea f crust 
indeterminate granulose greenish-grey, at length cov’ered wdth 
aeruginose powder, apothecia superficial small dull-black brown- 
ish or reddish the disk flat the border elevated somewhat 
flexuose. Borr. in E. Bot. Suppl. t. 2682. 




Common in Sussex, on decaying rails, but rarely producing apothecia, 
Mr. Borrer. — “In the structure of the thallus, this Lichen differs but 
little from L. scabrosa, K. Bot. t. 1878, which, when growing on a com- 
pact substance, is found to begin in the same manner, with a film and 
minute granulations ; but the powder which soon covers the surface is, 
in that species, of a paler and more yellow hue and the structure of its 
patellulcB is different. L. a:ruginosa is perhaps more nearly allied to 
L. quadricolor, K. Bot. t. 1 158. Indeed it must be admitted that these 
two recede more in general appearance than in any essential character, 
yet it would be scarcely justifiable to regard them as one species.- In 
L. aeruginosa the granulations of the thallus are smaller, more crowd- 
ed and confluent, and of a greener hue, and the powder they produce 
is much more co[)ious and of a dark verdigris-green, whilst that in L. 
quadricolor is not much darker than the granules. The apothecia also are 
smaller in 'I., aeruginosa, their margin, perhaps, more elevated and their 
colour not altogether so variable. From another nearly allied species, 
L. Lightfootii, E. Bot. t. 1451, the present differs in most of these and in 
some additional particulars.” Borr. From the variable colour of the 
apothecia ot this species, it will be seen that it has an equal claim to rank 
with the former as the present section of the Genus, a section eminently 

45. L quadricolor, Borr. Mss. (^four-coloured Lecidea') ; crust 
leprous-grey with white granulations, young apothecia gelatin- 
ous flesh-coloured with a pale border old ones blackish. Sm . — 
Lichen quadricolor, Dicks. Cr. Fuse. 3.y>. 15. t. 9./. 3. E. Bot. 
t. \ld>b .—Lecidea decolorans, Fldrke. — Ach. Syn. p. 37, and jS. 
granulosa, of the same. — L. escharoides, L. desertorum and L. 
arlyta, Ach. Lich. Univ. (JBorrer^. 

On the ground, in heathy and sandy places, in perfection during the 
moist winter-months. 

46. L. corondta, Borr. Mss. (^crenate- shielded Lecidea?); crust 
of minute granulations scarcely lobed and imbricated, warts or 
scales olive-brown, apothecia crowded flattish red-brown their 
border elevated narrow crenate. Sm . — Verrucaria and Psora 
coronata, Hoffm. — Lichen granidosus and L. pezizoides, Dicks. 
— Lichen hrunnevs, E. Bot. t. 1246. — Lecanora brunnea, (3. coro- 
nata, Ach. Syn. p. 192. — (3. escharoides; crust brownish ash- 
coloured composed of granulated warts, apothecia convex irre- 
gular black with an obsolete black border. Lichen escharoides, 
E. Bot. t. 1247, (yiot Ach.'). 

On the earth, among turf or decayed mosses. — /3. on turfy ground or 
on rocks, Cornwall, and at Yarmouth, il/r. Turner. — Mr. Borrer con- 
siders the Lichen escharoides of E. Bot. to belong to this species ; I 
have therefore made it the var. /3. 

47. L. anomala, Ach. (tumid brown-shielded Lecidea); crust 
very thin continued sinoothish glaucous-white, apothecia scat- 
tered small sessile brown with a light border of their own sub- 
stance at length hemisphserical blackish the border disappear- 
ing. Sm — Ach. Syn. p. 38 — Lichen cyrtellus, E. Bot. t. 2155. 
|8. effusa ; crust thin powdery light-green, apothecia pale waxy- 
brown with a paler border at length convex without any bor- 




der. Lichen effusus, E. Bot. t 1863, upper figure — Lecanora 

cffiisa, Aeh. Syn. p. 159. 

«. On tlie trunks of trees, Common in similar situations, about 
Yarmouth, in Hampshire and Sussex. — Mr. Borrer only refers the upper 
figure of Liche7i effusus, E. Bot. to this species ; the lower represents 
the Lecidea pineii Ach. which may also be a var., and the Lecanora effusa 
“is scarcely distinct and I believe is what Acharius in his Lien. Univ. 
calls his var. i, tenebricosa." 

48. L. rupestris, Acli. (^Roek Lecidea); crust thin taitaieous 
contiguous greyish-white, apotliecia minute immersed plane 
at length convex bordered the border subpersistent glabrous 
reddish-brown of the same colour within. Acli. Syn. p. 3J. 
Lichen rupestris, Scop, (not E. Bot.) — L. calvus, Dicks. Ci . 
Ease. 2. p. 18. t. 6.f. 4. E. Bot. t. 948. 

Calcareous rocks. 

49. L. irrubdta, Ach. ? (orange-red Lecidea'); crust thin dis- 
persed greenish-grey? apothecia sunk flat bordered at length 
convex smooth deprived of border reddish orange-coloured. Sni. 
— Ach. Syn. p. 40 ? (Borr.) — Lichen rupestris, E. Bot. t. 2245. 

(excl. the Synonyms.) 

Walls at Beamish, Durham, Mr, Winch. 

50. L. verndlis, Borr. Mss. (vernal Lecidea); crust thin 
powdery whitish-greeir, apothecia at length almost globose 
clustered of a rusty flesh-colour. Sni. — Ach. Syn. p. 36 ? 
Lichen vernalis, Linn. (Sni.) E. Bot. t. 845. — Lecidea luteola, 
Ach. Syn. p. 41. — Lichen porriginosus. Turn, in Linn. Trans, 
p. 94. t. 8.f. 4. — Lichen splmroides, Dicks. Cr. Ease. \. p. 9. 
t. 2./. 2. 

On the bark of trees, frequently coating mosses. 

51. L. pineti, Ach. (ivaxy- shielded Pine Lecidea); crust very 
thin sordid greenish-grey, apothecia sessile minute waxy ur- 
ceolate yellow-flesh-colour with an entire border. Ach. Syn. 
p. 41. — Lichen effusus, E. Bot. t. 1863, lower figure. 

On the dead scales of Fir-bark, near tbe ground, Costessey, near 

52. L. cornea, Ach. Meth. (horny-cupped Lecidea); crust 
mealy thin white, apothecia a little elevated brown semi-trans- 
parent with a thick elevated even smooth paler border. Sm. — 
Lichen corneus. With. — E. Bot, t. 965. — Lecidea carncola, Ach. 
Syn. p. 42. 

On Oaks in Denbighshire and the N. of England. 

53. L. fusco-lutea, Ach. (hroumish-yellow L^ecidea); crust 
thin continued even very white and smooth, apothecia elevated 
flat dull-yellow or reddish-brown with a border of the same 
colour. Ach. Syn. p, 42. — Lichen fusco-luteus, Dicks. Cr. Ease. 2. 
t. 6.f. 2. E. Bot. t. 1007. 

On elevated mountains, incrusting decayed mosses, frequent. On 
the Scottish mountains this is not unfrequent, and is rendered very con- 
spicuous by the rather bright reddish or orange- brown shields, on a white 




54. L. ferruginea, (ruslg-shielded LeSdea); crust spreading 
thill rugged greyish-white, ajjothecla rusty-orange cat length 
convex with a waved border of the same colour. — Lichen 
ferrugineus, Huds. Angl. p. 526. E. Eot. t. 1650. — Lecanora 
chiereo fusca, Ach. Sgn. p. 43. — L. ccBsio-rafa, Ach. Sgn.p.AA. 

On rocks and stones, and on the bark of trees. 

55. L. sidtcdrnea, Ach. (^ flesh-coloured fruited Lecideci); crust 
tartareous subdeterminate cracked white, apothecia flesh-col- 
oured at length convex conglomerate distorted the disk smooth 
pruinose the border naked prominent. Ach. Sgn. p. 45. 

Rocks, Scotland, Mr. Dickson in Mr. Boner’s Herb. 

56. L. icmadophila, Ach. (^Heath Lecidea); crust leprous un- 
equal granulated greenish-white, apothecia nearly sessile plane 
flesh-coloured at length flexuose and the disk wrinkled with an 
obsolete border. Ach. Sgn. j). 45. — Lichen icmadophila, Linn. 
Suppl. p. 450. — Lichen ericetorum, Ehrh.- — E. Eot. t. 372. 

Turfy places, under the shade of heath, frequent. — Linnaeus con- 
founded this with the Bceomgces rosens, which the apothecia somewhat 
resemble in size, as they and the crust do in colour. 

57. L. privigna, Ach. Meth. (obsolete-crusted Lecidea); crust 

scarcely any, apothecia sessile concave olive-brown with a 
thick elevated border darker than the disk. — Ach. Meth. p. 49. 
— Lecanora milvina, (B. privigna, Ach. Sgn.p. 151 Lichen sim- 

plex, E. Eot. t. 2152, (the figure on sandstone.) 

On white sandstone, Durham, Rev. Mr. Harriman. — This I am 
only acquainted with from the figure in E. Bot. For the synonvms I 
stand indebted to Mr. Borrer. 

58. L. marmorea, Ach. (salmon-coloured Lrcidea); crust pale 
thin scattered, apothecia subglobose salmon-coloured at length 
urceolate with a very thick elevated indexed pale flesh-coloured 
often crenate border sometimes a little pulvernlent. — Ach. Sgn. 
p. 46 — Lichen marmoreus, Dichs. Cr. Ease. 2. p. 18. E. Eot. 
t. 739. — L. cupularis, Hedw. St. Cr. v. 2. p. 58. t. 20. f. E. — 
L. tricolor, With — Ggalecta cupidaris, Schcer. Lich. Helv. ». 79. 
n. 135. 

On rocks, especially schistose and calcareous, often spreading over de- 
cayed mosses, chiefly in subalpine countries. 

59. L. alahastrina, Ach. (Alabaster Lecidea); crust thin 
smooth and subpruinose white and subglaucescent, apothecia 
plano-convex entire of the same colour as the crust the disk 
whitish rose-colour. Ach. Sgn. p. 46. — Lichen rosellus, E. Eot. 
t. 1651 ? 

Trees, New Forest, Hants, Miss Biddidph. Scotland, Mr. D. Turner, 
(if L. rosellus, E. Bot. be the same). — This is as unknown to me 
as it is to Mr. Borrer, who, however, observes that Acharius appears to 
have had it from England ; and that he regards the Lichen rosellus of 
E. Bot. as a doubtful specimen of the same plant. 




60. L. lutea, INIss. {yellow-shielded Lecidea); crust thin 

powdery pale ash-coloured, apothecia plano-convex deep yellow 
with a paler elevated border. — Lichen luteus, Dicks. Cr. Lasc. 1. 
p. 11. t. 2. f. 6. E. Bot. t. 1263. — Lecidea melizea, Ach. Syn. 


Mossy trunks of trees, il/r. Dickson. In a wood near Bangoi, iii/. 
D. Turner. 

61. L. Ehrhartia 7 ia, Ach. {Ehrhartian Lecidea); crust rug- 
ged granulated greenish-white studded with black warts (para- 
sitic substances?), apothecia bordered yellowdsh at length con- 
vex waved deformed and clustered. Sm. — Ach. Syn. p. 47. 
{excl.var.j3.) — Lichen Ehrhartianm, E. Bot. t. 1136 — Lichen 
graniformis, E. Bot. t. 1464, {as to the crust.) 

On wooden barns, Norfolk, Mr. Turner. 

62. L. pohjtropa, Ach. Meth. {horn-coloured Lecidea); crust 
tartareous tessellated and broken into little testaceous scales oi 
grains, apothecia numerous plane at length convex bordered 
angular y^ellowish-flesh-coloured at length snhglobose and de- 
prived of border. — Lichen polytrOpus, Ehrh — E. Bot. t. 1264, 
lower Jignre {Borr.). — Lecidea Ehrhai'tiana, /3i polytropa, Ach. 
Syji. p. 47. 

Rocks, in the north of England and Scotland. 

63. L. intriedta, Borr. Mss. {vai-iable Lecidea); crust tessel- 
lated smooth greenish-sulphur-coloured and black, apothecia 
numerous convex bordered angular yellowish-flesh-coloured 
turning to olive dark purple and black. Sni. — Lecanora intri- 
cata, Ach. Syn. p. 154, {Borr.). — Liclmi intricatus, Schrad . — 
Lichen polytropns, E. Bot. t. 1264, upper figure, {Boi'r.). 

Sandstone rocks, in the North of England. 

64. L. lucida, Ach. {lemon-coloured Rock Lecidea); crust thin 
pow’dery brittle pale greenish-lemon- coloured, apothecia small 
sessile convex lemon-coloured without a border. Stn. — Ach. 
Syn. p. 48. — Lichen lucidus, Ach. Prodr. — E. Bot. t. 1550. 

On hard sandstone rocks about Liverpool, SirJ. E. Smith. Sussex, 
Mr. Borrer. 

65. L. atro-fiava. Turn, {black and yellow Stone Lecidea); crust 

indeterminate membranous thin somewhat granulated black, apo- 
thecia numerous small flattish full- yellow with an entire elevat- 
ed somewhat paler border. Sm . — Turn, in Linn. Trans. 

V. 9. JO. 142. t. 11. f. 2. — Lichen atro-fiavus, E. Bot. t. 2009. — 
Lecidea Turneriana, Ach. Syn. p. 49. 

On loose exposed flint-stones in Sussex, Mr. Borrer. Near Bury, 
Rev. G. R. Leatkes. 

66. L. idmicola, Borr. Mss. {white and yellow Lecidea); crust 
leprous white very thin and even, apothecia orange- coloured 
when young flattish w'ith a border of their own colour at length 

I.ICHENES. [Lecanora. 

convex without a border. Sm — Patellaria ulmicola, DC . — 
Lecidea luteo-alba, Ach. Syn. p. 49. — Lichen luteo-albuSy Turn, 
in Linn. Trans, v. 7 . jj. 92. t. S.f 3. E. Bat. t. 1426. 

On the bark of trees, in various parts of England. 

67. L. aurantiaca, Ach, {saffron-coloured Lecidea'); crust 
granulated whitish-leinon-coloured, apothecia sessile rather 

convex orange-coloured with a yellow waved border. Sm 

Ach. Syn. p. 50 — lAchen aurantiacus, Light/. — Lichen sali- 
cinus, Schrad. — E. Bot. t. 1305. — Lecanora salicina, Ach. Sun. 
p. 175. 

On the trunks of trees, especially of Willow and Poplar. — Mr. Borrer 
has determined this to be the Lichen aurmdiacus of Lightfoot, whose 
older appellation I consequently prefer. 

68. L. erythrella, Borr. Mss. {orange Stone Lecidea); crust 
lemon-coloured thin dispersed in minute angular smooth fi-ag- 
ments, apothecia sessile deep orange Avith a lighter border at 
length becoming nearly globose and the border obliterated. Sm. 
— Lecanora erythrella, Ach. Syn. p. 175. — Lichen emjthrelhis, E. 
Bot. t. 1993. 

On rocks and stone-walls : not unfrequent in the Highlands of Scot- 
land. — Mr. Borrer thinks it is scarcely distinct from the preceding. 

14. Lecanora. Ach. Lecanora. 

Thallus crustaceous, spreading, plane, adnate, uniform. Apo- 
thecia (ptatellulce) orbicular, thick, sessile and adnate, the disk 
plano-convex, its border thickish, formed of the crust and of the 
same colour. — Name; Xikuviov, a small shield, and u^a,form; 
from the form of the apothecia. — Our valued and learned friend, 
Mr. Borrer, says lie adopts the Genus Lecanora with reluctance, 
as distinguished by an unsatisfactory character from Parmelia. But 
surely if /lato should be considered together with the structure of 
the thallus or fi-ond (and without it our arrangement of Crypto- 
gainise, in particular, would be most incongruous,) the greater 
number of the Acharian Lecanorce with their crustaceous fronds 
and the almost leafy or coriaceous Parmelice ought to he separ- 
ated. Still I must agree with that eminent Lichenist, that the 
limits of this, as of almost all the Genera of Lichens, are not 
easily defined. There are connecting links, and the place of 
such must perhaps ever remain doubtful. 

* Apothecia, black or dark broicn, sometimes pruinose. 

1. L. dtra, Ach. {black-shielded Lecanora/ crust subdeter- 
minate rugged slightly cracked granulated and white, apothecia 
nearly flat deep-black the border elevated white at length 

notched and flexuose — Ach. Syn. p. 146 Lichen ater, E. Bot. 

t. 949. 

Common on walls and rocks. 

2. L. argopholis, Ach. {white-scaled Lecanora); crust smooth 
rugged and warted pale the warts at length imbricated some- 




what lobed deformed, apothecia concave brownish-black the 
border rather acute coarctate crenulate. Ach. Syn. p. 147. 
Grev. FI. Edin. jw. 33 1 . 

On stones in walls, about Edinburgh, Mr. Maughan (in FI. Edin.). 

3. L. exigtia, (^diminutive hlack-shielded Leccmora); crust or- 
bicular radiating thin leprous uneven dull ash-coloured, apotbe- 
cia minute clustered full-black at length rather convex their 
border white at length brownish. Sin. — Lichen exiguus, Ach. 

Prodr E. Bot. t. 1849. — Lecanora periclea, (3. Ach. Syn. 

p. 151. 

On tiles and old pales. 

4. L. periclea, Ach. (rough black-shidded Lecanora); crust 
diffuse thin leprous very wdiite, apothecia convex very black 
roughish with a wdiite crenated at length powdery border. Ach. 
Syn. p. 250, (a.) — Lichen pericleus, E. Bot. t. 1850. 

On old pales or posts, or the bark of fir, Hurst-pierpoint, Sussex, 
Mr. Borrer. Livermere, near Bury, Rev. G. R. Lealhes. 

5. \j. coarctdta, Ach. (contracted Lecanora) ; crust spreading' 
thin cracked unequal greyish, apothecia with the disk someivhat 
immersed at length elevated flat black the border elevated in- 
flexed coarctate irregular pulverulent. Ach. Syn. p. 149. — 
Lichen coarctatus, E. Bot. t. 534. 

On brick walls about Yarmouth, Mr. D. Turner^ 

6. L. squamulosa, (seedy -crusted Lecanora); crust imbricated 
cracked smooth brownish ash-coloured, its fragments angular 
and somewhat lobed, apothecia sunk at length elevated flattish 
of a brownish shining-black (with an elevated wavy border). 
Sm. — Lichen squaimdosus, E. Bot. t. 2011. — L. piceus, Dicks. 
Cr. Ease. 4. p. 22. t. 12. /. 5. — Lecanora badia, Ach. Syn. 
p. 154? — L. cervina, Ach. Syn. p. 188? 

Rocks, North of England and Highlands of Scotland. — This has 
somewhat of the crust of a Squamaria, and hence it is probably Lecanora 
cervina of Ach., under which he quotes it; but it agrees equally well 
with that author’s description of L. badia, and he gives, as a synonym 
to that species, the Lichen piceus of Dicks., which 1 presume, beyond all 
doubt, to be our plant. 

7. L. milvina, Ach. (tvide- spreading Rock Lecanora); crust 
tartareous thin even areolate grey or brown with a black filmy 
substratum, apothecia small nearly flat the border entire the 
disk dark-brown. Borr. — Ach. Syn.p. 151, («.) E. Bot. 
Suppl. t. 2662. y. 1. 

On grey flinty slate-rock, Ireland, Miss Hutchins. — The Leca- 
nora milvina, /3 Ach. is the Lecidea privigna of this work, which was 
confounded in E. Bot. with Lecidea simplex. “ It scarcely belongs to 
the present species, yet we are not prepared to say that it does not.” 

8. L. aipospila, Ach. (loose branchy -crusted Lecanora); crust 
tartareous rugged with branch-like granulations brownish-grey 




the edges plicate, apotliecia small terminating the granulations 
the border entire at length depressed the disk dark brown. 

on ,—Ach. Syn. p. 155. Horr. in E. Bot. Suppl. t. 2262. 
/. 2. — Lichen aipospilus, Wahl. Lapp. p. 409. t. 27. / 2. 

Hocks at Bamburgli, and Staples’ islands, on the coast of Northum- 
berland, Mr. W. Robertson. Maritime rocks, Orkney? Mr. Borrcr.— 
An extremely remarkable Lichen, a link, apparently, between the 
genera Lccanora and Isidium, approaching very closely to the latter in 
the structure of the Ihallns:' Ron-. 

9. L. spodophcea, Ach. (close hranchy-cluslered Lecanorti); 
crust tiirtareous areolate formed of concrete branch-like granu- 
lations grey greenish when wet, apotliecia small terminating 
the granulations, the border slightly crenulate at length de- 
pressed the disk (dark) reddisli-brown. Borr Ach. Syn 

p. 155. Bon-, in E. Bot. Suppl. t. 2662. f. ^.—Lichen spodo- 
phceus, Wahl. Lapp. p. 409. 

Growing with L. aipospila on the coast of Northumberland, Mr. IF. 
Robertson.— This species bears some general resemblance to L. sophodes ; 
but Its real structure, although more minute in all its parts, is most 
Similar to that of L, aipospila. 

10. L. sophodes, Ach. (obscure black-shielded Lecanora^ ; crust 
orbicular granulated dull greenish ash-colour, apotliecia slightly 
convex clustered black brown when moist with an elevated 
entire border. Ach. Syn. p. \5Q.— Lichen sojyhodes, Ach. Prodr. 
—E. Bot. t. 1791. 

Common on trees, in Sussex, Mr. Borrcr. About Yarmouth Mr 
D. Burner. ’ 

11. L. tubercidosa, Ach. (warted Jibrous-edged Lccanora')- 
crust greenish-grey formed of globular granulations with a 
radiated marginal fringe, apotliecia sessile flattish glaucous- 

black with a thick elevated smooth border. Sm. Ach. Syn. 

p. 164. — Lichen tuberculosus, E. Bot. Suppl. t. 1733. 

Common on flint-stones, on the Sussex Downs, Mr. Borrcr. 

12. L. aspersa, Borr. (powdered warty Ijecanora); substratuni 
of the crust filmy black, warts scattered tartareous slightly 
convex olive-green with pale green soredia, apotliecia small 
elevated the margin thick inflexed the disk black. Borr. in 
E. Bot. Suppl. t. 2728. 

On flints, near Bury St. Edmunds, J?. Leathes. Abundant 

near 1 ortslade, Sussex, Mr. Borrcr. — Fruit rare. “ This Lichen has 
tuberculosa, E. Bot. t. 1733; but the warts of the 
thallus of that species are very prominent, even, and not powdery, and 
the substratum is of the same colour, not black : the apotliecia also are 
more conspicuous and of a glaucous hue. In the black substratum, and 
in the dispersion of the warts, L. aspersa resembles Lecidea atro-alba 
E. Bot.t. 2336, and L verruculosa, t. 2317; but, besides the generic’ 
characters, it differs from both in the colour of the warts, and in the 
powdery soredm. The apotliecia are most like those of some imperfect 
states of L. atra, t. 949, but the structure of the thallus is very dis- 
similar. Borr. / 




13. L. glaucoma, Ach. {wall-eyed Lecanora); crust tarta- 
reous black uneven bard greyisb-wbite, apotbecia depressed 
crowded at length tumid deformed black-brown or bull with a 
strong glaucous tinge and a wavy border. Ach, Syn. p. 165.— 
Lichen glaucoma, E. Bot. t. 2156. — L. rupicola, Dicks. — L. vari- 
ans, Dav. in Linn. Tracis, v. 2. p. 284. t. 28. f. 3. — “ Z.. compo- 
situs. With. Bot. Arr. v. 4. p. 13. f. 31. f. 2, (had^. 

On whin-stone, or slate rocks, in mountainous countries. 

14. L. thelostomn, {nmhilicate- shielded Lecanora) ; crust 
tartareous thin continued brow'n minutely cracked, apotbecia 
sessile liemisphserical umbilicated reddish (-bi’own) with a 
thick elevated even border. Sm. — Lichen thelostonms, E. BoL 
t. 2153. — Verr maria thelostorna, ‘^Ach. in Winch, v. 2. p. 44. 
— Pyrenula umbonata, Ach. Syn.p. 121. 

Whin-stone rocks, near Eglestone, Durham, Rev. Mr. Harriman. -I 
agree with the opinion expressed by Sir James E. Smith, that this 
accords better with the Lecanora of Acharius than with the Verrucartai 
or PyrenuUe, 

15. L. subfusca, Ach. (brown-shielded Lecanora^; crust thin 
continued smootbish brownish-white, apotbecia sessile slightly 
convex dark reddisb-browm sometimes inclining to black with a 
tumid entire border. Ach. Syn. p. 157. — Lichen subfuscus, Linn. 
. — E. Bot. t. 2109. — Dill. Muse. t. 18. J. 16. 

On the smooth bark of trees, most abundant ; sometimes on rocks ; 
and very variable in the size and hue of the apothecia. These are 
clustered, and, as it were, compound; sometimes the crust is greenish. 
L. angutosa, Ach. appears to be only a vur. of this, found in the North 
of England and Scotland. 

16. \j. frustulosa, Ach. (ichite-scaled Lecanora) ; crust tarta- 
reous yellowish-white in dispersed tumid warts at length some- 
what imbricated lobed and variously shaped, apotbecia dark- 
brow'n at length convex wdth a crenate border. — Ach. Sipi. 
p. 159. — Lichen frustidosus, Dicks. Cr. Ease. 3. p. 13. t. 8.f. 10. 
E. Bot. t. 2273. 

Eocks of micaceous schist, on the Breadalbane mountains. 

** Apotbecia red or yellow, and sometimes inclining to brown, 

never black. 

17. L. ventosa, Ach. (red-spangled Lecanora); crust thick 
cracked the areolte tumid greenish-sulphur-coloured sometimes 
whitish, apothecia appressed convex irregular blood-red rising 
above the narrow border. Ach. Syn. p. 159 — Lichen ventosus, 
E. Bot. t. 906. — DHL Muse. t. 18. f. 14. 

Mountain-rocks, abundant. 

18. L. ccesio-rtifa, (grey and red Lecanora) ; crust limited 
granulated pale-grey, apothecia tawny-red flattish with a thick 
waved border. Sm. — Uchen ceesio-rvfus, Schrad. — E. Bot. 
t. 1040. — Lecanora rubricosa, Ach. Syn. p. 162. 

On walls, Norfolk and rambridgeshire. 




19. L. rubra, AiA\. (^red-shielded Elm Eecanora); crust 
epious white thin uneven continuous, apotliecia numerous 
sessile concave hrownish-salmon-colour (or red) with a tliick 
elevated powdery crenate indexed border. Sm.—Ach. Sun. 
p. 177 — Lichen Ulmi, Sw. — E. Bot. t. 2218. 

On the bark of old Elms, Yorkshire, Mr. Borrer. 

20. Li, Hcematomma, Ach. (hlood-speched Lecanora^; crust 
leproso-tartareous pulverulent white or pale sulphur-coloured 
with a fibrous border, apotliecia imbedded scarlet concave, wlien 
old coiiv'ex, the border thick white elevated remarkably indexed 
mealy at length spreading.— Syn. p. \7Q.— Lichen Heema- 
tomina, Ehrh. — E. Bot. t. 486. — Lichen coccineus, Diclts, Or. 

Fuse. \. p. Q. t. ‘•2. f. \. E. Bot t. 223. — Lecanora Stonei, 
Ach. Syn. p. 170. 

Hocks and brick-walls, in various places. On Stonehenge, Wiltshire. 
Salisbury Craigs, Edinburgh. On the large Cross at Iona.— The Lichen 
coccineus of E. Bot. appears to be only an old state of the L. Hcema- 

21. L. cerrna, Ach. (waxy Lecanora^; crust somewhat granu- 
lated greyish-white, apotliecia scattered elevated fiat at length 

convex yellow waxy, the border indexed somewhat pruinose. 

AcJi. Syn. p. 173. — Lichen cerinus, Dichs, Or. Ease. 3. n. 14. 
E. Bot. t 627. ^ 

Trunks of trees, Norfolk and near London. 

22. L. crefiidata, (little crenated Lecanorai^i crust scattered 
ash-coloured very thin, apotliecia minute dispersed brownish- 
grey with an elevated crenated whitish margin. Sm. — Liclmi 
crenulatus, Dicks. Or. Ease. 3. p. 14. t. 9,y] 1. — Lichen dispersus, 
Ach. Prodr. (Sni.') — Lecanora gcdactina, (3. Ach. Syn. p. 187, 

Limestone rocks. South of England. 

23. L. hyssina, (mealy -bordered Lecanored); crust powdery 
broAvnish, apotliecia fiat dull yelloAV AAuth a very Avhite mealy 
elcA'^ated border (when old double). Sm. — Lichen hyssinus, 
Dicks. Or. Ease. 2. p. 19. E. Bot t. 432. 

On trees and stones, Scotland, Mr. Dickson. On brick, near London, 
Sm. This and the preceding are, to me, very obscure plants. Acharius 
seems inclined to refer the present to L. cerina, but the figure is very 
unlike that species. 

24. L. chloroleuca, Ach. (green and ichite Lecanora); crust 
white leprous very thin, apotliecia croAA'ded elevated fiat olive- 
green the border Avhite undulated. Sm. — Ach. Syn. p. 160. 
— Lichen chlorolencus, E. Bot. t. 1373. 

On mosses, in alpine countries. 

25. L. vdria, Ach. (variable-shielded Lecanora); crust thin 
graiuilated scattered pale yellowish-green, apotliecia croAvded 
flattish bufif or broAvn the border Avaved irregular indexed. 
Sm. — Ach. Syn. p. 161. — Lichen varius, Ach. Prodr. — Dicks. 
E. Bot. t. 1666. 

On old posts and pales. On rocks, Appin, Cayt. Carmichael 




26. L. albella, Ach. (cream-coloured Lecanora); crust leprous 

tliin continued cream-coloured somewhat polished, apothecia 
sessile whitish-buff uneven with a thin white wavy hoidei. 
Sm. Ach. SjjH.p. 168. — Lichen albeUus, Pers. — E. Bot. t. 2154. 

Common on the smooth bark of trees. 

27. L. carneo-lutea, Ach. (^pale crack-shielded Lecanord); 
crust membranous extremely thin indeterminate white smooth, 
apothecia depressed minute ffattish flesh-coloured when young 
covered by the white border Avhich cracks in the centie. Sm. 

Ach. Syn. p. 171. Parmelia carneo-lnlea, Turn, in Linn.Trans. 

V. 9. p. 145. t. 12. y. 2. — Lichen carneo-hiteus, E. Bot. t. 2010. 

Trunks of Elms, Sussex and the Isle of Wight, Mr. Borrer. 

28. L. Pardla, Ach. {Crab's-eye Lecanora or Perelle); crust 
dirty-white determinate plicato-verrucose, apothecia scattered 
thick the disk concave of the same colour as the thick tumid 
even border. — Ach. Syn. p. 169. — Lichen Parellus, Linn. E. 
Bot. t. 1 '21. —Dill. Muse. t. 18./. 10. 

Rocks, principally in mountainous countries, frequent,— This is^ the 
Perelle of Auvergne and other parts of France, where it is extensively 
employed to produce a dye, far superior to that of the Cudbear (Lemnoi a 
tartarea) and quite equal to that of the Archill {Roceella tinctona). 

29. L. tartdrea, Ach. (tartareous Lecanora, or Cudbear); crust 
thick granulated and tartareous greyish-white, apothecia scat- 
tered the disk convex at length plane or tumid yellow-brown 
inclining to flesh-colour the border thick indexed at length 
wavy. — Ach. Syn. p. 172. — Lichen tartareus, Linn. E. Bot. 
t, ibQ.—Dill. Muse. t. 18. / IS.— 13. Upsaliensis ; crust thinner 
enveloping the stems and leaves of mosses and other plants, 
hence branched and throwing out branched bristles. — Lecanora 
tartarea, y. frigida, Ach. Syn.p. 172. — Lichen Upsaliensis, Linn. 
B. Bot. t. 1634. — Lichen frigidus, Sw. — E. Bot. t. 1879. 

On rocks in alpine countries, abundant, (i. enveloping the branches and 
leaves of mosses, heath, &c.— This is the famous Cudbear (so called after 
aMr.Cuthbert.who first brought it into use) employed to produce a purple 
for dyeing woollen yarn ; and nowhere, perhaps, used to so great an ex- 
tent as in the manufactory of Mr. Mackintosh of Glasgow. This gen- 
tleman imports it largely from Norway, where it grows more abun- 
dantly than with us ; yet in the Highland districts many an industrious 
peasant gets a living by scraping off this Lichen with an iron hoop, and 
sending ft to the Glasgow market. When I was in the neighbourhood 
of For°t Augustus, some years ago, 1 was informed that a person could 
earn 14s. per week at this work, selling the material at 3s. 4d. the stone 
of 22 lbs. The fructified specimens are reckoned the best. 

A remarkable and fructified state of this plant, as it appeals to me, is 
imported by Mr. Mackintosh from Sicily, with the crust singularly thick 
and formed into warts so exceedingly elongated and cylindrical that they 
appear like the podelia of an Isidium. 

30. L. Turneri, Ach. (tnealy Jlesh-coloured Lecanora); crust 
leprous very mealy greenish-white, apothecia flesh-coloured 





powdery with a very tluck rounded entire mealy border. Ach. 
Syn. p. 170. — Lichen Turneri, E. Eot. t. 857. 

Trunks of old oaks and other trees. — Too near perhaps to L. 

31. L. citrina, Ach. {lemon-coloured Wall Lecanord); crust 

leprous powdery indetenninato bright lemon-coloured, apothe- 
ciii scattered sessile minute orange-coloured with a pale yellow 
powdery border. Sm. — Ach. Syn. 176. — Lichen citrinus, 

Ach. Prodr. — E. Eot. t. 1793. 

On brick and dint walls in Norfolk. On wood, Yorkshire. 

32. L. vitellinn, Ach. {yolk of Egg Lecanora'); crust leprous 
granulated indeterminate bright greenish-yellow, apothecia 
clustered sessile flat tawny-yellow at length convex and 
brownish the border elevated eremite. Sm. — Ach. Syn. 
P‘ 174. — Lichen vitellimis, Ehrh. — E. Eot. t. 1792. 

Common on garden-pales, rails, deal boards, &c. 

II. Thallus suhfoliaceous, consisting of scales attached to the sub- 
stance on which they grow and more or less combined. Ajgolhe- 

cia ahoays bordered and discoid, sessile {patellulee). 


15. Psora. Hoffm. Psora. 

Thallus defined, thick, formed of distinct, flattish or convex 
tubercles or scales. Apothecia {patelluleB) bordered, plane, at 
length convex, placed at the sides of the scales, the border of the 
same colour and substance as the disk Name ; a scurf. 

1. P. cwrideo-nigricans, {black and blue Psora'); thallus of ir- 
regular imbricated tumid powdery greyish warts or scales, apo- 
thecia black irregular flattish from the margin of the scsiles at 
length liemisphserical. — Lichen cairideo-nigricans, Lightf. — E. 
Eot. t. 1139. — Lecideavesiciduris, Ach. Syn. )). 51. — Psora vesi- 
cularis and paradoxa, Hoffm. 

Upon the ground and among rocks. 

2. P. atro-rufa, {red-broivn Psora'); thallus subcontinuous 
lobed, the lobes angular smooth imbricated grey-broivn, apo- 
thecia sessile dark red-brown with a narrow border at length 
confluent. — Lecidea airo-rifa, Ach. Syn.p. 51. Lichen atro-rufus, 
Picks. Cr. Ease. 4. p. 2. t. l'2.f. 4. E. Eot. t. 1102. 

On sandy ground, among Mosses, chiefly in the north of England. 

3. P. scaldris, (olive and black imbricated Psorai); thallus imbri- 

cated often scattered in kidney-shaped lobes or scales ascending 
distinct pale-olive powdery at the edge and black, apothecia flat 
irregular black-bordered. Sm. — Lecidea scalaris, Ach. Syn. 

p. 52. — Lichen scalaris, Ach. Vrodr E. Eot. t. 1501. — L. leu- 

cojdueus, Jdeks. — Psoi-a ostreata, Hoffm. 

Srywrtwarw.] LICHENES. 193 

Old pales and in the inside of old hollow trees, Suffolk, &c. On trees 
and rocks, Scotland, Mr. Dickson. 

4. P. deapiens, Hoft'm. (deceitful Psm'o); tliallus subimbri- 
cated with separate roundish rather broader concave lobes or 
scales flesh-coloured or red white at the margin at length brown, 
apothecia small marginal convex or siibglobose, the border ob- 
solete. — Lecidea decipiens, Ach. Syn. p. 52. — Lichen dccipiem, 
Hedw. — E. Bot. t. 870. 

On the Gogmagog hills, Cambridgeshire. Mountains of Scotland, 
frequent among rocks. 

5. P. glebidosa, {broken-crusted brown-shielded Psora'); tliallus 

distinct imbricated with minutely lobed glaucous-white tumid 
adherent scales, apothecia convex deep red-brown ivith a thin 
entire border — Lichen glebidosus, E. Bot. t. 1955. — L. testaceus, 
“ Winch, Quid. v. 2. 42.” — Lecidea pholidiota, Ach. Syn. 

p. 53. 

On quartzose rocks at Lanchester, and walls at Knitsby, Durham, 
Mr. Winch. 

6. P? rubiformis, (Raspberry-fruited Psora); tliallus depres- 
sed of somewhat criistaceoiis rounded lobed crenate light-green 
lobes or scales thickened and pale at their margins white be- 
neath, apothecia on the disk clustered sessile minute globose 

hollow red. Sm — Lichen rubiformis, Wedd E. Bot. 2112 — 

Bwomyces rubiformis, Ach. Meth. p. 324. t. 1 . f. 5. — Cenomyce 
rtibif, Lich. Lfniv — Lecidea rubiformis, Ach. Syn. p. 52. 

On turfy earth near Ripon, Yorkshire, Mr. W. Brunion. — This singu- 
lar production I know only from figures and description. The fronds 
resemble the crust of some Scyphophorus : the fruit is like nothing among 
any Genus of Lichens. 

16. Squamaria. (Sqiiamaria i^Placodiiim, Cand.) 


Thallus defined, scaly, spreading, orbicular and stellate, the 
scales distinct or adherent, often imbricated, diverging. Apo- 
thecia (patelhda;) bordered, sessile, the border of the same sub- 
stance as the thcdlus. — Named from squama, a scale, the thallus 
of several species being formed of scales more or less combined. — 
Thismay be considered an intermediate link between the Lecanorce 
and the Parmelice ; most allied, however, to the latter, but 
having a much less distinctly leafy or membranaceous thallus. 

* Thallus imbricated. 

1. S. crdssa, De Cand. (thick Squamaria); thallus imbricated 
thick cartilaginous greyish-green its lobes or scales spreading- 
imbricated lobed and weaved brownish beneath, apothecia flattish 
brownish-orange with an elevated border. — Lecanora crassa, 
Ach. Syn. p. 190. — Lichen crassus, Huds. — E. Bot. t. 1893. — 
Lichen cartilagineus, Lightf. — Dicks Dill. Muse. t. 24. f. 74. 

On limestone rocks. 





2. S. tnuscorum, (little jieshy- shielded Moss Squamarici); 
thallus imbricated flat pale-brown inclining to flesh-colour the 
margin mealy and bluish dilated lobed and crenated, apotbecia 
prominent thick orange-coloured with a slightly i-aised border. 
— Lecmiora crassa, Ach. Syii. p. 193. — L, hypnorum, Ach. Lich. 
Univ, — Lichen carnosus, Dicks. Cr. Fasc.2. p. 21. t. 6./. 7. E. 
Dot. t. 1684. 

On mosses, among rocks and upon trees in mountainous countries, 
not unfrequent. 

3. S. hypnorum, (spreading Ground Squamaria); thallus 
spreading of small greenish-brown scales rounded crenulated 
and somewhat granulated at the margin, apotbecia at length 
flat red-brown with a thin indexed pale lobed or crenated 
border. — Lecanora hypn., AcJuSyn. p. 1 93. — Lichen hypnorum, 
FI. Dan. t. 956. Dicks. Cr. Fasc. 3. p. 14. E.Bot. t. 740. 

On the ground, among mosses, in barren soil. — The small, almost 
granulated portions of the thallus of this plant render it doubtful whether 
it should not still rank with the true Lecanorce. 

4. S. trihdcia, (crenated Squamarici); thallus of whitish scales 
the lobes irregular eroso-crenulate imbricated beneath of the 
same colour and subfihrillose, apothecia appressed flat pale at 
length notched and lobed in the circumference the border raised 
persistent. — Lecanora trihacia, Ach. Syn. p. 191. 

Trees; England, {Ach.}. — Connel Ferry, Scotland, by the south 
Ferry-House, Borr. and Hooker. 

5. S. leucolepis, (greyish lobed Squamaria); thallus imbri- 
cated the segments bluntly lobed and notched somewhat radiate 
at the margin leaden-grey black and somewhat fibrillose be- 
neath, apothecia black with an elevated thick crenated border. 
— Lichen leucolepis, Wahl. Lapp. p. 781. — Lecanora leucol., 
Ach. Syn. p. 194 — Lichen Hookeri, E. Dot. t. 2283. 

Rare. On the micaceous rocks of the Breadalbane mountains, Borr. 
and Hooker. — In Norway, this seems to grow upon decayed mosses ; with 
us, always on rocks of micaceous schist. 


6. S. Candelaria, (yelloio Candle Squamaria); thallus crowd- 
ed the segments upright entangled yellow minutely lohed 
jagged and divaricated, apothecia minute flat deep-yellow^ Avith 
a thick indexed border. Sm. — Lecanora candelaria, Ach. Syn. 
p. 191. — Lichen candelarius, Linn. — E. Dot. t. 1794. — poly- 
carpa ; thallus spreading crustaceous wrinkled greyisli-yellow 
lobed and toothed, apothecia very numerous croAvded flat orange 
with a thick indexed border. Sm. — Lecanora candelaria, (3. Ach. 
Syn. p. 192. — Lichen poly caipus, Ehrh. — E. Dot. t. 1795. 

Posts, rails and rocks, frequent. — In Sweden, this Lichen is said to 
be used for staining candles yellow, at festivals, whence its specific 

** Thallus adnate, radiant, stellate and lobed in the circumference. 

7. S. murdrum, (yellow wall Squamaria); thallus orbicular 




cracked plaited and lobed adnate bright-yellow the segments 
linear, apotliecia central crowded sessile flattish orange-coloured 
with a slightly waved border. — Lecanora murorum, Ach. Sijn. 
p. 181. — Lichen murorum, Ach. Prodr. — E. Pot. <.2157. — Dill. 
Muse. t. 1 7.^1 3. 

On rocks, stones and walls, frequent. 

8. S. minidta, {yermillion-coloured SquamarkC); thalliis sub- 
granulated deep-red smooth above the circumference lobed and 
radiated, the segments convex very short inciso-crenate, apo- 
thecia minute turgid, the disk plane at length hemispli£ei-ical, 
the border entire and of the same colour. — Lecanora miniata, 
Ach. Si/n. p. 182. Winch, FI. of North, and Durh. p. 88. — Lo- 
baria miniata, Hoffm. 

On Gainsford Church, Durham, Bev. J. Harriman. ( Winch.) 

9. S. dlegans, (^elegant orange Squamaria); thallus hard 
smooth orbicular adnate plaited or rugged deep-orange its lobes 
linear compound convex wavy, apotheeda concave central of the 
same colour with the crust, the border somewhat indexed en- 
tire. — Lecanora elegans, Ach. Syn. p. 182. — Lichen elegans, 
E. Pot. t. 2181. 

On rocks. North of England and Scotland. 

10. S.fulgens, {ijellow Ground Squamaria); thallus orbicular 
adnate lobed and waved somewhat imbricated lemon-coloured 
whitish when dry, apotliecia deep-orange at length convex their 
border elevated at length obliterated. — Lecanora fulgens, Ach. 
Syn. p. 183. — Lichen fulgens, Ach. Prodr. — E. Pot. t. 1667. — 
L. citrinus, Hedw. 

On rocks, slightly covered with earth, rare. Near Stackpole-court, 
Pembrokeshire, Air. Adams. Sussex and Isle of Wight, Turn, and 

11. S. lentigera, De Cand. (lohite Ground Squamaria); 

thallus orbicular adnate lobed scarcely imbricated greenish- 
Avhite the lobes broad slightly concave wk .'ed and crenated, 
apotliecia nearly flat reddish bulF-colour ivitli the border ele- 
vated tumid indexed subcrenulate. — Lecanora lentigera, Ach. 
Syn. p. 179. — Lichen lentigerus, Web E. Pot. t. 871. 

On dry, chalky heaths ; Cambridgeshire and Suffolk. 

12. S. cdndicans, (whitish radiating Sqtutmaria); thallus tar- 
tareous thin adnate orbicular plaited lobed and radiating in the 
margin bright greyish-white, apotliecia clustered greyish-black 
slightly convex with a plaited elevated border. — Lichen candi- 
cans, Dicks. Cr. Ease. 3. p. 15. t. 9.f. 5. E. Pot. t. 1778. — 
Lecanora epigea, Ach. Syn. p. 179. 

On limestone rocks in England. On chalk at Beachy-head, Sussex, 
Air. Borrer. 

13. S. gelida, Delise, (^flesh-coloured alpine Squamaria); 
thallus orbicular adnate radiated lobed and laciniated dirty- 




white smooth with large brownish central radiated fleshy warts, 
apothecia concave rose-coloured with a thick elevated entire 
border — Lecanora gelida, Ach. Syn. p. 186. — Lichen gelidusy 
Linn. — Dicks. — E. Dot. t. 699. 

On rocks in the north of England, particularly in Teesdale, and 
Highlands of Scotland. 

14. S. lanugindsa, (^powdery Squamaria); thallus orbicular 
yellowish-white pulverulent greyish- black and downy beneath 
lobes imbricated plane rounded slightly crenated, apothecia 
reddish (of the same colour as the crust, Dicks.) their border 
pulverulent. — Parmelia lanuginosay Ach. Syn. p. 201. Hook. 
FI. Scot. P. IT. p. 53. — Lichen memhranaceusy Dicks. Cr. Fasc. 
2.p. 21. t.G.f. 1. 

On rocks, in the Highlands of Scotland; not very uncommon. Appin, 
Cnpt. Carmichael. 

1.5. S. Clementi, (^Clementine Squamaria); thallus adnate very 
mealy with a membranous radiating lobed and finely cut margin 
of a whitish unchangeable grey, apothecia bluish-black with an 

inflexed crenate border. Sm Parmelia Clementi, Turn, in 

lAnn. Trans, v. 9. p. 146. t. 13./. 1. — P. Clementiana, Ach. Syn. 
p. 201. — Lichen Clementi, E. Dot. t. 1779. 

On trees and tiled roofs in Sussex, as well as about Tunbridge Wells 
and Southampton, Mr. Borrer. 

16. S. cehsia, {prey-warted Squamaria); thallus orbicular con- 
vex lobed and imbricated greyish- white its segments unequally 
notched bearing powdery grey warts in the centre, apothecia 
small glaucous-black concave with an elevated rather thick in- 

flexed border. — Psora coesia, Hoffm Parmelia ccesia, Ach. 

Syn. p. 216. — Lichen ccesius, Ach. Prodr. — E. Dot. t. 1052. 

On walls, stones, and roofs of houses, in England. 

17. S. affinis, (spongy Squamaria); thallus orbicular livid 
lead-colour with broad notched and cut lobes which are im- 
bricated beneath somewdiat spongy with bluish-black dense 
fibres, apothecia rusty-coloured nearly flat with a thick elevated 

inflexed crenated border Lichen affinis, Dicks. Cr. Fasc. 4. 

p. 24. t. 12./ 6. E. Dot. t. 983 Parmelia ruhiginosa, Ack. 

Syn. p. 201. — Lichen rubiginosus, Thunh. FI. Cap. p. 176? 

On trees, in subalpine countries, frequent. — I have retained Mr. Dick- 
son’s name, in preference to that of Thunberg, to which Acharius re- 
fers it, under an idea that the African and European plant may prove 
different. The species was called oj^inis, on account of its similarity 
with Lichen (our Plucodium) plumbetis : but however great the resem- 
blance may be in the thallus, their apothecia are quite different. 

18. S. circindta, (circinate Squamaria); thallus adnate sub- 
crustaceous in the centre orbicular greyish cracked marked 
with radiant marginal lobe-like furrows, apothecia central 
crowded depressed blackish-brown at length angular with a 
smooth border, — Lecanora circinata, Ach. Syn. p. 184 — Lichen 
circinatus, Ach. Prodr. — E. Hot. t. 1941. 




On flat ciilcareous Btones, Suffolk, Cambridge and Westmoreland. 
On encrinal limestone rocks, near the new bridge below Barnard-Castle, 
Durham, Mr. Winch. Scotland. 

19. S. saxicola, {radiated wall Squamaria); tlialliis orbicular 
finely lobed soniewbat imbricated pale sulpbureous-green, tbe 
lobes cut crenate zigiag and entangled, apotbecia central crowd- 
ed flattisb tawny-brown wltb a pale uneven border — Lecanora 
saxicola, Ach. Syn. p. 180. — Lichen saxic., Ach. Prodr. — E. Pot. 
t. 1693. — L. muralis, Dicks. — Psora muralis, Hoffm. 

On rocks, brick-walls and loose flinty stones, in exposed situations. 

20. S. elceina, (orbicidar olive Squamaria); tballus orbicular 
imbricated depressed stellated membranous dark greenisb-olive 
smootbisb and of tbe same colour beneath its segments close- 
pressed pinnatifid linear obtuse, apotbecia central brownisb- 

black with an elevated border Parnielia elceina, Wahl . — 

Ach. Syn. p. 200. — Lecanora elceina, Ach. Licit. Univ. — Lichen 
elccinus, Wahl. Lapp. p. 425. t. 28. y. 3. E. Bot. t. 2158. 

Not rare, on the bark of Elms and Fruit-trees, sometimes on flint 
walls, Sussex, Mr. Borrer. On walls and trees, about Norwich, Sir J. 
E. Smith. 

17. Plac6diu3I, Pee, (part of Placodium, De Cand.'). Pla- 
ced ium. 

Phallus defined, orbicular and stellated, tbe scales adberent, 
indistinct, pulverulent, foliaceous in tbe circunifereitce. Apo- 
thecia (patellulce^ usually in tbe centre of tbe tballus, bordered, 
tbe border of tbe same colour as tbe disk. — Named from TrXtc^, 
7r?.axos, a crust or leaf. — Tbe species of tins genus do not rank 
w^ell with Psora, whose tballus is formed of distinct or very 
slightly combined scales or tubercles, nor yet with Lecidea, whose 
crust is still more different. They have indeed tbe fructifica- 
tion of Lecidea with tbe tballus of Squamaria, or in 1 species, 
(P. deedahunt) almost that of Parnielia. 

1. V.canescens, De Cand. (grey Tree Placodiuni); tballus ad- 
nate Orbicular often confluent plaited and lobed at tbe margin 
with powdery spots of a glaucous- white in the centre, apotbecia 
central depressed black with a narrow border. — Lecidea canes- 
cens, Ach. Syn. p. 34. — Lichen canescens, Dicks. Cr. Fasc. 1. 
p. 10. t. 2.f. 5. Dill. Muse. t. 18./. 17. A. 

On trees in England, more rarely on rocks, on walls and roofs, and 
rarely producing apothecia. 

2. P. plurnheum, {lead-coloured spongy Placodiuni); tballus 
orbicular livid lead-colour broadly lobed and notched and some- 
what imbricated at tbe margin thick often covered in the 
centre with grey granulations, clothed beneath with bluish- 
black spongy fibres, apotbecia central small flat rust-coloured 
with a very obscure border. — Parnielia plumhea, Ach. Syn. 
p. 202. — TJehen pluniheus, Lightf. Scot. p. 826. t. 26. f. 2. 
E. Bot. t. 353. — Ijichen caridescens, Dicks. 

LICHENES. [Parmelia. 

On trees, in mountainous countries ; especially near the sea and near 

1 ^iv0S « 

3. P. microphyllum, {small-leaved Cushion Placodium^; thal- 
lus slightly imbricated depressed fragmentary on a dense black 
fibrous cusbion, its segments grey lobed crenated and granu- 
lated at the edge, ajiotbecia tawny witli a paler smooth border. 
Sm. — Lichen microphyllus, Schrad. — E. Bot. t. 2128. — Lecidea 
microphylla, var. triptophylla, Ach. Syn. p. 53. 

On trees, Bodmin, Mr. D. Turner, Loch Katrine and other places 
in the Highlands of Scotland. 

4. P. dcedaleum, {jine-lohed imbricated Placodium); tballus 
closely imbricated r.adiated inembranous very smooth brownish- 
grey pale with black fibres beneath its segments linear obtuse 
undulated, apotbecia black Avitb a black border of their own 
substance. Sm. — Lichen dcedcdeus, E. Bot. t. 2129. 

Scotland, on rocks ? Mr, Menzics. {E. Bot.) 

III. Thallus loose, scarcely attached, except hy fibres or radicles 

or a small base, to the substance on which it grows. 

A. Upper surface difi'erent from the under.. 
a. Attachment of the thcdlus diffuse {not fixed by a central point'), 
a. Apothecia scidelliform, discoid, bordered, attached by the centre. 

* Thallus more or less membranaceous. 

Fam. IX. ParmeliacejE. 

18. Parmelia. Ach, Parmelia. 

Thallus foliaceous, membranaceous or coriaceous, spreading, 
lobed and stellated or laciniated, more or less fibrous beneath. 
Apothecia {scutellce) orbicular, beneath formed of the thallus, 
free, fixed only by a central point, the disk concave, coloured, 
the border formed by the inflexed thallus. — Named from rra^/j^ri, 
a small shield, and iCKzu, to surround or enclose; in allusion to 
the apotbecia being surrounded by a border of the cinst. 

* Thcdlus ivith its segments not inflated at the extremity. 

1. P. glomxdifera, Ach. {glomuliferous Parmelia) ; tballus sub- 
cartilaginous orbicular glaucous-grey broadly and irregidarly 
lobed and simiated, bearing large and tufted warts and excres- 
cences of a dark greenish-brown colour, beneath tawny and 
downy, apothecia red-brown with an elevated border. — Ach. 
Syn.p. 195. — Lichen glomidiferus, Lightf — E. Bot. t. 293. 

Trunks of old trees, in mountainous countries. 

2. P. caperdta, Ach. {wrhdded sidphur Parmelia); tballus sub- 
membranaceous orbicular pale sulphur-colour lobed sinuated and 
crenate granulose in the centre black and hispid beneath, apo- 
tbecia scattered bright chestnut ^dtb an elevated incurved bor- 
der. Ach. Syn.p. 196. 




Trunks of trees, rocks and old pales, frequent in mountainous coun- 
tries.— This and the preceding are among the largest and handsomest 
of the British Lichens. 

3. P. conspersa, Ach. {cjreenish Chestnut-shielded Parmelia^; 
thallus oi'bicular membranous lobed and siuuated pale greenisli- 
yellow with scattered dark points granulated in the centre, 
beneath brown with black fibres, apothecia near the centre dark 
chestnut-brown with an indexed border. — Ach. Syn. p. 209. — 
Lichen conspersus, Ach. 

On rocks and stones in mountainous countries. 

4. P. scortea, Ach. {leathery granular Parmelia); thallus or- 
bicular submembranaceous lobed and sinuated greyish-white 
with innumerable dark granulations black and rough beneath, 
apothecia bright chestnut with an inflexed ci’enated border. — 
Ach. Syn. p. 197. — Lichen scorteus, Ach. Prodr. — E. Bot. 
t. 2065. 

On trees and pales, in Surrey and Sussex, Mr. Borrer; and in other 
places ; but always barren. 

5. P. Borreri, Turn. {Borrerian Parnielki); thallus orbicu- 
lar submembranaceous broadly lobed and sinuated tawny-grey 
sprinkled with white powdery warts brown and somewhat 
fibrous beneath, apothecia bright chestnut with an elevated 
inflexed border. — Turn, in Linn. Trans, v. 9. p. 148. t. 13.yi 2. 
Ach. Syn. p. 197. — Lichen Turneri, E. Bot.t.\l%t). 

Trunks oftrees, especially fruit-trees, and on stones in Sussex. Norfolk. 
On a wall at Luss, Scotland ; and elsewhere. — Distinguished from the 
following more abundant species, by its less deeply divided and broader 
lobed thallus, of a yellower green colour, in the absence of elevated re- 
ticulated powdery veins and pits, in the presence of white powdery 
tvarts and in the paler and less fibrous underside. Its fructification is 
very rare. 

6. P. saxdtilis, Ach. (firey Stone Parmelia^; thallus orbicular 
grey deeply lobed and sinuated imbricated with retuse seg- 
ments, the upper side rough with pits and raised reticulated 
powdery lines, black and shaggy beneath, apothecia dark-brown 
with an inflexed crenated border. — Ach. Syn. j). 203 — Lichen 
saxatilis, Linn. — E. Bot. t. 603. — Dill. Muse. t. 24. f. 83. 

Very frequent upon trees, rocks and stones, especially in mountain- 
ous countries. — In Scotland it is collected abundantly by the peasantry 
and used, with the following species, to dye woollen stuffs of a dirty pur- 

7. P. omphalodes, Ach. (^purple Rock Parmeliaf ; thallus orbi- 
cidar dark purplish-brown shining with pale zigzag cracks much 
lobed and imdtifid imbricated the segments truncated black and 
shaggy beneath, apothecia dark-brown with an inflexed crenated 
border. — Ach. Syn. p. 203. — Lichen omphalodes, TJnn. — E. Bot. 
t. 604. — Dill. Muse. t. 24./. 80. 

On rocks and stones ; most abundant on exposed moors. — This and 



[ Varmelia. 

the pieceding species are liable to be infested with a parasite, which has 
been called Endocarpon parasiticum Ach. {E. Bot. t. 1866 .) 

8. P. perforata, Ach. (^jjerforate-shielded ParmeluC); thallus 
oibiciilar somewhat membranous g’laucous-green naked deeply 
lohed crenate and sinuated fringed -with black bairs at the 
margin black and rough beneath, apothecia red-brown at length 
perforated deep and concave Avith an entire narrow border. — 
Ach. Syn. p. 198 . — Lichen perforatus, Ach. Prodr. — E. Bot, 
t. 2423 — Dill. Muse. t. 20. f. 42, 43’ awe/ 44, and t. 82. f. 3. 

On rocks and old trees, Wales, Sir J. E. Smith. Sussex, not unfre- 
quent, Mr. Borrer. — The fructification has never been found in Britain. 
In America and other countries this plant is abundant, and I have lately 
^ceived copious specimens with their curious erpoMra'a, gathered by Mr. 
Drummond on the Missouri. 

9. V. perldta, Ach. (^pearly Parmelict); thallus orbicular glau- 
cous with I’ounded sinuated and crenate flattish lobes often bor- 
dered with powdery tubercles black and hairy beneath, 
apothecia elevated olive-coloured concave with a crenate thin 
powdery indexed border. — Ach. Syn. p. 197. — Lichen perlatus, 
Linn.~E. Bot. t. M\.—Dill. Muse. t. 30. f. 39, 

Trunks of old trees and pales, not unfrequent, but very rare in fruc- 
tification. Sir J, E. Smith has translated perlatus by pcar/y; but the 
word was probably intended to imply its wide-spreading habit. 

10. P. IcBvigdta, Ach. {even grey Parmelia); thallus spread- 
ing greyish-white smooth deeply cut into many multifid lobes 
and segments the ultimate ones broadly linear acute Avith ter- 
minal poAA'dery Avarts black and shaggy beneath, apothecia A*ery 
concave deep chestnut Avith an entire indexed border. — Ach. 
Syn. p. 212.— Lichen Icevigatus, E, Bot. t. 1852. 

On rocks, Anglesea and Caernarvonshire, Rev. H. Davies. 

11. P. herhdcea, Ach. (hright-green Parmelia^); thallus orbicu- 
lar membranaceous bright-green and naked above when moist 
(AAdiitish-broAvn Avhen dry) lobed and crenated at the margin 
AvhitishdoAAmy and fibrous beneath, apothecia orange-broAA'n nearly 
fiat Avith an indexed border. — Ach. Syn. p. 298 . — Lichen Icete- 
virens, Lightf. — Dichs.— E. Bot. t. 294. 

On the trunks of trees, decayed wood, rocks and mosses, in mountain- 
ous countries. — A large and A’ery handsome species, often forming broad 
conspicuous patches on the trunks of trees in moist subalpine regions. 

1 2. P. tilidcca, Ach. (^smooth grey Parmelia'); thallus orbicular 
membranaceous pale glaucous-grey subpruinose lobed and sinu- 
ated crenate shaggy and broAvnish-black beneath, apothecia 
brown Avith an incurved entire or crenate border. — Ach. Sy 7 i. 
p. 299 . — Liclmi tiliaceus, Hoffin. — E. Bot. t. 700. 

On trees, in the south of England. On rocks, Anglesea and Caer- 
narvonshire, Rev. H. Davies. Upon the battlements of Brodick Castle, 
Isle of Arran, 

13. P. olivacea, Ach. (olive-coloured Parmclki); thallus orbicu- 




lar olive-brown rugged in the centre and often granulated the 
margin lobed and crenated appressed brownish and fibrous be- 
neath, apotliecia brown concave with an inflexed crenated bor- 
der. — Ach. Sy». p. 200. — Lichen olivaceus, Linn — E. Bot. 
t. 2180 Dill. Muse. t. 24. f. 77, 78. 

On the bark of trees, park-pales, &c. frequent. 

14. P. corrugdta, Ach. (tcrinlile-shielded ParmelicC); tliallus 
orbicular membranaceous somewhat rugged of a dark glaucous- 
green lobed cut and rounded imbricated Avaved blackish and 
fibrous beneath, apotliecia large concave red-broA\Ti externally- 
wrinkled M'ith a crenate inflexed border. — Ach. Syn. p. 199. 
— Lichen corrugcdtis, Sni. in Linn. Trans, v. \. p. 83. E. Bot. 
t. 1652. — Dill. Muse. t. 24. f. 79. 

Saham wood, Norfolk, Sir J. E. Smith. Trunks of old Thorns, Ick- 
worth Park, near Bury, Suffolk ; Rev. G. R. Leatkes.— -The large, rug- 
ged, concave apotliecia and larger wavy thaltus distinguish this species 
from P. oiivacea, with which it has sometimes, but most incorrectly, been 

15. P. pulverulenta, Ach. (^green powdery Parmelia); tliallus 
orbicular stellated deep glaucous-green hoary ash-coloured Avben 
dry cut into numerous oblong nuiltifid flat and obtuse Avrinkled 
segments black and dotvny beneath, apotliecia glaucous-black 
with a thick inflexed at length leafy border. — ABi. Syn.2).2\4. 
— Lichen pulverulentus, Schreh. — E. Bot. t. 2063. — Dill. Muse, 
t. 24. f. 71. 

Very common on the trunks of trees. 

16. P. pityrea, Ach. {scurfy imbricated Parmelia); tliallus 
orbicular imbricated glaucous-green hoary ash- coloured Avlien 
dry its segments dilated concave rounded crenate very pow'dery 
at their lateral margins pale and fibrous beneath, apotbecia 
glaucous-black with a broad inflexed very poAvdery border. 
Sm. — Ach. Syn. p. 201. — Lichen pityreus, Ach. Prodr. — E. Bot. 
t. 2064. — L. pidverulentus, Ehrh — L. lanuginosus, Hoffm. 

Trees and walls, in Norfolk and Suffolk, common. About Glasgow, 
Hr. Scoulcr. 

17. P. stelldris, Ach. {black-shielded stellated Parmelia); thal- 
lus orbicular stellated pale unchangeable grey the segments 
linear rather convex multifid beneath AA*hitish Avith dark fibres, 
apotliecia greyish-black Avith an entire elevated at length inflexed 

border Ach. Syn. p. 216. — Lichen stellaris, Linn. — E. Bot. 

t. 1697. — Dill. Muse. t. 24. f. 70. 

Frequent on the bark of trees. 

18. P. specidsa, Ach. {elegant garland Parmelia); tliallus stel- 
lated imbricated someAvbat cartilaginous greenish-Avhite cut into 
numerous linear nuiltifid segments poAA'dery at the extremities 
and obtuse beneath snoAv-Avbite Avith grey fibres, apotliecia 




brown with an inflexed notched or leafy border. — Ach. Syn. 
p. 221. — Lichen speciosus, Wulf. — E. Bot. t. 1979. 

Upon rocks among mosses, at Ballacheulish, Scotland. Turner and 
Hooker . — The fructification has not been found in Great Britain, but is 
described from specimens, gathered in N. America. 

19. P. cycloselis, Ach. (orbicular dushy Parmclici); thallus 
orbicular stellated glaucous broMmisli-green, cut into many im- 
bricated nearly flat multifid retuse segments bearing white mealy 
warts, beneath and at the margin black and fibrous, apotliecia 

brownish-black with an inflexed entire border Ach. Syn. 

p. 216. — Lichen cycloselis, Ach. Prodr. — E. Bot. t. 1942. 

On trees and old pales, in England. — Walls and stones at Appin, 
Argyleshire, Capt. Carmichael. 

20. P. virella, Ach. Meth. (little green imbricated Parnielia') ; 
thallus membranaceous stellated greyish-green the segments flat 
short lobed obtuse laciniated black and spongy beneath sprink- 
led above with powdery warts and reddish lucid grains, apothe- 
cia dark-brown with an even inflexed border. Sm. — Lecanora 
virella, Ach. Syn. p. 191. — Lichen virellus, Ach. Prodr. — E. 
Bot. t. 1696. 

On trees and pales, in Sussex ; Mr, Borrer. — I do not see how this can 
be separated from its very near affinity, P. cycloselis; yet Acharius, in his 
latest work upon Lichens, the “ Synopsis,” places them in different 
Genera. Sir J. E. Smith even expresses a doubt how far the two are 
really distinct as species. 

21. P. incurva, (incurved yellow-green warted Parnielia'); 
thallus stellated membranaceous pale yellowish-green bearing 
yellowish powdery warts the segments much divided narrow 
radiating convex incurved black and spongy beneath, apothecia 
red-brown with an entire curved border. — Lichen incurvus, Pers. 
— E. Bot. t. 1375. — L. multifidus, Dicks. Cr. Ease. 3, p. 16. 
t. 9.f. 7. 

On rocks in Durham, Rev. Mr, Harriman. Scotland, Mr. G. Don. 

22. P. Fahlunensis, Ach. (Jlat black Rock Parmelia'); thallus 
orbicular pitchy-brown smooth the segments linear sinuated 
flat or slightly grooved lacerated, beneath black and scarcely 
fibrillose, apothecia dark-hrown with a crenated border. — Ach. 
Syn. p). 204. — Lichen Fahlunensis, Linn. — E. Bot. t. 633. — 
Dill. Muse. t. 24. y. 81. 

Wales and Scotland; on rocks on the more elevated mountains. 

23. P. stygia, Ach. (stygian Parmelia'); thallus stellated 
shining pitchy-black the segments linear midtifid nearly palma- 
ted convex with a few pale warts, beneath black witli a few 
radicles the margins and extremities decurved, apothecia of the 
same colour at length black with a crenated border. — Ach. Syn. 
p. 205. — Lichen stygius, Linn. — E, Bot. t. 2048. 




Summits of the Highland mountains, grow ing on rocks. On Ben- 
Nevis, plentiful. 

24. V ~ encdiista, Acli. (encaustic Parmelia'); thallus stellated 
brownish-grey dotted with black the segments deeply and much 
divided linear tumid here and there constricted convex on both 
sides, black uneven and naked beneath, apotliecia red-brown 
with a somewhat crenidated border. — Ach. Syn. p. 206. — 
Lichen encaustus, Sm. in Linn. Trans, v. 1. p>’ ^3. t. 4. f. 6. 
E. Bot. t. 2049. 

Plentiful on rocks, on the summit of Ben-Nevis, where it was first 
detected by Dr. Stuart. 

25. P. dquila, Ach. (sun-burnt Parmelia'); thallus orbicular 
tawny-browm very much divided into numerous imbricated 
crowded branched narrow linear segments with their margins 
indexed, black and shaggy beneath, apothecia dark-brown with 
an incurved and crenated border — Ach. Syn. p. 205. — Lichen 
aquilus, Ach. Prodr. — E. Bot. t. 982. — L. fuscus, Huds — 
Bichs. — L. 2 ^ullus, Light/. — L. obscurus, With. — Bill. Muse, 
t. 24. f. 69. 

On rocks, in various parts of Britain; yet not very general : most 
abundant on the borders of Devon and Cornwall. — Closely applied to 
the rock on which it grows, and remarkable for its tawny-brown hue and 
the very numerous and much divided narrow segments ot the thallus. 

26. P. cdeicrites, Ach. (inealy spreading Parmelia); thallus 
orbicular continuous rugged greyish-white mealy lobed in the 
circumference simiated crisped and notched, beneath of the 
same colour with blackish fibres, apothecia elevated plane red- 
dish-brown with an indexed crenulated and pulverulent border. 
— Ach. Syn. p. 208. — Lichen aleurites, Ach. Prodr. — E. Bot. 
t. 858. — L. diffusus, Bichs. Cr. Ease. 3. p. 17. t. 9. f. 6. 

Trunks of trees, posts, rails, &c. On the bark of firs in the north, 

27. P. amhigua, Ach. (yellowish poivdery Parmelia); thallus 
stellated pale yellow-green smooth bearing powdery warts the 
segments linear appressed plane dichotomous somewdiat trunca- 
ted, beneath brownish-black and fibrillose, apothecia near the 
centre small nearly plane brown their border entire — Ach. Syn. 
j). 208. Hooh. FI. Scot. P. II. pt. 55 — Psora amhigua, Hoffm. 
PI. Lich.f. 2 — 4, and t. 42. f. 2, 3. 

Trunks of Fir-trees in the Plighlands, especially in the northern 
Forests. Kinnordy, Forfarshire: — always barren. 

28. P. sinuosa, Ach. (sinuous imbricated Parmelia); thallus 
orbicular imbricated smooth of a sulphureous-grey its segments 
pinnatifid with dilated cloven lobes and circular sinuses, beneath 
hlack with dense fibres, apothecia brown with a thin smooth 
entire border. Sm. — Ach. Syn. p. 207. — Lichen sinuosus, E. 
Bot. t. 2050. 


LICHLNES. [Sticla. 

Stones and walls, rarely on trees in Scotland, but not general : and 
always barren. 

29. P. parietma, Acli. (pelloio wall Parmelia^; thallus orbi- 
cular bright-yellow the lobes marginal radiating oppressed 
rounded crenate and crisped granulated in the centre, beneath 
paler and fibrillose, apothecia deep-orange concave with an en- 
tire border — Ach, Syn. p. 200. — Lichen parietinus, Linn. — E. 
Bot. t. 194. — Bill. Muse. t. 2A.f. 76. 

On trees and walls, abundant. 

** Thallus loilh its segments inflated at the extremity. 

30. P. jihysodes, Ach. (injlated Parmeliai); thallus orbicular 
stellated glaucous-white the segments sinuato-multifid convex 
glabrous inflated often bearing elevated powdery warts, beneath 
brownish-black, apothecia red-brown with a thin elevated bor- 

Ach. Syn. p. 218. — Lichen pliysodes, Linn. — E. Bot. 
t. l^Q.—Dill. Muse. t. 20./. 49. 

Trunks of trees, stones, and low bushes, not unfrequent Apothecia 
very rare : on an ash-tree, near Dumfries, Dr. Richardson. 

31. P. diatrypa, Ach. (double-coated Parmelia) ; thallus substel- 
late greenish-grey, the segments sinuato-multifid nearly plane 
smooth bearing powdery warts and perforated the extremities 

inflated, apothecia reddish-brown the border indexed entire. 

Ach. Syn. p. 219. — Lichen diatrypus, Ach. Prodr. — E. Bot. 
t. 1248. 

Wet rocks, among moss, rare. Foot of Snowdon, Mr. D. Turner. 
At Ballacheulish, bearing apothecia. Turner and Hook . — Smaller than 
the last, with narrower segments; forming, however, with it, a small but 
natural groupe of the Genus, distinguished by the thallus, especially at 
the extremit}', being hollow and having a distinct upper and lower mem- 
brane. The P. enteromorpha, from the N. W. Coast of America, is a 
still more remarkable example of this tribe. 

19. Sticta. Ach. Sticta. 

Thallus foliaceous, coriaceo-cartilaginous, spreading, lobed, 
free and do^vny beneath, with little cavities or hollow spots 
(cyphellce) often containing a powdery substance. Apothecia 
(scutellcc) beneath formed of the thallus, to which they are ap- 
pressed and fixed by a central point, the disk coloured, plane, 
surrounded by an elevated border formed of the thallus. — Name; 
(friKrog, dotted, from the depressed spots, or cyphellce, with which 
the under-side of the thallus is dotted ; and which is indeed the 
only technical character by which the Genus is distinguished 
from Parmelia. “ These,” Mr. Borrer observes, “ vary much 
in their 'nature : in a few species they are merely irregular bald 
spots, apparently proceeding from abrasion of the surface ; in 
others, they are powdery warts, soredia, without a margin ; and 
again, in others, as in S. macrophylla, little pits (cyphellce,) fur- 
nished with a margin from the superficial membrane of the thallus 
within which they are originally formed : these cyphellce also 




vary, being in some instances filled with a j^owdery substsmce, 
in others empty or merely lined with powder.” — The Genus, 
is, however, allowed, on all hands, to be a natural one. The 
thallus is broad, spreading, more or less coriaceous, with 
crowded and dilated marginal lobes. 

1. S. macrophylla, Fee, {broad-leaved Sticta'); thallus coria- 
ceous imbricated naked even and green above clothed with 
brown fibres beneath, its segments nearly flat dilated sinuated 
obtuse very entire, apothecia reddish-brown with an obtuse 
border, cyphellae urceolate empty whitish. Borr. — Fee, Crypt, 
des Ecorces Off. t. 33. y. 1. — S. macrocarpa, Delise, ms — /. c. (in 
text.') Hook. Bot. Misc. v. \. )). \7 . t. 13. Borrer in E. Bot. 
Suppl. t. 2697. 

On shady rocks, by the Turk Cascade, near Killarney, and on Cromag- 
loun mountain, Ireland, IV. Wilson, Esq. — Mr. Wilson was- so fortunate 
as to discover this fine plant, which is found no where else in Europe, 
while on a botanizing excursion in the South of Ireland, in the summer 
of 1829. Hitherto the species had only been known as an inhabitant 
of the Mauritius, whence I possess numerous specimens, from Mr. Tel- 
fair and Professor Bojer, differing in no essential particular from our 
own, and according to Mr. Fee of South America, where it grows on 
the trunks of the Peruvian Bark Tree. , 

2. S. crocdta, Ach. (yellow veined Sticta'); thallus coriaceous 

sinuated broadly and roundly lobed very dark olive-green pitted 
and reticulated, the reticulations and margins bearing bright 
lemon-colonred powdery spots the under-side clothed with 
pale brown fibres, cyphellm lemon-coloured often wanting, 
“ apothecia brownish-black with an entire border.” — Ack. Syn. 
p. 231. — Lichen crocatus, Linn. — Dicks. Cr. Ease. 2. 22. 

E. Bot. t. 2110. 

Very rare. “ On rocks in the Highlands,” Mr. Dickson . — On trees 
in the Duke of Argyle’s grounds at Inverary, and in Glen Morriston, 
Inverness-shire, Turner, Hooker, Greville . — This very beautiful species 
is, like the preceding, an inhabitant both of Britain and of tropical cli- 
mates, of Bourbon, the W. Indies, and according to Acharius, also of the 
Cape of Good Hope and Spain. 

3. S. aurdta, Ach. (golden-edged Sticta'); thallus coriaceous 
broadly and deeply lobed and sinuated waved and crisped 
smooth above of a reddish-brown colour the margins bearing 
golden-yellow powder, beneath clothed with tawny fibrous 
down with golden-yellow powdery cyphellm, apothecia large 
flat deep-brown with a crenate border bearing golden-yellow 
powder. — Ach. Sy?i. p. 232. — Lichen auratus, E. Bot. t. 2339. — 
Dill. Muse. t. 84./. 12. 

“ Among the remains of Mr. Hudson’s British Herbarium,” (J/r. Lam- 
bert in E. Bot.). This is the only authority for this splendid and usually 
tropical Lichen being considered a native of Britain. I possess specimens, 
indeed, from the South of France. The fruit is so rare that no author 
seems to have been acquainted with it, till I described it from the soli- 
tary individual in that state in my Herbarium, found in South Americti, 

• LICHENES. [Sticta. 

ami given to me by M. de Humboldt. — The broken thallus of this and 
the preceding species, exhibits a yellow powder within. 

4. ptdmondria, {Lungioort Sticta); thallus wide-spreading 
olive-green pale brown when dry pitted and reticulated smooth 
or bearing j)owdery whitish warts on the reticidations and fre- 
quently elongated scattered or tufted gramdes deeply laciniated 
and broadly lobed and sinuated beneath clothed with brownish 
downy fibres the swellings bare, apothecia mostly marginal 
red-bro\vn with a thick border. — S. pulmonacea, Ach. Syn. 
p. 233. — Lichen pulmonarius, Linn. — E. Bot. t. 572. 

On the trunks of trees, in mountainous countries, frequently invest- 
ing them for a considerable extent with its large shaggy-lookingy;’o?2cAj. 

5. S. scrobiculdta, Ach. {pitted Sticta); thallus wide-spread- 
ing greyish-green and glaucous above pitted and bearing grey 
mealy warts especially near the margin the segments rounded 
and lobed irregular beneath downy tawny with bare prominent 
white spots, apothecia scattered small red-brown with a thick 

border. — Ach. Syn. p. 234. — Lichen scrohicidatns, Scop 

E. Bot. t. 497. — L. verrucosus, Huds. — Jacep Coll. v. 4. t. 18. 
f. 2. — Dill. Muse. t. 29. f. 114. 

Trunks of trees in mountainous countries, and upon rocks among 
mosses, in exposed situations. 

6. S. limhdta, Ach. {mealy -bordered Sticta); thallus orbicular 
glaucous-brown with broad and rounded lobes and with grey and 
powdery warts which are very copious at the margin, beneath near- 
ly of the same colour with downy fibres and naked pale cyphellae, 
apothecia brown almost imbedded in the thallus with a slightly 
elevated border. — Ach. Syn. jo. 236. — Lichen limbatus, E. Bot. 
t. 1194.— Dill. Muse. t. 26. f. 100. B,C. 

Bagley wood, Oxfordshire, Dill. — ;N. of England, Wales and Scot- 
land, upon rocks. — The apothecia I have never seen, they are figured in 
L. Bot. from Mr. Turner’s Snowdon specimens. — This species seems 
but little known upon the continent and is certainl}' very nearly allied 
to the following. 

7. fidiginosa, Ach. {sooty Sticta); thallus orbicidar dark 
lurid-grey rough with blackish granulations broadly lobed at 
the margin, beneath greyish-brotvii downy and fibrous with bare 
pale sunken spots or cyphellse, apothecia scattered red-brown 
flat with a thick fringed border, at length convex with the 
border obliterated.^ — Ach. Syn. p>’ 236. — Lichen fidiginosus, 
Dicks. — E. Bot. 1 . 1103. — Dill. Muse. t. 26. f. 100. A. 

On rocks and trees in subalpine countries, frequent. — Its fmctijlcation 
is very rare. I am indebted for excellent specimens in that state to my 
valued friend Dr. Richardson, who gathered them on trees near Dum- 
fries. “ The shielch," he observes, “ are not marginal ; when young, 
they are covered with a thin membranaceous border, which is lacerated 
or rather regularly toothed (bearing a striking resemblance to the /jcH- 
ditim of Phacidium coronalum). In an older state, the disk is swollen 
and the border nearly obliterated.” Richardson in /i«.— This and the 




following species have a remarkably fetid smell, which has been com- 
pared to that of the urine of mice. 

8. S. sylvdtica, Acli. (^pitted wood Sticta^; lliallus spreading 
of a greenish-rusty hue (brown and glossy when dry) some- 
what pitted and often rough with grey scattered granulations, 
deeply divided into lobed and sinuated rather ascending seg- 
ments, beneath tawny-brown downy and fibrous with pale naked 
cyphellse, apothecia “ on marginal segments vertical convex 
dark-brown.” — Ach. Syn. p. 236. — Lichen sylvaticus, Htids . — 
E. Eot. t. 2298. Jacq. Coll. v. 4. t. 12./. 2. — PeWgera sylv., 
Hoffm. PL Lich. v. 1. 4.f. 2. — Dill. 3Iusc. t. 27./. 101, 

Shady woods, about the roots of trees in mountainous countries ; fre- 
quent in Scotland. — The fniclificatton is unknown to me, except from 
the figures of Jacquin and Hoffman ; but Sir Jas. E. Smith confirms 
the correctness of these by the recollection of a fine specimen in that state 
sent by Dr. Burgess to Dr. Hope. The apothecia are terminal, on pe- 
culiar segments of the frond and are very similar to those of a Peltictea, 
to which genus (his Pelligera) tloffmann indeed referred it ; but from 
which it is distinguished by the presence of cyj)hell<e the underside of the 

** Thallus, in a moist state, of a gelatinous substance. 


20. CoLLEMA. Ach. Collema. 

Thallus entirely of one substance, gelatinous, when dry gene- 
rally becoming hard and cartilaginous, polymorphous, granulated, 
foliaceous, lobed, laciniated or branched. Apothecia (scutellce) 
orbicular, sessile (rarely stipitate), bordered, entirely formed of 

the substance of the thallus, the disk sometimes coloured 

Named from xoXXx, gluten ; on account of the gelatinous nature 
of the whole plant. — In ch-ying, these plants are necessarily much 
altered in form, and from this and their variable character there 
is considerable difficulty in the determination of the species. 

* Thallus somewhat crustaceous, uniform. 

1. C. nigrum, Ach. (inhy Collema); crust of a sooty-black 
composed of very minute imbricated lobed and cut leaflets the 
margin bluish, apothecia scattered small black at first bordered 
and concave at length convex. — Ach. Syn.p. 308. — Lichen niger, 
Huds. — E. Eot. t. 1161. 

On shady rocks, especially such as are calcareous. This lichen forms 
ink-like stains upon the rocks on which it grows. 

** Thallus rather broadly lobed over the whole surface, imbricated, 
plaited, spreading, and becoming very turgid when wet. 

2. C. microphyllum, Ach. (small-lobed Collema); lobes of the 
thallus crowded imbricated minute pulpy much divided, ulti- 
mate segments roundish crenulate somewhat convex, apothecia 

LICHENES. [Collema. 

sessile with a raised entire border at lengtli flat. — Ach. Lich. 
Univ. p. G30. Syn. p. 310. 

On Elm bark, near Buiy, Suffolk, Rev. G. R. Leallies ; and sent by 
Mr. D. Turner to Acharius, who has also received it from Sweden, 
France and Switzerland. — “The crust of this CoZ/cwa is considerably 
like the supposed thallus of the very anomalous Lichen spongiosus, E. 
Bat. t. 1374. It has not the fibrous black substratum of Lecidea micro- 
phylla, t. 2128, to which Acharius compares it, and to some states of 
which, it has, in other respects, much resemblance. The species is more 
likely to be confounded with C.fragrans, E. Bat. t. 1912, but the thallus 
of that lichen is less imbricated, with larger less divided lobes, the edges 
of which are less notched or crenated, and somewhat raised, and the 
surface has not the powdered or granulated appearance when dry.” 

3. C. cheileum, Ach. {lipped Collemei); thallus suborhicular 
imbricated lobes thick all minute rounded cremilated ascending, 
apothecia nearly plane aggregated of the same colour as the 
thallus, the border crenulated subevanescent. Ach. Srpi.p. 310. 
Hook. FI. Scot. P. II. t. 71. — lichen marginahis, Hernh. in 
Schrad. Journ. 1799, l.p. 6. t. 1./. 2. cc. Dicks. Cr. Fasc. 4.p. 25. 

Roots of trees, in shady subalpine woods, Scotland, Air. Dickson. 

4. (i.frdgrans, Ach. {fragrant Collema); thallus suborbicii- 
lar olive-black its lobes ascending crowded ’•ounded thick- 
edged crenate smooth, apothecia tawmy with a thick olive bor- 
der. Sm. — Ach. Syn. p.QW. — Lichen fragra7is, E. Dot. t. 1912. 

On trunks of Elm and Ash in Kent, Surrey and Sussex, Air. Borrer. 

This plant “ is remarkable when moistened for its very sweet aromatic 
scent, not unlike the spiritus volatilis aromaticus of the apothecaries, 
though of course much fainter,” (5/);.) ; but Mr. Borrer observes that 
this was probably accidental, for he finds no odour except what is often 
perceptible in other pulpy CoUemata, especially in specimens that have 
been dried and subsequently moistened. 

5. C. cristdtum, Ach. {crested Collema); thallus thick olive- 
black suborbicular very compact cut into numerous plaited 
notched nearly erect lobes those of the circumference depressed 
larger crenulated obtuse, apothecia scattered red-brown slightly 
concave with an elevated irregular border . — Lichen cristatus, 

Huds Linn. — Jacq. Coll. v. 3. p. 139. t. 12. f. 1. — L. crispus, 

E. Bot. t. 834. — L. pulposus, Bernh. in Schrad. Jotirm. Bot. 
1799, l.p. 7. t. \.f. 1. X . — Collema pulposum, Ach. Syn. p. 311. 

On the ground, among rocks and on mosses, in various places. — I 
have taken advantage, in adducing the .synonyms of this plant, of Mr. 
Borrer’s remarks given here under C. crispum, our No. 24. 

6. C. limdsum, Ach. {mud Collema); lobes of the thallus 
scattered appressed thick and pulpy flattish slightly crenuhate 
almost evanescent in drying, apothecia immersed the border at 
length somewhat prominent nearly entire. Borr. — Ach. Sqn. 
p. 309. Borr. in E. Bot. Suppl. t. 2704./. 1. — Lichen limosus, 
Ach. Prodr. {excl. syn. Hoffm.) 

Perhaps common on wet clayey soils ; Hurst-pierpoint, Sussex, Air. 




Borrer. — “ The near affinity of this little Lichen with the L. crispus of 
E. Bot. is obvious, and it may possibly be but a variety; yet the scat- 
tered mode of growth and the less tenacious substance of the thallns 
which almost disappears in drying, seem to indicate a specific difference.” 

7. C. turgidum, Acli. (turgid Collema); tlialliis irregularly 
spreading depressed slightly lobed and snbimbricated, the lobes 
elevated thick verruciform rugged granulated, apotbecia sessile 
urceolate dull-brown, the border somewhat indexed and tumid 
externally rough wdtb gi-annlations. Ach. Syn. p. 313, 

On stones, among mosses, England (Ach.). — Acharius appears to have 
received this plant from England, but be has not stated upon whose 
authority it is a native, and I am totally unacquainted with the species. 

8. C. tenax, Ach. ? (tenacious Collemai); thallus rather glau- 
cous fleshy imbricated the lobes obtuse somewhat palmate, apo- 
tbecia depressed dilated reddish, Ach. Syn. p. 314. — Lichen 
tenax, E. Bot. t. 2349. (not Sivurtz, nor Bernhardi.^ 

Alpine situations, among mosses, N. Wales, Rev. H. Davies. — See re- 
marks under the next species. 

9. C. cexcmoides, Borr. (horned Collema^; lobes of the thallus 
imbricated ascending pulpy dilated upwards proliferous termin- 
ated with crowded erect elongated granules overtopping the 
flattisb apotbecia. Borr. in E. Bot. Suppl. t. 2704. yi 2. — 
Collema palmatum, u. Ach. Syn. p. 319? 

On chalky soil of tlie Sussex Downs, Mr. Borrer. Box-Grove, near 
Chichester, Mr. R. J. T. Thomas, Hexham, Essex, Mr. E. Forster. — 
“C. ceranoides is nearly allied to C. cristatum, with the larger wrs. of 
which it is, in all probability, often confounded ; but it is distinguishable 
by the clustered fastigiate granules, or ramuli, which compose its sur- 
face. Acharius seems to have taken it for Lichen palmatns of Huds. ; 
but, whatever this one plant may have been, that figured by Dill. t. 19 . 
f. 30 , is proved, by the specimen preserved in his herbarium, to be the 
L. palmatiis of E. Bot. t. 1635 , with which the description in the Hist. 
Muse, likewise accords. To this the |3. of Ach. (C. cornicidatuin 
Hoffm.), probably belongs. It is possible that the species before us 
m,ay be the L. tenax, E. Bot. t. 2.349, the original specimen of which 
has been sought in vain in the Smithian collection. We have seen 
neither authentic specimens of the Ij. tenax of Swartz, nor Acharius’ 
figure in the Stockholm Transactions, but the L. tenax of Bernhardi’s 
paper in Schrader’s Journ., which is regarded as the same with Swartz’s, 
must necessarily, from the figure, be a different lichen from ours.” Borr. 

10. C. plicdtile, Ach. (plaited Collema'); thallus orbicular 
imbricated all the lobes thick rounded plaited ascending entire, 

apotbecia reddish-brown concave crowded Ach. .Syn. p. 314. 

E. Bot. t. 2-348. — Licit, plicatilis, Ach. in Act. Holm. v. 16. 
p. IL t. l.f. 2. 

On wet or inundated rocks, in alpine situations. 

11. C. Jluvidtile, Ach. (River Collemct); thallus thick imbri- 
cated greenish-black, its segments obovate or linear convex pro- 
liferous channelled beneath, apotbecia globose concave brow n, 


210 1,ICHENES. [Collema. 

Sm, — Ach. Syn. ]>. 314. — Lichen flaviatilis, Hiids. — E. Eot. 
2039.— Z)<7h Tlte. 19./: 28. 

On calcareous rocks, in the stream near its source, at Malham Cove, 
Yorkshire. Snowdon, Dillcmus. 

J2. C. midtipartitum, Sm. (niuny -branched Collema^; tliallus 
radiating fleshy, segments repeatedly forked fan-shaped crenate 
(mnvex above concave beneath, apothecia prominent at length 
blackish and flat. E. Eot. t. 2582. 

On walls and rocks, Killarney, Ireland, abundant, (Sir T, Gage. West- 
moreland, Sir J. Fj. Smith. 

13. C. margindle, {marginal CoIJenui); thallus imbricated 
olive-black, its lobes linear parallel zigzag channelled crisped 
crenate branched smooth, apothecia marginal dark reddish- 
brown with an entire border. — Lichen niarginalis, Huds . — 
E. Eot. t. 1924'.— Co/Zcwta meloenum, j3. Ach. Syn. p. 316. — 
Dill. Muse. t. 19. y. 25. 

On calcareous stones, in moist places, often among mosses. 

14. C. fasciculdre, Ach. {clustered Collemci); thallus sub- 
orbicular the lobes dilated upwards plaited Avaved inciso-cre- 
nate, apothecia marginal shortly stalked clustered turbinate 
reddish. Sm.—Ach. Syn. p.2,\l .—Lichen fascicularis, Linn.— 
E. Eot. t. Wm.—Diil. Muse. t. 19./. 27. 

On the mossy trunks of trees : frequent iii Scotland. -The lobes of 
the thallus are often obliterated by the exceedingly numerous ajiotkecia. 

15. Ci.1 corrugdtum, Ach. {corrugated Collema^; gelatinous 
thick black-green with elevated intestiniform convolutions. 
Dicks.— Ach. Syn. p. 318.— Lichen corrugatus, Dicks. Cr. 

Ease. 4. jo. 26. — Dill. 3Iusc. t. 19./ 19. 

On rocks near the sea, Sussex, Eillenius.^ On rocks and stones, 
Dickson. — Nothing seems to be known of this by any living Botanist. 
It is probably a marine production and far removed fiom any Lichen. 

16. C. cretdeeurn, Ach. {Chalk Collema'); thallus minute 
lobed simple stellated dark-olive bearing a central solitaiy ele- 
vated brownish flesh-coloured apotheciura Avith a paler elevated 
entire border. Sm.—Ach. Syn.p. 328.— Lich. cretaceus, E. Eot. 
t 738 

’ Common on chalk and on the white coating of flint-stones, S'uith.— 
This appears to be a young state of some other species, probably ot C. 

*** Thallus somewhat foliaceous, thin, lobed principally in the 


17. C. prdmdtum, {palmated Collema); thallus tufted nearly 
erect greenish-brown its segments thin linear manydobed some- 
Avhat palmate revolute, ajiothecia scattered reddish. *5 ot.— 
Lichen palmatus, Huds.-E. Eot. t. 1635.— Co/W P^lmalimi 
13. {not cc.) Ach. Syn.p. 319.— C. cormculatum, Hofim.—Ddl. 

3Iusc. t. 19./ 30. , , . V . 

Upon the ground, among mosses. Sandy soil by the sea, neai xai- 

mouth, abundant, Mr. D. Turner. 




18. C. salurninum, Acli. (^saturnine Colknut); tlialliis foliace- 
ous submembranaceous dark-greenish lead-coloured glaucous 
and downy beneath, its lobes rounded wavy, apothecia scattered 

reddish-brown with a thin entire border Ach. Syn. p. 320. — 

Lichen saturnimis, Sm. in Linn. Tr. v. p. 84. Dicks. Cr. 
Fasc. 2.p.2\.t. 6.f. 8. E. Bot. t. 1980. 

Trunks of trees, in mountainous districts ; not unfrequent in Scot- 
land. — Fructification very scarce. 

19. C. Bitrgessii, Ach. (Z)r. Burgess' Collemcfi); thallus foli- 
aceons somewhat imbricated glaucous greenish-brown much 
lobed sinuated curled in tlie centre as well as in the circumfer- 
ence downy and somewhat spongy beneath, apothecia copious 
depressed flattish brown, their border crisped and foliaceous. — 
Ach. Syn.p. 320. — Liclmi Burgessii, Light/. Scot.p. 827. t. 26. 
E. But. t. 300. 

On trees in Scotland, not unfrequent, especially near water ; and in 
the West Highlands. Cardiganshire, Sir ,J. F. Smith. 

20. C. timceforme, Ach. (sooty Collemd); thallus foliaceous 
membranaceous somewhat wrinkled black-green \vith scat- 
tered fuliginous powder, the lobes oblong deeply cut sinuato- 
laciniated obtuse flexuose and crisped subcrenate, tbe apothecia 
scattered few flattish brown Avith an entire border. Ach. Syn. 
p. 322. Which, FI. of North, and Dvrh. p. 93. — Lichen tuncefor- 
mis, Ach. in Nov. Act. Holm. v. 16. y;. 17. t. \.f. 6. — Dicks. Cr. 
Fasc. 4. p. 25. 

Rocks, near ^Vigmere, Hereford, Mr. Dickson. Limestone rocks, 
about Egleston and Middleton in Teesdale, Durham, Rev. J. Harri- 
man. Near WyclilFin the same county, Mr. Winch. — 1 am unacquainted 
with this species. 

21. C. nigrescens, Ach. (blackish or Bat's-wing Collemaf 

thallus foliaceous membranaceous somewhat solitary orbicidar 
rugged and broadly lobed dark olive-green, apothecia central 
crowded at length convex reddish-brown elevated Avith an en- 
tire border. — Ach. Syn. p. 321. — Lichen nigrescens, Huds. 

E. Bot. t. 345. — L. Vespertilio, Light/. — Dill. Muse. t. 19./. 20. 

Trunks of trees in damp woods, and shady rocks. 

22. C. fiaccidum, Ach. (flaccid Collema); thallus foliaceous 
membranaceous smooth dark blackish -green its lobes ascending 
rounded plaited entire, apothecia scattered reddish flattish AA'ith 
an entire border. — Ach. Syn. /». 322 — Lichen flaccidus, Ach. 
Prodr. — E. Bot. t. 1653. — L. rupestris, Linn. fil. — L. nigres- 
cens, Ehrh. Crypt. 

Trees and rocks, chiefly in hilly or mountainous countries. 

23. C. gramddtum, (granulated Collema); thallus foliaceous 

membranaceous granulated on both sides of a blackish-olive 
colour Avith tufted cottony radicles beneath, its lobes crowded 
rounded plaited crisped and cut, apothecia scattered dark 
broAA'n. — Lichen granulatus, Huds. — E. Bot. t. 1757 Collema 


21 ‘2 


fiirvum, Ach. Syn. p. 323. — Lichen furvus, Ach. in Nov, Act, 
Holm, V, ‘■2^, p, 164. t, 10./. 2,— Dill, Muse, t, 19./. 24? 

On the ground, Sussex, Kirkby Lonsdale, &c. Gravel walks, Oxford? 
Dillenius. — “ Distinguished from the following by its larger lobes, more 
pulpy when wet and sprinkled on both surfaces with granules which do 
not become leafy, and by the smaller almost stalked scuteltce with an 
entire elevated border.” Borr. 

24. C. crispum, Borr. (curled Collema); lobes of the thallus 
thinnisli much divided their segments imbricated crowded 
rounded concave with entire or denticulate raised edges, apo- 
thecia sessile the border crenulate at length leafy. — Dorr, in 
E, Dot, Suppl, t, 27 16./ 1. — Lichen crispus, Linn, — Dill, Muse, 
t. 19./. 23. 

Not uncommon on stones and walls, sometimes on the ground- — 
“ This Lichen only is preserved in the Dillenian Herb., as the plant fig. 
in the Hist. 'AIusc. ; it must therefore be regarded as the L. crispus of 
Huds. and Linn., and ought to retain the name. It is possible that C. 
crispum, a. Ach. Syn. p. 311, may belong to this species: but it is more 
probable that it stood better, with all the vars-, where he had placed it 
in the Lich. Univ., under C. pulposum (L. pti/pos 2 is, Bernh.), which is 
the L. crispus, E. Bot. t. 83-1. The latter is excellently described by 
Wulfen, (in Jacquin's Collect, v. 3. p. 139. t. 12-/ 1.) as the L. cj-ista- 
tus, Linn., a species adopted, as L- crispus was, from Huds. and Dill. 
In this instance, the Dillenian Herbarium fails usj for under the No. 
(t. 19./. 26) to which Hudson refers as his L. cristatus, are preserved 
one specimen of the larger var. of C. pulposum, Ach. (usually regarded 
as L. cristatus), others of the plant now before us, and one or two of 
our C. ceranoides. The figs, and descr. in the Hist. Muse, do not decide 
the question. We have not examined the specimens in the Herbaria 
of Sherard and Buddie. At present, therefore, we would call the 
species cristatum instead of pulposum ; since it cannot be doubted that 
the larger var. at least, which grows on the ground and has more erect 
and more laciniated lobes, was contemplated by Hudson and the places 
of growth which he mentions, lead to the presumption that he included 
the smaller and more common form also. From all the states of that 
very variable Lichen, our C. crispum is readily and satisfactorily distin- 
guished by its thinner and more leaf-like lobes.” Borr. 

25. fl. dermatinum, Acli. (shhi7iy Collema); lobes of the tlial- 
lus between gelatinous aud coriaceous rounded with ascending 
siuuated edges, upper surface sprinkled with granules, apothe- 
cia somewhat stalked, the border narrow entire slightly raised. 

— Ach, Lich. Univ. />. 648, Syn. p. 322 Dill, Muse, t. 19. 

/ 22 . 

On calcareous rocks; in fruit, N. Wales, Mr. Griffith: barren, in 
Leigh Wood near Bristol, Mr. Forster . — “ Thallus about as thick as in 
C. crispum, its lobes larger and less divided ; apothecia much like those 
of C. gramdatum, E. Bot. t. 1757 and C. flaccidum, t. 1653; but the 
thallus is much less thin and membranous than in the latter, the lobes 
less entire and the gramdes not so numerous nor so minute; while the 
lobes are less concave than in C. gramdatum and the granules are con- 
fined to the upper surface, and the tufted cottony radicles are wanting. 
Judging from the specimen sent by Acharius to the Linn. Society, the 
C. thysanceum of that author is but a var. of C. dermatinum." Borr. 




26. C. sinudtum, (siniialed Collemci); thallus foliaceous mem- 
branaceous imbricated dark glaucous-green, the lobes crowded 
small rounded incised nearly entire suberect plaited, apothecia 
scattered sessile brownish, the border entire. — Lichen sinuatus, 

Huds. — E. Bot. 1. 11'2 Collema Scotmum, ^.Ach. Syn.j). 374. 

—Dill. Muse. t. 19./. 33. 

On rocks and walls and among mosses. Ai>pin, Scotland, Capt. 

27. C. tremelloides, Acli. (^Nostoc-like Collema^; tha,llus folia- 
ceous membranaceous thin smooth on both sides subdiaphanous 
leaden-green, entirely lead-coloured and opaque when dry, the 
lobes asceiuling’ rounded somewhat cut, apothecia scatteied 
rather elevated flat reddish with a smooth pale border. — Ach. 
Syn. p. 32.5. — Lichen tremelloides, Linn. — E. Bot, t. 1981. 

L. cochleatus, Dichs. Cr. Ease. 1. p. 13. t. 2./. 9. 

Upon rocks, among mosses in mountainous countries, especially (in 
Scotland) near the sea.— Dark-coloured and pellucid as are the fronds 
of this Lichen when fresh and moist, they are singularly opaque and pale 
leaden-coloured when dry. 

28. C. Idceriim.) Ach. (jagged Collemci); thallus foliaceous 
membranaceous subdiaphanous ascendant bluish-brown the lobes 
dilated finely jagged and fringed, apothecia scattered minute 
concave red with a thick border. — Ach. Syn. p. 327. — Lichen 
lacerus, Ach. Prodr.— L, lacer, E. Bot. t. 1982 — L. trerneU 
loides, Huds . — Tremella lichenoides, Linn. 

Upon walls and rocks among mosses, in various situations. 

Thallus cut into numerous slender branches. 

29. C. subtile, Ach. (fine-spun Collema); thallus blackish-green 
substellated cut into numerous minute very narrow linear im- 
bricated and appressed bluntish lacinise, apothecia central nearly 
plane brownish with a narrow entire border. — Ach. Syn. p. 328. 
— Lichen subtilis, Schrad — Bernh. in Schrad. Journ. v. \. p. 5. 
t. 2./. 6. Dicks. Cr. Ease. A. p. 28. E. Bot. t. 1008. 

On moist earth, especially of a clayey nature. 

30. C. tenuissimum, Ach. (fine-cut Collema); thallus imbri- 
cated cut into numerous minute linear multifid unequal granu- 
lated ratli6r acute very crowded segments of a greenish-black 
colour, apotliecia scattered nearly flat reddish-brown with a 

. thick entire border. — Ach. Syn. p. 328. — Lichen tenuissimus, 
Dicks. Cr. Ease. 1. r. 2./ 8. E. Bot. t. 1427. 

On dry sandy banks, among mosses and short grass. 

31. C. Schraderi, Ach. (Schraderian Collema); thallus caes- 
pitose erect branched the branches linear forked compressed 
wrinkled here and there constricted obtuse, apothecia lateral 
reddish with a pale border. — Ach. Syn. p. 328. E. Bot. t. 2284. 
— Lichen Schraderi, Bernh. in Schrad. Journ. 1799. v. 1. p.22. 
t. 2./. 5. 

On the ground, in clayey soil, among mosses, on rocks and on walls.. 

LICHENES. {Pdtidea. 

32. C. muscicola, Ach. (^Moss Collemti^; tliallus tufted suf- 

fruticulose very minute olive-black pulviiiate, branches cylin- 
diical divided subfastigiiite rather obtuse wavy and uneven, 
apothecia nearly terminal horizontal flattish brown with an 
entile border. — Ach. Si/n, p, 328. — Lichen muscicola, Ach. 
Prodr.~Ach. in Nov. Act. Holm. 1795. 12. t. l.f. 3. Dicks. 

Cr. Fasc. 2. p. 23. t. Q.f. 9. E. Dot. t. 2264. 

On rocks, among mosses, in mountainous countries. 

33. C. spongiosum, Ach. {spongy Collema); thallus dull- 
g'leen, the segments clustered much branched granulated cylin- 
drical obtuse, apothecia scattered concave brown externally 

spongy and pale with a thin upright border. Sm Ach. Sign. 

p. 329. — Lichen spongiosus, E. Bot. t. 1374. 

Upon the ground, among mosses, in subalpine countries, not very 
uncommon.— The apothecia are peculiarly large and peziza-like, and 
they often appear to be sunk in the comparatively obscure thallus of this 
curious Lichen. 

Fam. XI. Peltigere^. 

21. SoLORiNA. Ach. Soloriiia. 

Thallus foliaceous, coriaceous, lobed, free beneath, having 
fibrous or woolly veins. Apothecia {peltad) adnate, sometimes 

immersed, orbicular (distant from the margin), not bordered. 

Name ; coXo;, a disk or orb and a shield ; from the orbicular 
shield-like fructifications. — A genus which scarcely diflfers from 
Peltidea, except in the situation of the apothecia. 

1. crocea, AA\. {saffron Solorinci); thallus green (brown 
when diy) lobed veiny beneath and of a fine orange-saffron 
colour, apothecia red-brown somewhat tumid nearly even with 
the thallus. Ach. Syn. p. 8 — Lichen croceus, Linn. — Jacq. 
Coll. V. 4. t. 11./. 2, 3. E. Bot. t. A^%.—Dill. Blusc. t. 30. 
/• 1 20* 

Summits of the Highland mountains, upon the ground, among rocks. 

2. S. saccata, Ach. {Socket Solorma'); thallus green (grev 
when dry) lobed whitish and fibrous beneath, apothecia dark- 
brown in deep pits in tbe thallus nearly plane. — Ach. Syn. p. 8. 
—Lichen saccatus, Linn — E. Bot. t.' 22Q.— .Dill Muse. t. 30. 

f 121. 

Upon the ground in the clefts of rocks, in shady situations, in moun- 
tainous districts. 

22. Peltidea. Ach. Peltidea. 

Thallus foliaceous, coriaceous or membranaceous, spreading, 
lobed, with woolly veins beneath, the lobules fertile. Apothe- 
cia {peltcE) suborbicular, adnate on the upper side of the lobules 
or proper portions of tlie thallus and having a border formed of 
the thallus.— Named from j^elta, a shield, wliich the apothecia 




1. P.venoso, Ach. (black-veined Peltidea); tliallus ascendant 
small green and smooth above (grey when dry) irregularly 
lobed, beneath white downy with dark prominent reticulated 
veins, apothecia marginal plane dark red-brown orbicular. 
Ach. Syn. p. 237 . — Lichen vetiosus, Linn. — E. Bot. t. b«7. 

Dill. 3Iusc. t. 28. y. 109. 

On the earth among rocks, in alpine districts. 

2. P. scntdta, Ach. (jarget-fruited Peltidea); thallus ash- 
coloured white and veiny beneath the lobes oblong rounded 
sinuated and cut powdery, fertile ones very short, apothecia 
(small) orbicular ascending dark-brown the border neiu'ly en- 

tii-e. Ach. Syn. p. 237 . — Lichen scutatus, Dicks. Gr . Lasc. 3. 

t. 18. (excl. the synonym.) E. Bot. t. 1834. 

On old trees, among mosses, Inverary. Ardtur, Cay t. Carmichael. 
Abundant in woods near llae hills, Sir (V. Jardine and Dr. GreviUe. 
Westmoreland, SirJ. E. Smith. 

3. P. horizontdlis, Ach. {brown horizontal Peltidea); thallus 
glaucous brownish-green lobed crenate and shining;, beneath 
pale with numerous brown branching reticulated veins, fertile 
lobes short, apothecia plane horizontal transversely oblong led- 
brown with a nearly entire border — Ach. Syn. p. 238 . — Lichen 

horizontalis, Linn. — E. Bot. t. 888. 

Moist shady rocks and about the roots of trees, in mountainous 


4. Y.aphth'osa, Ach. {Thrush Peltidea); thallus light-green 
smooth sprinkled with brown warts and having broad rounded 
lobes the fertile ones contracted their sides rellexed, apothecia 
large ascending red-brown with a jagged hov&cv.— Ach. Syn. 

p. 238. Lichen aphthosus, Linn — E. Bot. t. 1119. — Dill. Muse. 

t. 28./. 106. 

Moist shady alpine rocks, among moss and generally near water.— 
This is the finest British species of the Genus : it derives its name from 
a circumstance related by Linmeus, that the Swedish peasants boil it m 
milk as a cure for the aphthae, or thrush, in childien. 

5. P. canina, Ach. {canine Peltidea); thallus thick glaucous- 
grey greenish when moist somewhat furrowed with rounded 
lobes fertile ones with the sides reflexed, beneath white with 
brownish branching veins and fibres, apothecia vertical revolute 
reddish-browm with a subcremilated border. — Ach. Syn. p. 239. 

Lichen caninus, Linn. — E. Bot. t. 2229. Woodv. Med. Bot. 

Suppl. t. ^12,.— Dill. Muse. t. 27. f. 102. 

Upon the ground, among moss, on roofs of houses, trees, &c. tery 
common. — Formerly employed, at the suggestion of Dr. Mead, as a cure 
for the bite of a mad-dog, whence the specific name. 

6. P. spuria, Ach. Meth. {imperfectly-veined Peltidea); thallus 
ash-coloured and even above wbitish smooth with indistinct 
pale veins beneath, apothecia ascending roundish dark reddish- 



[ Nephroma. 

brown.^ Sm. — Ach. Meth. p. 283. t. 2. f. 2. — Lichen spurius, 
Ach. Frodr. — E. Bot. t. 1542. 

Hedge-banks in Sussex and Suffolk. — This and the two following 
species 1 am not at all times able to distinguish from P. canina. The 
piesent, established by Acharius, appears to me as distinct as an)'', yet 
in his Synopsis, the same author has referred it to the common state of 
P’ canina. — It forms small ascendant fronds, almost every lobe of which 
is fertile ; apothecia rather large. 

7. P. rufescens, Ach. Metlt. {dark-coloured Ground Peltidea); 

thallus rigid concave even dark reddish-brown pale dowTiy with 
obsolete veins beneath, the lobes rounded with numerous fruit- 
beaiing processes, apothecia vertical roundish dark-brown with 
a j)ale border. Sm. — Lichen rufescens, Neck. 3Iusc. — E. Bot. 
t. 2300. — L. caninus, j3. rufescens, Huds. — Lightf. — Peltidea 
canina, (3. crispa, Ach. Sgn. p. 239 Bill. Muse. t. 21. f. 103. 

On banks, among grass and mosses, frequent. — This again seems to 
be a Liichen, resj)ecting which the great Acharius has changed his opinion; 
which ought to teach us caution, at least, in adopting it as a species, 
for except in hue, it seems scarcely different from the preceding. 

8. P . pohjddctyla, Ach. {many-fingered Peltidea'); thallus glau- 

cous-green naked glabrous with brown reticulated veins beneath, 
fertile lobules very numerous and crowded and as well as the 
brown tenninal apothecia cucullato-revolute. — Ach. 248. 

Hook. El. Scot. P. II. p. 61. — Peltigera polydactyla, Ilofim. FI. 
Germ — Lichen polydactylus, Jacq. Coll. v. 4. t. 14./. 2. a. b. — 
Lichen caninus, y. Lightf— Dill. Muse. t. 28./. 107, 108. 

On the ground, on grassy or mossy banks and on low walls, frequent. 

This was well distinguished by Dillenius and Lightfoot, as also by 
Acharius ; but whether it ought to constitute a species, is a point I am 
unable to determine. 

23. Nephroma. Ach. Nephroma. 

Thallus foliaceous, coriaceous or membranaceous, spreading, 
lobed, naked or hairy beneath, the lohules fertile. Apothecia 
{peltee) orbicular, reniform, adnate on the underside of the lobules 
or proper portions of the thallus and having a border formed of 
the thallus. — Named from v«<pgo 5 , a kidney and (or rather 
ofjjcg), like, from the kidney-shaped apothecia. — This differs from 
Peltidea only in the situation of the aqwthecia. 

1. N. resupindta, Ach. {resupinate Nejdironm); thallus grey- 
ish-brown smooth lobed and imbricated, fertile lobules very 
short erect pale pubescent and granulated beneath, apothecia 
large numerous red-bi’own with an uneven border. — Ach. Syn. 
p. 241. — Lichen resupinatus, Linn. — E. Bot. t. 305. — Dill. 3Iusc. 
t. 28./. 105. 

Trees and mossy rocks, chiefly in subalpine districts. 

2. N. qmrilis, Ach. {Chocolate Nephroma); thallus somewhat 
coriaceous lobed jagged crenate and wavy greenish or pur- 




plisli-brown besprinkled with superficial or marginal dark 
powdery warts, apothecia red-brown broader than long on short 
proper lobules. — Ach. Syn. p. 242 — Lichen parilis, Ach. Prodr. 
— E. Bot. t. 2360. 

In an old stone-quarry, in Shropshire, Rev. E. Williams, {E. Bot.). 

I am not aware that any British Botanist has met with this Lichen, ex- 
cept Mr. Williams : nor was he so fortunate as to detect its fructification, 
which Achariiis describes from Swedish specimens. Sir J. E. Smith 
found it in Switzerland, but always barren. 

b. Attachment of the more or less orbicular thallus by the centre. 

Fam. XII. Umbilicarie^e. 

24. Gyrophora. Ach. Gyropbora. 

Thallus foliaceous, coriaceous or membranaceous, fixed by the 
centre, peltate. Apothecia (f ricce or gyromata) orbicular, sub- 
scutellif'orm, sessile and adnate, covered by a black membrane, 
the disk mai’ked with concentric circles or plicee, with a border of 
its own substance. — Name ; yv^og, a circle and <po^og, fertile, from 
the peculiar nature of the apothecia. — Various species of this 
Genus (and they are found in cold rocky situations, especially 
on granite, in almost all parts of the world) constitute the Tripe 
de roche of the Canadians and with G. proboscidea, G. vellea, 
and a few other American ones, Capt. Sir J. Franklin and his 
brave companions were supported in Arctic America, during a 
season of want such as, happily, few human beings have been 
subjected to. They are, however, bitter and nauseous, and can 
only be employed in the total absence of every other salutary 

1. G . polyphylla, (inemy-leaved Gyrophora?); thallus naked and 
smooth on both sides dark olive-brown shining above dull-black 
beneath variously lobed at the margin simple or many-leaved, 
apothecia convex rough and plaited. — Lichen polyphyllus, Linn. 

E. Bot. t. 1282. — Umbilicaria polyphylla, Schrad — HoJfm.Pl. 

Licit, t. 59. f. 2. — Gyrophora glabra, Ach. Syn. p. 63. — Lichen 
glaber, Ach. Aleth . — Umbilicaria cenea, x. Schcer. Licit. Helv. 
Spied, p. 90. Licit. Exsicc. n. 149. — Dill. Muse. t. 30. f. 129. 

Rocks in mountainous countries, frequent. 

2. G. proboscidea, Ach. (^Proboscis Gyrophora); thallus sim- 
ple membranaceous rugose with elevated reticulations of a 
smoky-brow'n colour lobed and erose at the margin beneath 
subfibrillose and paler, apothecia rather convex variously plait- 
ed. — Ach. Syn. p. 64. E. Bot. t. 2484. — Lichen proboscideus, 
Ach. Prodr. p. 147. — L. deustus, Lightf. — Umbilicaria polymor- 
pha, |8. Schcer. Licit. Helv. Spied, p. 88, Lick. E.tsicc. n. 148. — 
Umbilicaria congesta, Hoffrtt. PI. Licit, t. 43. f. 4 — 7. — (3. arctica; 
thicker and more rigid, more obtusely corrugated and sprinkled 




with warts. Ach. Syn.— G. arctica, Ach.Meth.p. 106. t. 2./. 6. 
E. Bot. t. 2485. — Umbilicaria pohjmorpha, «. F. SchcBr. Lick. 
Hdv. Spicil. p. 88. 

Mountain-rocks; abundant in the Highlands of Scotland. 

3. G. deusta, Acli. (Imrnt Gyrophorti); thallus membranace- 
ous roundly lobed brown upper-side more or less granulated, 
under-side cellular and reticulated smooth and naked, apotbecia 
with circular plaits at length convex. Sni. — Ach. Syn. p. 66. — 
E. Bot, t. 2483 — Lichen deustus, Linn . — Umbilicaria Jloccidosa, 
Hoffm. PI. Lich. t. 68. f. 1 — 4 . — Lichen Jlocculosus, Widf, in 
Jacq. Coll. V. 3. p. 98. t. 1. f. 3. — Umbilicaria miea, y. Schcer. 
Lich. Helv. Spicil. p. 91, Lich. Exsicc.n. 152. 

Rocks in the Highland mountains. — This appears to me, both from 
my own specimens and from the figure in E. Bot., to be too nearly 
allied to G. proboscidea. 

4. G. erdsa, Ach. (^corroded Gyrophord); thallus simple mem- 
branaceous rugged almost black irregularly lobed erose and 
perforated at the circumference the segments convex, beneath 
dark -grey somewhat granulated and partially shaggy, apotbecia 
convex variously plaited. — Ach. Syn. p. 65. — E. Bot. t. 2066. 
— Seiner. Lich, Helv. Spicil. p. 93, Lich. Exsicc. n. 153. — Um- 
bilicaria erosa, Hoffm. PI. Lich. v. 3. t. 70 . — Lichen erosus, Ach. 
Prodr. — X. torrefactus, Lightf. 

Frequent in rocky mountainous situations in the north of England, 
Wales and Scotland. 

5. G. cylindrica, Ach. (^fringed Gyrophoraf; thallus coriace- 
ous, simple or many-leaved slightly wrinkled dark bluish or 
greenish-grey variously lobed and plaited coarsely ciliated at 
the margin with black branched wiry bristles, beneath smooth 
pale with scattered branching fibres, apotbecia elevated nearly 

plane variously plaited. — Ach. Syn. p. 65 Lichen cylindricus, 

Linn. Amcen. Acad. — Lichen proboscideus, Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1617, 
(^according to Smitli) — Umbilicaria crinita, Hoffm. PI. Lich. 
t. 44. — Umbilicaria polymorpha, a. Seiner. Lich. Helv. Spicil. 
p. 87 . — Lichen crinitiis, Lightf. — Bill. 3Iusc. t. 29. f. 116. 

Abundant on mountain rocks. — This has more coriaceous fronds than 
any of the preceding, of a blue-grey colour, especially when dry, and is 
remarkable for the coarse black fringe with which its lobes are more 
or less bordered. The name of this species and of G. probosciden have 
been most unha|)pily chosen. The latter appellation might with some 
propriety have been applied to the present species (as indeed it does 
appear to have been, according to Smith); for the bristles of the margin 
have a considerable resemblance (when magnified) to the proboscis, not 
of the Elephant, but of the Elephant Beetle {Scarabceus Klephns or S. 
Hercules). It is used in Iceland occasionally as food and more frequently 
for dyeing woollen cloth of a brownish-green colour. 

6. G. mnrina, Ach. (mouse-skin Gyropliora); frond mombrau- 
ous its margin plaited wavy and somewhat lobed minutely 




granulated on both sides glaucous-grey above, blackish-brown 
beneath, tubercles scattered somewhat bordered much convo- 
luted. Ach. Meth. p. 110. E. Bot. t. 2486 — Lichen murinus, 
Ach. Prodr. p. 143. — L. griseas, Ach. in Act. Holm. — Umhili- 
caria depressa, (3. A. Schccr. Lich. Helv. Sjncil. p. 82. 

“ Communicated by Mr. JD. Turner to Sir J. E. Smith, but the spe- 
cimens are exotic. We know not its precise place of growth in Britain, 
though we have it from Sweden, Switzerland and France. — A very distinct 
species, 1 — 2 inches broad, black, without fibres beneath, finely granulated 
with pale cartilaginous warts like shagreen; browner towards the edge. 
Upjier-side grey, \ery minutely cracked, without veins or plaits ; white 
and mealy in the middle. Tubercles rare, minute, seldom perfectly 
plaited.” It would be very desirable to ascertain positively whether this 
plant has a right to a place in the British Flora. Our specimens from 
France are quite different from any British species. 

7. G. pellita, Ach. (^jleecy Gyrophora); thallus simple or 
many-leaved coriaceous sinuato-lobate dark greyish coppery- 
green (brown when dry) very smooth, beneath at the margin 
coal-black with dense pulvinate fibres, apothecia sessile at 
length somew'hat globose most copiously and intricately plait- 
ed. — Ach. Syn. p. 67. — lAchen peUilus, Ach. Prodr. — E. Bot. 
t. 931. — L. velleus, Huds. — L. polyrhizus, Light f . — Umhilicaria 
depressa, (3. F. Scha:r. Lich. Helv. Spied, p. 83. — Dill. Muse, 
t. 30./. 130. 

Northern mountains, upon rocks. — The apothecia of this are very dif- 
ferent from those of any other British species, and resemble the finest 
and most beautiful filigree-work. 

25. Umbilicaria. Fee, Hoffm. (jpart of,) Umbilicaria. 

Thallus foliaceous, coriaceo-membranaceous, pustuled, fixed 
by the centre, peltate. Apothecia orbicular, somewhat concave, 
adnate, covered by a black membrane, the disk at length tuber- 
cled, with a border of its own substance. — Name, — Umbilicus, 
from the umbilicated frond or thallus. 

1. U. pustiddta, Schrad. (^blistered Umbilicaria); thallus 
spreading simple covered with wart-like blisters greenish-grey 
(pale grey and pruinose when dry) blacker at the margin which 
is variously lobed and bearing copious tufts of black hairs which 
sometimes extend to the disk, beneath grey-brown deeply pit- 
ted naked, apothecia few plane bordered at length often tuber- 
cled. — Schrad. Spied. ]). 102. Hoffm. PL Lich. t. 28. /. 1, 2. 
t.29.f. 4. — Lecidea pustulata, Ach. Meth. p. 85. — Lichen pus- 
tulatus, Linn. — E. Bot. t. 1283. — Gyrophora pustulata, Ach. Syn. 
p. 66. Hook. FI, Scot. P. II. t. 42. 

Kocks in various parts of England, Wales, Scotland and South of 
Ireland, (il/r. Wilson) ; but not very general. — It often grows to a large 
size. I collected my finest specimens on dry Granite rocks in a 
shallow stream upon Dartmore, Devon. Mr. Menzies has gathered the 
fruit in Scotland (perhaps the first of any one in Britain, wlicre it is ex- 
tremely rare) and Mr. Borrer and myself in the Isle of Skye. 




B. Upper and uiuJer-surfaces of the thallus nearly alike. 

a. Thallus usually compressed and laciniated. Apothecia scutelli- 

form (^scutellce'). 

26. Cetraria. Ach. Cetraria. 

foliaceous, cartilagineo-membraiiaceous. ascending and 
spreading, lobed and laciniated, on eacli side smooth and naked. 
Apothecia orbicular, obliquely adiiate with the margin of the 
thallus, the lower portion being free, (not united with the 
thallus'); the disk coloured, plano-concave, with a border formed 
of the thallus and indexed. — Named from cetra, an ancient 
buckler made of hide, which the apothecia are supposed to I'esem- 
l>le. — The species are eminently northern or alpine plants. 

1. C. juniper ina, Ac\\.f golden Cetraria); thallus pale yellow 
deeper beneath, the segments plane ascending erose eremite and 
crisped, apothecia elevated bright-bay the border crenulated. — 
Ach. Sy?i. p. 226. — Lichen juniperinus, Linn. — pinastri ; 
thallus with the segments depressed bluntly lobed crenate the 

margins crisped pulverulent very yellow. Ach. Syn. 1. c 

Lichen pinastri, Scop. — Dicks E. Bot. t. 2111 L. juniper- 
inus, Light/. 

On trunks of trees, fi. in the north of Scotland, principally on 
the Scotch Fir. Frequent about Aviemore, and at Kinnordy, the Seat 
of Chas. Lyell, Esq. Park pales at Framingham, near Norwich, Mr. 
Turner. — The fructification, though I have gathered it not unfrequently 
in Switzerland, has, 1 believe, never been found in Britain. 

2. C. sepincola, Ach. (^Fence Cetraria); thallus olive-brown 
paler and pitted beneath the segments flattish ascending lobed 
waved suberenate powdery, apothecia nearly marginal elevated 
chestnut-coloured with a crenate and wrinkled border. — Ach. 
Syn. p. 227. — Lichen sepincola, Elirli. — Hedw. Cr.v.'2.p.%. 
t. 2. E. Bot. t. 2386. 

On trees, mostly Firs and Birch, Scotland, especially in the north 
Highlands. Kinnordy, Forfarshire. On old posts and rails by the sea, 
near Yarmouth, Mr. Turner. — The apothecia are very rare. — Mr. Dick- 
son mentions this plant as growing upon stones in the Scotch moun- 
tains : I have never seen it except on wood. 

3. C. glduca, Ach. (^glaucous Cetraricb); thallus membranace- 

ous smooth somewhat shining sinuated and lobed glaucous-grey 
above brown beneath, the segments cut and jagged curled as- 
cending, apothecia marginal elevated chestnut-brown, their bor- 
der Avrinkled. — Ach. Syn. p. 227. — Lichen glaucus, Linn 

E. Bot. t. 1066. — Dill. 3Iusc. t. 25.yi 46. — (S./allax; thallus 
white or glaucous on both sides or partially black beneath. 
Ach. 1. c. — C. fallax, Ach. Meth. p. 206. — Lichen fuUax, Web. 
— Dicks. Cr. Fuse. 1. p. 13. E. Bot. t. 2373. — Dill. Muse, 
t. 22./. 58. 

Heathy places on the ground, on rocks and trees j not uncommon. 




/3. On rocks, Devonshire, Mr. Slater. On the ground and on trees at 
Inverary. — To me the var. (i. appears to be an old and diseased state of 
C. glauca, from which the dark epidermis beneath has fallen away, and 
with very old large and almost convex apothecia. The figures in E. But. 
(from foreign specimens), are more finely laciniated than I have ever 
seen the plant. 

4. C. nivalis, Ach. (Snoiv Cetraria); thallus pale sulphur- 
coloured orange at the base erect tufted nearly plane pitted and 
reticulated laciniated, its segments inultifid crisped crenato-den- 
tate divaricated often warted at the points, apothecia pale flesh- 
coloured their border crenulated. — Ach. Syn. p. 228. — Lichen 
nivalis, Linn. — E. Bat, t. 1994. 

Summit of the more elevated northern mountains of Scotland ; par- 
ticularly abundant on the Cairngorm range. — Its flesh-coloured apothe- 
cia, with a wrinkled and crenulated border, have never been found in 

5. C. Isldndica, Ach. (^Iceland Cetraria'); thallus erect tufted 
olive-brown paler on one side, laciniated channelled and dentato- 
ciliate the fertile lacinia very broad, apotheciabrow nappressed flat 
with an elevated border — Ach. Syn. j). 229. — Lichen Islandi- 
cus, Linn. — E. Lot. t. 1330. TFoodv. 3Ied. Bot. t. 265. 

On the ground, in exposed situations on the mountains of the north, 
generally sparingly. Particularly abundant and bearing apothecia copi- 
ously on Ben-na-bord in Aberdeenshire, Dr. Greville, Mr. Arnott and 
Hooker. — Very variable in size and ramification and somewhat in the 
colour. Professor Graham was perhaps the first Botanist in Britain 
who gathered its fructification. He met with it in Aug. 1821, (a single 
specimen) near the top of a mountain called Morne, immediately to the 
westward of Castleton in Braemar. Although the plant is abundant in 
certain districts of Scotland, it has never with us been collected as an 
article of commerce. A considerable proportion of what comes to our 
shops, where it is in great request as a medicine in coughs, consump- 
tions, &c., is procured from Norway or from Iceland. Immense quan- 
tities are gathered in the latter country, not only for sale, but for their 
own use as an article of common food. The bitter and purgative 
quality being extracted by steeping in water, the Lichen is dried, reduced 
to pow'der, and made into a cake, or boiled and eaten with milk, and 
eaten with thankfulness, too, by the poor natives, who confess “ that 
a bountiful Providence sends them bread out of the very stones.” 

27. Roccella. Ach. Roccella. 

Thallus coriacoo-cartilaginoiis, rounded or plane, branched or 
laciniated. Apothecia orbicular, adnate with the thallus; the 
disk coloured, plano-convex, with a border at length thickened 
and elevated, formed of the thallus and covering a sublentiform, 
black, compact, pulverulent powder, concealed within the sub- 
stance of the thallus. — Name, supposed to be derived from the 
family of the person who discovered its valuable properties as 
a dye. 

1. R. tinctoria, De Cand. (^Dyer's Roccella, RocJi-moss, or Ar- 
chill); thallus suft’ruticose rounded branched somewhat erect 





greyisli-brown bearing powdery warts, apotliecia flat almost 
black and pruinose with a scarcely prominent border. — Ach. 
Syn. p. 243. — Lichen Roccella, Linn. — E. Bot. t. 211. — Dill. 
Muse. t. \7.f. 39. 

Maritime rocks, in tlie extreme soutli of England. Guernsey, M. 
Gosselin. Portland island, Lord Viscount Lewisham. Abundant on the 
steep rocks of the Scilly islands. Hooker . — This interesting Z/irAe?i is the 
famous Archill or Orchill ; Orseillc of the French ; which yields the most 
valuable dye of all this tribe. Its several names are derived from a 
Florentine family of the Oricellarii, Rucellarii, orRucellai, one of whom, 
in the year 1300, carried on a considerable trade in the Levant, and, re- 
turning with great wealth to Florence, first made known in Europe the 
art of dyeing with this plant. Far more abundantly than with us, it is 
a product of warm climates, on maritime rocks in almost every part of tlie 
world and always growing mixed with the following species, which might 
almost lead to the suspicion that they were varieties oi each other. The 
Canary islands formerly yielded this Lichen in abundance, w'hence it has 
been called Canary weed; but so great has been its consumption of late 
years, that the best quality of it, whose average price is ^6200 the ton, 
has become extremely scarce: and what is commonly imported from 
other countries is not worth ^€30 the ton. The English blue broad- 
cloths are first dyed with Archill, which gives their peculiar lustre and 
purple tint when viewed in a certain light. 

2. fuciformis, De Cand. (^Jlat-leaved Archill); thallus flat 
branched nearly upright greyish-white bearing powdery warts, 

apotbecia pruinose bordered. — Ach. Syn. ji. 244 Lichen fud- 

formis, Linn E. Bot. t. 728. — Dill. Muse. t. 23. yi 61. 

On maritime rocks, with the preceding ; — from which it is distin- 
guished by its much larger size, broader flat fronds, and paler colour. 
Its quality too, as a dye, is greatly inferior to the preceding, as Mr. 
Mackintosh assures me — The R. 2 Jhycopsis of Ach. seems to be only a 
variety of this, and almost intermediate between it and the preceding 

28. Borrera. Ach. Borrera. 

Thalhis cartilaginous, branched and laciniated, the segments 
free, generally grooved beneath, the margins frecpiently ciliated. 
Apotliecia orbicidar, peltate, beneath formed of the thallus ; the 
disk coloured and surrounded by the elevated indexed border 
formed also of the thallus. — Named in compliment to W. Bor- 
rer, Esq. by Aebarius, who with great truth terms him “ Liche- 
nologus eximiusf The species of which it is composed are 
generally plants of a southern latitude. 

1. B. cilidriSf Ach. {larger ciliated Borrera); thallus spreading 
greyish-green minutely downy, the segments linear branched 
ciliated especially towards the extremity, white and grooved be- 
neath, apotliecia elevated browuish-black and pruinose concave 

at length plane with a jagged border. — Ach. Syn.p. 22 Lichen 

ciliaris, Linn. — E. Bot. t. 1352. — Dill. Muse. t. 20. yi 45. 

Trunks of trees, frequent. 

2. B. tenella, Ach. {lesser ciliated Borrera); thallus spread- 
ing wdiitish-grey smooth, the segments linear subpinnatifid as- 




CGiidiiig clilatGcl swollen vaulted and ciliated at the extremity, 
apothecia sessile hlack pruinose with an elevated entire border. 

j{ch. Syn. P’ 221. — Lichen tenellus, Web. — E. Bot. t. 1351. 

L. ciliaris, /3. Huds L. hispidus, Hoffm — Dill. 3Iusc. t. 20. 

/. 46. 

3. B. leticomela, Ach. (black-haired Borrer a); thallus spreading 
smooth white on both sides channelled and powdery beneath, the 
segments linear fringed with long black very slender hairs, 
apothecia stalked bluish-black with a white radiating border. 

Ach. Syn. p. 222. — Lichen leucomelos, Linn. — E. Bot. 

t. 2548. — Diil. Muse. if. 2 1 ./ 20. 

Upon the ground among Tliyine, &c., near the sea at Bahbicombe and 
Torbay, Hooker. — This varies somewhat from the exotic state of B. 
leucomela, in having broader segments to the thallus, of a less pure white, 
and with more branching cilia : yet both in its appearance and place of 
growth, it is very different from B. ciliaris, to which, it I mistake not. Mi. 
Borrer is disposed and perhaps, correctly, to refer it. The fruit has not 
been detected, but is described above by Sir J. E. Smith from St. Helena 

4. B. furfurdeea, Ach. (branny Borrera); thallus spreading 
ascending greyish-green farinaceous the segments linear attenu- 
ated much divided and forked, the margin recurved, deeply 
grooved rugged and almost black beneath, apothecia scattered 
very concave inflated red-brown with a thin iuflexed boidei. 
Ach. Syn. p. 222. — Lichen furfur aceus, Linn. — E. Bot. i. 984. 
— Ddl. Muse, t.'il.f. 52. 

Trunks and branches of old trees, especially when they are verging 
to decay, and on old pales.— This is a large and remarkably handsome 
species: nor are its apolheda of very unfreqnent occurrence. 

5. B. Atldntica, Ach. (^Atlaiitic Borrerei); thallus erect grey- 
brown downy much and intricately branched, the segments 
linear deeply grooved the margins revolute, apothecia scattered, 
the disk nearly flat blackish-brown with a thick entire boidei. 

Ach. Syn. p. 1715 Lichai Atlanticus, E. Bot. t. 1715. — 

Lichen intricatus, Desfont. El. Atl. v. 2. j)' 420. t. 258. f. 3. 
Dill. Muse. t. 21./. 51. 

On Elms, at Bracklesham in Lelsey island ; and on the cliffs near 
Hastings, abundant. Mr. Borrer. — This highly interesting plant is, like B. 
leucomela, B. chrysophtlialma and B.flavicans, confined to the southern 
and warmer parts of the kingdom, where they seem to have attained their 
northern limits. 

6. B. chrysophthdlma, Ach. (cjolden-eyed Borrera^; thallus 
erect branched tufted bright greenish-yellow alike on both sides 
the segments linear multifid and fringed -especially to^A'ards the 
extremity, apothecia copious terminal deep orange-colour with 

a fringed border Ach. Sijn. p. <2.24.— Lichen chrysopthahnus, 

Linn E. Bot. t. 1088 Dill. Muse. t. 13./. 17. 

Rare; in Devonshire, on Apple-trees. {Mr. Sowerby.) On Thorns 




near Torquay, Hooker. Sussex, Air. Borrer; generally, if not always, 
growing on the family of Rosacece. — This is, in Britain, no less rare than 
it is beautiful. I have gathered it abundantly upon White-Thorns, by 
the road-side in La Vendee in France, but near the sea, where also it 
appears always to grow with us. 

7. fldvicans, Ach. (bi'ass-ivire Borrera) ; tliallus erect tufted 
and entangled tawny warted compressed angular wavy, the 
branches divaricated tapering, apotliecia lateral nearly sessile 
flat orange with a narrow entire pale border. — Ach. Syn.p. 224. 
— Lichen flavicans, Stv — E. Bot. t. 2113. — L. vulpinus, Hvds. 
— Dill. Muse. t. 13.jf. 16. 

On trees and shrubs, especially on fruit-trees, in Devonshire and 
Sussex and other parts of the south of England: — but 1 am not aware 
that the apolhecia have been found in Britain. — Mr. Lightfoot was pro- 
bably mistaken in supposing it to be a native of Scotland. 

29. Evernia. Ach. Evernia. 

Thallus subcrustaceous, branched and laciniated, angled or 
compressed, cottony within intus stuppeus”). Apolhecia 
orbicular, scutelliform, sessile ; the dish concave, coloured, with 
an indexed border formed of the thallus . — Name; ei/, ivell, and 
a branch ; the species being a good deal branched. 

1. E. prundstri, Ach. (ragged hoary Evernia'); thallus erect 
greenish-white much branched pitted and rugged flat the seg- 
ments linear attenuate somewhat grooved and paler beneath, 
apothecia bright-brown concave elevated with an indexed 
border — Ach. Syn. p. 245. — Lichen prunastri, Linn. — E. Bot. 
t. 859. — Dill. AIusc. t. 21.y! 55. A. — j3. stictoceros ; compressed 
pale sulphur-coloured with minute black terminal tubercles. 
Lichen stictoceros, E. Bot. t. 1353. 

Trunks and branches of trees, common : the apolhecia are unfrequent- 
/3. On the ground upon broken sand-banks on Exmouth warren, 
Devonshire, .Tames Brodie, Esq. — This Lichen was brought into use in 
Glasgow, by the late Lord Dundonald, and employed (during the 
war) instead of gum in calico-printing ; it afterwards fell into disuse 
as a very inferior substitute for that article. 

30. Ramalina. Ach. Ramalina. 

Thallus cartilaginous, branched and laciniated, somewhat 
shrubby, generally having- pow^dery ivarts (soredia), compactly 
cottony w-ithin. Apothecia orhicular, scutelliform, stipitate and 
peltate, plane, bordered, entirely formed of the substance of 
the thallus and nearly of the same colour. Name derived from 
ramale, a dead branch. 

1. polymdrpha, Ac\\. (variable Ramalina); thallus plane- 
compressed or roundish laciniato-ramose pale longitudinally 
lacunose, soredia scattered subelliptical terminal capitulifoi-m, 
apothecia submarginal rather concave the disk flesh-coloured 
subpruinose. Ach. Syn. p. 295. Winch, FI. of North, p. 92.— 




Lichen polymorphus, Ach. in Act. Holm. v. 18. w. 270 t 11 

/ 3. / • . 

On rocks and stones in the neighbourhood of Eglestone, Durliam, 
Rev. J. Harriman. 

2. It. fraxmea, Ach. (^Ash JRa?nali/ia^; thallus pendent flat 

pitted and reticidated greenish-grey glabrous much branched 
especially from below, the segments linear-lanceolate attenu- 
ated often jagged, apothecia large submarginal plane or convex 
at length rugged. — Ac/t. Syn. p. 296 . — Lichen fraxineus, Linn. 
~E. Bot. t. 1781.— /m Mmc. t. 22. f. 59. ‘ 

Abundant on the trunks and especiallj' the large branches of very old 
trees, Oak and Ash, and heaving aj^ot/iecia co|)iously. — Fronds often 
5 and 6 inches long ; but variable in length and in the breadth of their 
segments. — Tiiis has been used in Glasgow for the same purpose as 
Fvernia prunasfri. 

3 . R. fastigidta, Ach. (fastigiate Bamalina); thallus erect 
pale-green much branched and tutted rigid compressed lacunose 
smooth naked, the segments dilated upwards and bearing short 
spur-like branches, apothecia suhterminal nearly sessile pale flat. 
— Ach. Syn. p. 296 . — Lichen fastigiahis, Ach. Prodr. — E. Bot. 
t, 890. — L. cuUcaris, Hiids. — Dill. Muse. t. 23./. 62. 

Trunks of trees, frequent. — A variable plant, especially in its ramifi- 
cation. I > i j 

4. R. scopidortim, Ach. {Rock Ramalina); thallus pendent 
pale greenish-white compressed suhlacunose somewhat polished 
blanched the segments linear attenuated, apothecia scattered 
on short stalks of the same colour as the thallus— Syn. 

p. 297. — Lichen scopulornm, Retz. — Dicks. — E. Bot. t. 688 

L. calicaris, Linn. El. Dan. t. 959. f. 2. — L. siliquos^is, Huds. 
—Dill. Muse. t. 17./ 38. {Ach.) 

On rocks near the sea, abundant.— This appears to hold the place in 
northern regions that Rnccella iinctoria does in tlie southern. I find it 
TOmetimes difficult to distinguish small specimens of this from Ramalina 
fadiginla,^ It is indeed, usuall}% much lari^er and pendent. I have 
pthered individuals 6—8 inches long, on the“ standing stones of Sten- 
iiouse, Orkney. 

5. R. farindeea, Ach. {narroxo viecdy Ramalina); thallus erect 
pale glaucous greenish-grey much branched pitted bearing copi- 
ous soredia, the segments linear wavy attenuated, apothecia 
scattered on short stalks flat bordered huff-coloured, the border 
often bearing soredia.— Syn. p. 291 .—Lichen farmaceus, 
Lmn. — E.Bot. t. 889. — Dill. Muse. t. 23./. 63. 

Trunks and branches of trees, frequent.-The apothecia are rather 

6. R. pollindria., Ach. {broad-leaved mealy Ramalina); thallus 
soniew hat leafy spreading smooth pitted greenish-grey sprinkled 
with powdery cracks, the lobes jagged in linear segments, apo- 
thecia nearly terminal slightly elevated buff-coloured with a 




[ Usnea^ 

greenish iiiflexed smooth border. Sm. — Ach. Syn. p. 298. — 
Lichen pollinarius, Ach. Prodr. — E. Bot. t. 1607. — Dill. Muse. 
21./. 57. 

On old trees, posts and rails, rarely on rocks, in England. Particu- 
larly abundant in Norfolk and Suffolk, on old barn-doors, which are some- 
times covered with the plant. 

b. Tkallus suhc7jlindricdl, filamentous, nearly pendent. 

u. Phallus tvith a central thread. Apothecia scutelliform, without 
a border, ciliated (orhill(P). 

FaM. XIV. UsNEiE. 

31. UsNEA. Ach. Usnea. 

Phallus subcrustaceous, rounded, branched, generally pendu- 
lous, with a central thread. Apoiheda {orhillw,^ orbicular, ter- 
minal, peltate, entirely formed of the substance of the thallus 
and nearly of the same colour, the circumference mostly with- 
out a border and (generally) ciliated. — Name ; from dchneh or 
dchnen, in Arabic (Axneeh or Usnee, according to Dillenius,) 
the name of some Tree-Lichen. 

1. U. fidrida, Ach. {fiowery Usnea); thallus nearly erect 
rough greenish-grey branched, the main branches bearing in- 
numerable small horizontal nearly simple fibrous ones, apothe- 
cia plane large pale flesh-coloured bordered with long radiating 
fibres or cilia. — Ach. Syn. p. 304. — Lichen fioridus, Linn. 

E. Bot. t. Ql±—Dill. Muse. t. 13./. 13. 

Branches of old trees, frequent in hilly and mountainous countries. 

2. E.plicdta, Kck. {stringy Usnea); thallus pendidous smooth 
pale, branches lax much divided subfibrillose the ultimate ones 
capillaceous, apothecia plane broad ciliated, the cilia slender 
and very long. Ach. Syn. p. 303. — Lichen plicatus, Linn. 

E. Bot. t. 2bl.—Dill. Muse. t.W. f. 1— hirta; nearly erect 
greyish-green much branched scabrous bearing flesh-colourm 
solid warts, branches very much divided flexuose intricate sub- 
fibrillose Ach. Syn. p. Lichen hirtus, Linn.—E. Bot. 

t. 1354. — L. fioridus, /3. Buds. — Dill. Muse. t. 13./. 12. 

Common on old trees and park-pales, both a. and le ic len 

hirtus oi Linnmus and E. Bot., Acharius has referred to the Usnea ph. 
cata: but to me it appears to have a nearer affinity with U.florida,ax\a 
the distinctions between that and the present species are very unsatis- 
factory and I fear not much to be depended upon. Indeed the Lichm 
plicatus of E. Bot. looks more like the U.barbata; and bir J. t. 
Smith observes that the main-stems often crack here and there, as is the 
case with that species : and then I do not see how they are to be distin- 

3. U. barbdta, Ach. {jointed Usnea); thallus pendulous 




smootliisli very much branched greeiiish-grey, the main stem 
stout articulated the branches very long slender capillary intricate 
sometimes bearing fleshy tubercles. — Ach. Syv. ]). 306. — Lichen 

harhatus, Linn L. articulatns, (3. E. Bot. t. 25S. /'. 2. — Dill. 

Muse. t. 12.^1 6 |8. articulata ; articulations of the stem re- 

markably swollen. — Ach. Syn. p. 306. — Lichen articulatus, 
Linn. — E. Bot. t. 258./. 1. — Dill. AIiisc. t. 11./. 4. 

On trees in old woods, particularly in subalpine districts. 'I'lie var. 
/S. I have gathered on sands at Exniouth Warren, Devon ; and 1 pos- very fine specimens from sands by the sea-side near Malahide, 
Ireland, sent me by J. T. Machay, Esq. — No apotheexa are described 
by Achariiis, nor liave they been ever found on British specimens. May 
it not be a variety of one of the preceding? or rather may not all be 
considered as mere forms of one species ? The same and various in- 
termediate states are found in almost all parts of the world. 

/3. Thallus without a central thread, sometimes slightly compressed. 


32. Alectoria. Ach. Alectoria. 

Thallus cartilaginous, subfiliform, branched, prostrate or pen- 
dulous, somewhat fistulose and cottony within. Apolhecia or- 
bicular, thick, sessile, plane or convex, more or less bordered, 
entirely formed of the thallus and of the same colour. — Name ; 

a mane or hair, according to Acharius, but the word 
will not bear such a construction, nor any that is applicable to 
the plant. 

1. K. juhata, Ach. {luiry Alectoria, or Rock-Hair^; thallus 
tufted generally pendulous very much branched olive-brown 
smooth shining, branches filamentous slender often compressed 
at the axils bearing powdery Avhitish warts, apothecia sessile 
blackish Avith an entire margin. — Ach. Syn. p. 291. — Lichen 
jubatus, Linn. — E. Bot. t. 1880. — Dill. Muse. t. 12. /. 7. — 
fi. chalyheiformis ; branches shorter suberect or decumbent. 
Ach. Syn.p. 291. — Lichen jubatus, (3. E. Bot. t. 1880, upper 
figure. — Lichen clialybeiforviis, Linn. — Dill. 3Iusc. t. 13./. 10. 

Trunks of trees, especially of Firs ; upon rocks and old pales ; abun- 
dant in subalpine countries. — Apolhecia (if they were really such), were 
found by Mr. Turner and myself in the Highlands in 1807 and are 
figured in E. Bot.; they are sessile, frequently oblong, the dish at length 
cracked and rugged with age. Linnaeus tells us that in winter, when 
the snow is very deep upon the ground, this Lichen supplies the Rein- 
deer with food ; — for this purpose the Laplander cuts down the trees, 
that the plant upon the topmost branches may be accessible to this 
useful animal. 

2. A. sarmentdsa, Ach. (trailing Alectorui); thallus procum- 
bent somewhat compressed pale sulphur-colour pitted smooth 
branched the branches very much divaricated and forked the 
ultimate ones short and capillary, apothecia scattered lateral 
sessile concave greenish flesh-colour with an entire border. — 




Ach. Syn. p. 293. — Lichen sarmentosux, Ach. Prodr. — E. Hot. 
t. 2040. — iOill. Muse. t. W.f. 2. 

Dry stony places on the more elevated mountains of the north 
of Scotland, particularly abundant on the Cairngorm range, Boner and 
Hook, — This very distinct species, of which the fructification has never 
been found in Britain, creeps loosely over stones and tufts of Azalea 
procumbens and the alpine Trichostoma, fixing itself to them by the ends 
of some of its branches. 

33. CoRNicuLARiA. Ach. Cornicularla. 

Thallus cartilaginous, branched, within nearly solid and cot- 
tony. Apothecia orbicular, terminal, obliquely peltate, entirely 
formed of the substance of the thallus, at length convex, more 
or less bordered and often toothed. — Name ; cornicula, little 
horns, w’hich its forked branches resemble. 

1. C. tristis, Ach. (^dark radiated Cornicularia^ ; thallus fruti- 
cnlose tufted deep pitchy-brown branched, the branches com- 
pressed roughish fastigiate and somewhat distichous, apothecia 
large deep-brown flattish with an entire or radiated border. — 
Ach. Syn. p. 69. — Lichen tristis, Weh. — E. Bot, t. 720. — L. ra- 
diatus, Huds, — Dicks. — L. cornicidatus. Light/. — Dill. Muse, 
t. 17./. 37. 

Alpine rocks, frequent ; where it forms small, rounded, very rigid tufts. 

2. C. aculedta, Ach. {aculeated Cornicularia^; thallus suflfru- 
ticose tufted dark-brown ranch branched somewhat lacunose 
rounded or slightly compressed smooth or toothletted, the 
branches divaricating intricate the ultimate ones small spinulose, 
apothecia with a jagged or pricldy radiated margin. — Ach. Syn. 
p. 299, (a. and /3.) — Lobaria aculeata, Hoffm. PI. Lick. t. 5. 
f. 2. — Lichen aculealus, |S — Lichen hispidus. Light/. — E, Bot. 
t, 452. — Cornicularia spudicea, Ach. Licit. Univ. — Lichen spa- 
diceus, Roth. 

On the ground in barren heaths and on dry moors, especially in moun- 
tainous countries. — The plant is very variable in size and ramification, 
and Acharins has enumerated 5 varieties, referring the English Botany 
figure, which is very characteristic of the common fructified state of the 
plant, to his var. (i. 

3. C. htcolor, Ach. (black and grey Cornicularia'); thallus 
erect rigid black much branched tvith numerous capillary com- 
pound attenuated very slender smooth patent wavy branches 
pale brown at the extremities. — Ach. Syn.p. 301. — Lichen bico~ 
lor, Ehrh. — E. Bot. t. 1853. 

Upon dry rocks among mosses, on the higher mountains of Scotland, 
not unfrequent ; but always barren, as it is likewise upon the Continent. 
— The plant resembles coarse horse-hair as it grows scattered among 

4. C. ochroleuca, Ach. (sxdphur -coloured Cornicularia); thallus 
densely tufted sulphur-yellow repeatedly branched somewhat 
pitted and beaxdng powdery warts, branches divaricated the ul- 




timate ones small with forked blackish points, apothecia concave 
orange-brown with an indexed border — Ach. Syn. p. 69. — 
Lichen ochroleuciis, Ehrli. 13eitr. — E. Bot. t. 2374. — Usnea 
ochroleiica, Hoffni. PL Licit, v. 2. p. 7 t. 26. /. 2, and t. 68. 
/’. 5, 6, 7. 

Highland mountains of Scotland. — I have never seen it growing ex- 
cept upon the Cairngorm mountains, in the same situations as Alec- 
toria ockroleuca, appealing in dense erect tufts, while the latter is pro- 
cumbent, straggling and creeping. — The apothecia I possess only upon 
Norwegian specimens, gathered on Settefield near Tatfie in Doorefield. 

5. C. landta, Acli. (bhtck woolly Cornicularia) ; thallus decum- 
bent spreading densely tufted smooth brownish-black of innu- 
merable slender flexuose intricate rounded ramifications, apo- 
thecia of the same colour fiat or slightly convex with a jagged 
border. — Ach. Syn. p. 846. — Lichen lanatus, Linn. — Schrad. 
Spied, p. 100. t. 1. /; Q.—E. Bot. t. 846.— Muse. t. 13. 

f. 8, 9, and t. 17./. 32. 

Rocks, in mountainous situations in the north, more frequent on the 
highest mountains, plentifiil and bearing fruit on Ben Nevis. 

6. C. ? heteromdlla, (black Plush Cornicidaria); minutely 
shrubby densely tufted erect entangled cylindrical corymbose 
black with palish notched tips. — Lichen heteromallus, Sm. in 
E. Bot. t. 2246. 

In the cracks of the bark of old Elms, in Hainault forest, Mr. Sowcr~ 
by. — “ VV^e can find no characters suitable to this plant in Acharius, to 
whose Genus Cornicularia it undoubtedly belongs. The fronds form wide 
dense black patches, from a quarter to half an inch thick, harsh and 
rigid, but not brittle, when dry ; soft, elastic, and spongy when wet. 
Each is repeatedly branched, from a slender base, in a corymbose man- 
ner, upwards, so as to make a level surface at the top. The colour is 
a deep olive-black, rather shining, paler here and there, especially at the 
tips, which however are often quite black, and the whole, standing upright, 
are entangled laterally by their branches, so as to compose something 
like coarse velvet or plush. No shields are discoverable.” It would 
probably with more propriety be referred to the but I have never 

seen any specimen. 

Obs. — The Cornicularia pubescens of Acharius, {Lichen pubescens, Linn, 
and E. Bot. t. 2318) an inhabitant oLwet rocks, has all the structure of 
Bangia atro-virens, Lyngbye, (Stigonema, Agardh): but Sir J. E. Smith 
has represented upon it the shields of a Lichen. There is, however, 
reason to believe that these supposed fructifications are a parasitic Fun- 
gus, which Capt. Carmichael has detected and described in Dr. Greville’s 
Scottish Cryptogamia Flora, (t. 186,) as Splucria afinis : hence the spe- 
cies must be altogether expunged from this Order. 




c. 'Ihalius shrubby, rounded, usually much branched, mostly erect. 

a. Solid. Apolhecia globose, filled loith black jmivder (cistidce) or 



34. IsiOlUM. Ach. IsidiiiuE 

Thallus crustaceous, spreading, adnate, bearing solid, erect 
branches (or podetia ?). Apothecia orbicular, convex, at length 
subglobose, solid, terminal upon the podetia and more or less 
sunk in the extremity, so as to leave a border of tlie substance 
ot the podelium. — Name, Iff/:, a kind of coral, and i/h/n, form, 
from the resemblance of the podetia to some kind of coral or 
coralline. — The situation of this genus is very doubtful ; for 
the majority of the ramifications are so short and so combined 
as almost to constitute a flattish warted crust, while the portions 
that bear the fructifications are considei’ably elongated.' 

1. I. lutescens. Turn, and Borr. (pellotoish Isidium); thallus 
tartareous thin cracked into tumid areolse greyish witli a filmy 
zonate margin, podetia very abundant minute very short yel- 
lowish almost concealing the thallus. Turn, and Borr. Licit. 
Brit. p. 87. — Lepraria lutescens, Ach. Aleth. — E.Bot. t. 1529. — 
Lepra lutescens, Hofftn. PI. Licit, p. 100. t. 23. f. 1, 2. — Lichen 
lutescens, Hoffm. — Isidium phymatodes, /3. phragtneum, Ach. 
Syn. p. 282. 

Trunks of large trees, but not common; in Surrey, Sussex, Suffolk 
and Essex. — I have followed the able authors of Lichenograpkia Brit. 
in making this a species of hidium : though without the fructification 
the plant appears to be altogether a Lepraria, and the apothecia have 
never been found in Britain. 

2. I. coccodes, Ach. (ygramdated Isidiuni); thallus tartareous 
thin cracked into somewhat tumid convex areolae greyish with 
a filmy zonate border, podetia abundant some scattered and 
some clustered in patches simple and branched of nearly the 
same colour as the crust, apothecia brown immarginate. Turn, 
and Borr. — Ach. Syn. p. 283. Turn, and Borr. Licit. Brit. 
j>. 89, — Lichen coccodes, Ach. Prodr. — E.Bot. t. 1511. — 3. phy- 
matodes ; podetia white very confluent when branched. Turn. 

and Borr. 1. c Isidium phymatodes, Ach. Syn. p. 282. — 

Lichen ferrughteus, Hoffm. Enum. p. 9. t. 2. f. 3. 

’ This genus has happily been illustrated by IMessrs. Turner and Borrer, 
(whose definitions of the species 1 have adopted,) and they give the following 
generic character ; “ Apothecium a solid, hardishj;/ot<tde, terminating asolid sub- 
cylindrical papiUul'x Ipodttium), resembling a proper peduncle and formed 
from the substance of tlie thallui, sometimes also sessile on the crustaceous part 
of the thallus, covered in its eai ly stage with the epidermis of the plant, after- 
wards naked, but always semi-immersed and never reflexed in its lower part.” 




On old rails and the bark of trees, in England. Walls of ^o^^cet 
Church-yard, and bricks on the top of the steeple of Burgli Church, 
Suffolk, Mr. Turner. chiefly on the trunks of trees. 

3. I. Westrmgii, Ach. (speckled Isidium); tliallus tartareous 
thicldsli cracked into tumid very rugged areola? greyish-brown 
with a zonate border, podetia scattered and crowded simple 
and branched in a connate manner of nearly the same emour as 
the crust, apotbecia brown immarginate. Turn, Bun 

Ach. Syn. p. 282 Lichen Westringii, Ach. in Act. Holm.v. 15. 

ju. 179. t. 6.f. 1. E. Bot. t. pseudo-coralltnus, Westr. 

in Ach. Holm. 

On rocks and stones in the north of England, Wales and Scotland, 
and about Dublin. 

4. I. microsticticum, Turn, and Borr. (small doited Isidium); 
tballus tartareous cracked into smootbisb areolae and nearly even 
of a brownish cream-colour becoming thinner by degrees to- 
wards the edges, podetia scattered short simple of the same 
colour as the crust, apotbecia brownish with an imperfect mar- 
gin. Turn, and Borr Lich. Brit. p. 94. Hook. FI. Scot. P.II. 

p, 66 Lichen microsticticus^ E. Bot. t. 2243 . — Isidium lecvi- 

gatum, Ach. Sgn. p. 281 ? Lich. Univ. p. 5/7. t. 11./* 7 ? 

/3. album ; tbalius white, podetia frequently confluent. Turn, 
and Borr. 1. c. — Lecidea papillosa, Aeh. Lich. Univ. 171. (Sir 

T. Gage.) i -r i k 

On slate and other rocks, in mountainous countries. Plentiful about 

Lough Bray, Dublin.— /3. Ireland, Si/ T. Gage. 

5. I. paradoxum, Ach. (dubious Isidium); tballus tartareous 
thickisb of a leaden-grey cracked into tumid rugged and some- 
what plicate areolte the edge indistinctly zonate, podetia scat- 
tered short simple of the same colour as the crust, apotbecia 
brownish immarginate, large white glomeruli resembling cyathi 
scattered over the thallns. Turn, and Borr. Lich. Brit. p. 97. 
— Isidium corallinum (a state of), Ach. Meth. p. 138. t. 3.f. 7. 
D. E . — Variolaria corallina, Ach. Lich. Univ. p. 319. t. 5.f. 6. 
Ach. Sgn. p. 133 . — Lichen dealbatus, Ach. Prodr. f. 29. 

Rocks on mountains, not uncommon in Wales and Scotland. Kil- 
larney. Sir T. Gage. Bantry, Miss Hutchins. North of England, 
Mr. Thornhill. — “ This beautiful production is another of those species 
which place difficulties, apparently insuperable, in the way of a satisfac- 
tory arrangement of the Lichens. The thallus and its podetia so exactly 
resemble those of the acknowledged Isidia, that we dare not refuse the 
plant a place in this Genus, whilst the warts which we have described 
bear every character of the egalhi of the VariolaricB, and no slight re- 
semblance also to the apothecia of both the Thelotreniata and the Urce- 
olariceT Turn, and Borr. 

6. I. corallinum, Ach. (white Isidium); thallus tartareous 
thin cracked into tumid rugged areolae whitish with an indis- 
tinct zonate border, podetia very abundant densely crowded 
branched and anastomosing of the same colour as the thallus, 




apothecia brownish with a glaucous tinge bordered. Turn, and 
Borr — Ach. Syn. jo. 281. Turn and Bor r. Lich. Brit. p. 100. 
— Lichen corallinus, Linn. — E. Bot. t. 1541. 

On rocks and stones, chiefly in mountainous countries. 

7 . 1. ociddtum, Ach. (eye Uke Lsidiuni); thallus inde- 

teiminate filmy very thin continuous Avhite, podetia simple and 
blanched in a proliferous manner miirked with rings as if joint- 
ed, of the same colour as the crust, apothecia disk-like flattish 
somewhat flocculose glaucescent bordered. Turn, and Borr. 
Lich. Brit.p. 103 — Lichen oculatus, Dicks. Or. Ease. ‘2,. p. 17. 
t. 6.f. 3. E.Bot. t. 1833. — Ijecanora oculuta, Ach. Syn.p. 148. 

/S. podetia densely crowded together their surface very rugged 
their apices soredium-like fastigiate forming an areolate surface. 
Turn, and Borr. 1. c. 

Rocks and stones in Scotland, and on mosses and bare soil in the 
mountains. 0. forming large patches on rocks, Cunnamara, Mr. Mackav; 
and near Bantry, Ireland, Mias Hutchins, 

35. Sph^rophoron. Ach. Sphserophoron. 

crustaceo-cartilaginous, branched, suffruticose, solid 
within. Apothecia, (cistulcc) subglobose, sessile, terminal on 
the branches of the thallus and formed of it, breaking with a 
torn border and containing a pulverulent black mass collected 
into a ball. — Name; epaiga, ^ globe or ball, and po^;, bearing, — 
the character of its fructification. 

1. S. coi’alloides, Turn, and Porr. (^Coral-like SjjhcBrophoron^j 
thallus cartilaginous shrub-like subcylindrical irregularly branch- 
ed brownish, apothecia sphaerical in every stage, the border of 
the old ones indexed and ragged. Turn, and Borr. Lich. Brit, 
p. 110. — a. laxuni ; thallus of unequal height and thickness ir- 
regularly divided, lateral branches horizontal tufted half as 

thick as the main -stem. Turn, and Borr. 1. c S. coralloides, 

Ach. Syn. p. 287. — Lichen globifer us, Linn. — E.Bot. t, 115. 

Ddl. Muse. t. 17. f. 5. — / 3 . ccespitosuni ; thallus densely csespi- 
tose fastigiate dichotomous with erecto-patent divisions, lateral 
blanches none. Turn, and Borr. 1. c. p. 111. — Spheerophoron 
fragile, Ach. Syn. p. 287. E. Bot. t. 2474, (piot 114.)— 
Lichen fragilis, Linn. 

Both varieties on rocks, often among mosses, sometimes on trees, in 
the mountainous parts of Britain. «. On the Sussex sand-rocks, Mr. 
Borrer.—l quite agree with Messrs. Turner and Borrer in the propriety 
of uniting the two species now noticed into one, to which I think 
might safely have been joined the following, S. compressum. 

2. S. compressum, Ach. (compressed Spheerophoron'); thallus 
cartilaginous shrub-like irregularly branched compressed white, 

old apothecia flat with a reflexed border. Turn, and Borr. 

Ach. Syn.p. 287. Turn, and Borr. Lich. Brit. p. 115. 

Lichen fragilis, Huds.—E. Bot. t. 114. —Dill. Muse. t. 17. 
f. 34. 




Rocks and stones, in the mountainous districts; and on the Sussex 
sand-rocks. Borr. 

36. Stereocaulon. Ach. Stereocaulon. 

Thallus cartilaginous or somewhat woody, branched and 
fruticulose. Apothecia turbinate, sessile, solid, plane, scarcely 
rising above the border, the disk at length spreading, covering 
the border and reflexed. — Name ; solid and -/.scvXoi, a 

stem, by which character it is distinguished from some other 
fruticulose liichens. 

1. paschdle, Ach. (^much-branched Stereocauloii) ; thallus 
greyish branched and rough with granulated excrescences, 
branches crowded and very much divided, apothecia scattered 
and terminal at length convex conglomerate blackish-brown. 
Ach. Spn. p. 284. — Lichen paschalis, Linn — E. Bot. t. 282. — 
Dill. Muse. t. \1 . f. 33. 

Rocks and stones, abundant in mountainous countries. 

2. S. botryosuni, Ach. (clustered Stereocauloii); thallus 
whitish-grey somewhat naked below above very densely brancli- 
ed, the idtimate branchlets passing gradually into clustered 
granules, apothecia collected on the fertile branches minute dark- 
brown. Ach. Syn. p. 284. 

Scotland, Mr. Borrer, who observes that it appears to be a dwarfish 
var. of S. paschale. 

3. S. condyloideum, Ach. (deformed Stereocaulon') i thallus 
whitish nearly naked, the branches short crooked somewhat 
lobed knotted and granulose, apothecia on the lateral branches 
at length dilated flat subsessile and appressed red-brown. Ach. 
Syn. p. 285. 

North of England, JMr. Thornhill. (Borrer.) 

4. S. Cereolus, Ach. jVIeth. (simple-stalked Stereocaulon); 
stalks (podetia?) simple erect without powdery warts rising 
from an uneven granulated crust. Borr. — Ach. Meth. p. 

t. 7.f. 1. Borr. in E. Bot. Suppl.t. 2667. — S. cereolinum, Ach. 
Syn.p. 285 Lichen Cereolus, Ach. Prodr. p. 89. 

Rocks on Cader-Idris, Rev. T. Salwey and T. A. Knight, Junr., Esq. 
Egleston, Yorkshire, Rev. J. Harriman. Ben Lomond, Mr. Cotton. 

5. S. ndnum, Ach. (dtoarf Stereocaulon); thallus whitish- 
grey very slender filiform branched, branches subfastigiate floc- 
coso-pulverulent, apothecia lateral crowded convex black-brown. 
Ach. Syn, p. 285. — Lichen nanus, Ach. Prodr. — Bccomyces pas- 
chalis, 13. nanum, Wahl, Lapp. p. 450. 

North of England, Rev. J. Harriman and Mr. Robertson. — This and 
S. botryosuni and condyloideum I have inserted as British on the autho- 
rity of Mr. Borrer, who remarks that Wahlenberg has probably done 
well in uniting the present species to S. paschale. Indeed the latter is 
most variable, as all must acknowledge who have seen it in different 
situations upon the mountains. 




(3- IViallus (or podetium ?) Jistulose. Apothecia hemisphoirical 

fleshy (cephalodia). 

Fam. XVII. Cladonie^. 

(^Partof, Hoffm. — Cenomyce, joa/ ^ o/j Ach.) 

37. Cladonia. Fee. Cladonia. 

Thallus (podetiimi, Ach.') somewhat slirahby, bi-anched, rarely 
simple, leafy with scales, wliich are often evanescent, branches 
cartilaginous rigid fistulose, all attenuated and subulate, divided, 
fertile, generally perforated in the axils. Apothecia (cephalodia) 
sessile, orbicular, convex, capituliform, not bordered, fixed by 
the circumference, free beneath in the centre, the sides reflexed, 
uniform within. (Fee.) — Name; xXaSo;, n branch ; the rami- 
fications being often copious — I have followed M. Fee in dis- 
tinguishing those species of Cladonia (or Cenomyce, Ach.) which 
have subulate branches, from those whose apices are cup-shaped, 
but I am by no means sure that the characters are to be 
depended upon. The determination of the species, both of 
this and the following genus, are attended with the greatest 
difficulty, on account of their variable character ; and in the 
present state of my knowledge I dare not venture upon intro- 
ducing others than those published in English Botany. Much at- 
tention has been given to this genus by Delise in the Botanicon 
Gallicum, who, with Acharius, unites this and the two following 
genera into one, Cenomyce, and enumerates 53 species, besides 
many marked varieties, as natives of France ; all of which are 
most probably natives also of Britain. He would render an 
acceptable service to British Botany who should undertake a 
monograph of the British Cladoniece. 

1. C. vermiculdris, De Cand. (Vermicelli Cladonia); podetia 
spreading horizontally pure white subulate simple or sliglitly 
bi’anched, branches tapering at each end. Schcer. Lich. Helv. 
Spied, p. 44., Lich. Exsicc. n. 128. — Cenomyce vermicularis, 
Ach. Syn. p. 278. — Lichen vermicularis, Sivartz. — Dicks. Cr. 
Fuse. 2. p. 23. t. 6.f. 10. E. Bot. t. 2029. 

Not unfrequent on bare ground, on the lofty mountains of the North 
of England and Scotland. — I'his has a very remarkable appearance and 
is quite different from all the other species of the Genus, lying prostrate 
on the ground and of a pure white colour, smooth, and the surface 
resembling, from the shape of its branches, small worms. The fruc- 
tification is unknown. 

2. C. uncidlis, (short perforated Cladonia); podetia elongated 
smooth cylindrical pale yellowish-white dichotomous the axils 
much perforated, the branchlets short patent at the extremity 
acute and rigid. — Cenomyce micialis, Ach. Syn. p. 276. — Lichen 




iincictlis, — Zi. Hot. t. 174 . — Cyliidouiu stcllutci.) «. SchcBi'. 

Lick, llelv, Spicil. p. 42., Lick, Exsicc. n. 82. — Dill. Muse. t. 16. 
f\ 21. — ^.turejida; soft turgid elongated, the branches truncate 
fastigiate, the sterile ones stellato-denticulate closed, fertile ones 
digitato-rainose perforated. C. stellata, d. turgida, SchcEr. Lick. 
Hdv. Spied. /).43., Lieh. Exsiec. n. 84 . — Lietien turgidns, E/irh. 
Cr. — Cladonia turgida, Hoffni — Fries . — Cenomyce pareeha, Aeh. 
Syn. /). 272, 

On Heaths and moors, abundant. j3. Ben Lawers and Ben Voirlich, 
Dr. Grev'ille . — This varies considerably in size, but is tolerably constant 
to its other characters and is remarkable for its stout fistulose stems 
and branches with large perforations in the axils, and for the short ulti- 
mate spreading acute branchlets. I quite agree with Mr. Schaerer 
in referring the Cenomyce j^arecha of Ach. to this plant. 

3. C. rangiferina, Hoffin. (^Rein-deer Cladonia or Rein-deer 
floss'); podetia ereef elongated roughish cylindrical greenish- 
white very mucli branched, the axils perforated the branches 
scattered often intricate divaricated the ultimate ones drooping, 
apothecia subglohose brown on small erect branchlets. Sehan-. 
Lieh. Helv. Spied, p. 37, 7i. 76 — 79 — Cenormyee rangiferina, 
Aeh. Syn. j). 277. — Lichen I'angiferimis, Linn. — E. Dot. t. 173. 
—Dill. Muse. t. 16./. 29, 30. 

Moors, heaths, and mountains, frequent. — A very variable Moss, 
especially in the length c>f the ramifications and also in colour, and an 
inhabitant of almost every part of the world, even of the tropics ; but 
in the colder and arctic regions it is most abundant. The barren spe- 
cimens are the most branched and tufted, with the branches very inti/ 
cate. It is this, which, for the greater part of the year and especially in 
winter, is the support of the vast herds of rein-deer wherein consists all 
the wealth of the Laplanders. No vegetable, Linnaeus tells us, grow’s^ 
throughout Lapland in such abundance as this, especially in woods ot 
scattered pines, where, for very many miles together, the surface of the^ 
sterile soil is covered with it as with snow. On the destruction of 
forests by fire, when no other plant will find nutriment, this Lichen 
springs up and flourishes, and, after a few years, acquires its full 
size. Here the rein deer are pastured ; and, whatever may be the depth 
of snow during the long winters of that climate, these creatures have the 
power of penetrating it and obtaining their necessary food. Linnaeus has 
given a beautiful description of this Lichen, and of the animals, whose 
support it is, in the Flora Lapponica, p. 332, but it is too long for in- 
sertion in this place. 

4. C. pungens, Delise, {pointed Cladonia^); podetia tubular 
grey forked much branched without axillary perforations, 
branched twisted and entangled taper-pointed, apothecia )uinute 

terminal solitary brownish-black. Si7i Lichen pungens, Ach. 

Prodr. — E. Dot. t. 2444. — Cenomyce rangiferina, d. Ach. Syn. 
p. 277. — Lichen uncialis, |3. Light/, p, 880? 

Esher Common, Surrey, JMr. Borrer. — “ It comes very near C. unci- 
alis, but is said to want the axillary perforations. VVe find, how'ever, 
not very unfrequently, lateral fissures below the origin of the clustered 
branches, but these are indeed different from the round central openings 




of the C. uncialis. The branches too are more twisted and zigzag; 
Acharius says they also are more brittle. The colour is a green- 
ish-grey. The numerous, sharp, tapering, upright branches are 
tipped with brownish-black ; of which colour also are the small solitary 
round apolhecia found at the extremities of some of them.” Sm. 

5, Q,. furcdta, HofFm. ( forked Cladonia)', podetia elongated 
smooth (or leafy, especially at the base) livdd or brownish-grey 
dichotomous the axils without perforations, branches very slen- 
der curved with the apices forked and divergent, apothecia 
brown. — Cenomyce furcata, Ach. Syn.p. 276. — Lichen furcalus, 
Huds. Anyl.p. *158. — Cladonia fruticosa^ 6. Sckcer. Lick. Helv. 
Spicil.p. 451., Lick. Exsicc. n. 81. — Dill. Muse. t. 16. y. 27. — 

A. (^you)iff') B. C. (^old) according to Sell carer suhidata ; 

podetia elongated glabrous pale dichotomous the axils jjerfor- 
ated and open, the apices of the branches patent short rigid. 
Cenomyce furcata^ [3. Ach. Syn, p. 276. — Cladonia fruticosa, y. 
Schcar. Lick. Halo. Spied, p. 40. — Lichen sulndutus^ Linn. — 
Dill. Muse. t. \&.f. 26. A. (^sterde') B. C. {fertile^ according to 
Schcerer. — y. spinosa ; podetia elongated smooth at length 
scaly whitish-green at length inflated curved branched, branches 
lax subsecund the apices divergent spinulose, apotliecia pale- 
brown. Cenomyce racemosa, Ach. Syn. j). 275. Hooh. FI. Scot. 
P. II. p. 64. — Lichen spinosus, Huds. — Lightf. — Cladonia furcata, 
var, reeurva, Hqffm . — C. furcata, (3. recurva, Schcar. Lwh. Hdv. 
Spied, p. 40. — Dill. Muse. t. 16. yi 25. Ach. 

On the ground in heathy and bushy places, frequent. 

38. ScYPHOPHORUS. Fee. De Cand., (part of). Cup-Lichen. 

Thallas foliaceous, imbricated. Podetia fistulose, cylindrical, 
dilated upwards, bearing cups, or attenuated and subulate : cups 
closed with a membrane or cleft at the extremity, often rayed 
in a somewhat digitated manner, the rays all fertile. Apothecia 
{cephalodia') convex, capituliform, not bordered, free in the cen- 
tre beneath, arranged around the edges of the enp, the margin 
reflexed, uniform within. Fee. — Name ; CKvipo';, a cup and 
to bear, admirably expressive of the fruit-bearing portions 
of this Genus of Lichens, of which the Lichen pyxidatus of Lin- 
naeus may be considered the type. — There beinga distinct folia- 
ceous spreading thallus, M. Fee considers the stalks as more 
essentially belonging to the fructification and more truly deserv- 
ing the name of poh tia than the same part in Cladonia ; but 
the last species of Cladonia, (^C. furcata,') has often a small 
spreading thallus, and in this particular connects the two genera. 

* Apothecia brown. 

1. S. ccaspititius, (^green Iccfy Cup-Licheii); thallus clustered 
ascending leafy pinnatifid cut and crisped bright-green above 
white beneath, podetia fnnn the disk of the leaf flesliy(?) dilated 




upwards short, apotliecia convex reddisli-hrown (depressed in 
the centre). — Cenomyce ccesjntitki, Ach. Syn.p. 2A9.—B(comyc(s 
caspititius, Pers. in UsL Ann. 7. p. Vob.— Tuhei^idaria fm 
Hoffm. PL Lich. t. 8./. A. —Lichen cmspihtnis, h. Pot. t. 179b. 

On the mossy trunk of an aged oak in tlie New Forest, Hants ; 
C. Li/cll Esq , — “ The fronds (or thalii) form broad patches among 
moss', upon the ground or on the decayed trunks of trees, and are up- 
riffht or ascending, clustered, but not very closely crowded, 4 — ^ an 
irmh high, each spreading from a tapering tubular base into a sort ot 
cornucopia form, dilated upwards, pinnatifid, jagged, crisped and spread- 
ing at the extremities ; the upper surface concave, of a bright pea-green; 
the under convex, and, as well as the crisped edges, white, rnbercles 
one or more from the central part of each leaf, convex, often urnbilicat- 
ed of a li"ht red-brown, on shortish tubular pale stalks, one of which 
sometimes bears several tubercles. Small dark-brown sessile war/s also 
occur on the disk of the leaves. This species is one of those nearly 
allied to the Cup-Uchcns, both in the fronds and tubercles, but which 
do not bear cups.” Sm. 

2. S. pcirctsHicus, (delicate Cvp-Lichen'^; thallus of minute 
foliaceous lohed and crenate scales glaucous-green, podetia 
somewhat fleshy scaly simple or branched dilated upwards and 
bearing a cluster of pale-brown (when dry almost black) apo- 
tbecia. — Cladonia parasitica , SchcEV. Lich. Helv. Spicil. p. 37., 

Lich. Exsicc. n. 75 Lichen parasiticus, Hoffm. Enum. Lich. t. 8 . 

f, 5 . — Cenomyce delicata, Ach. Syn. p. 274. — Lichen delicatns, 
'Ehrh.—E. Hot. t. 2025. 

On rotten rails in St. Leonard’s forest, Sussex, Mr. Borrer. On the de- 
cayed trunk of a tree at Barham, Suffolk, Hooker. On an old wall, Appin, 
Capt. Carmichael.— This is a small species and apparently of rare occur- 
rence. — Mr. Schierer informs us that Acharius, in his Mss., after the 
publication of the “ Synopsis,"’ enumerated this among the species of 
Stereocaulon. This and the preceding and following species differ from 
the rest of the Scyphojihori, in having fleshy podetia: and might almost 
rank with Bceomyces, where two of them are placed in Loudon s Hor- 
tus Britannicus. 

3. S. microphyllus, {small-leaved Cup Lichaf); thallus of mi- 
nute somewhat imbricated rounded nearly entire scales, podetia 
simple tubular quite smooth and naked (fleshy), apotliecia soli- 
tary capitate conve.x brown somewbat lobed. — Lichen micro- 
phyllus, Sm. in E. Hot. t. 1782. — “ Bceomyces microphyllus, Ach. 

Wet heathy places in Filgate and St. Leonard’s forests, Sussex ; in 
the winter, but not frequent, Mr. Borrer. 

4. S. spardssus, {torn-coated Cup-Licheti); tballus of cartila- 
ginous minute lobed and cut scales, podetia cylindrical repeat- 
edly branched rigid asb-coloured rough with innumerable scaly 
leaflets, cups minute toothed pervious repeatedly proliferous 
from their margin, apotliecia clustered brown. Sm . — Cenomyce 
sparassa, Ach. Syn.p. 273. — Lichen sparassus, E. Bot. t. 2362. 
— Cladonia ventricosn, Schcer. lAch. Helv. Spicil. p. 30., Lich. 




hxsicc. n. 72 — 74. — Lichen ventricosus, Light/. — Dill. Muse, 
t. 15.y! 17 ? 

Woods at Hafod, Cardiganshire, Sir J. E. Smith. Decayed stumps 
or old trees, Scotland, Light/. Appin, Capt. Carmichael. — Fodetia 2 — 3 
inches high, very leafy. 

o. S. alcicornis, (^Elk s-horn C uj)- Lichenl^ ; tlialliis foliaceous 
very pale green, the segments subpalinated ascending repando- 
dentate obtuse inflexed witli marginal tufts of hairs, podetia 
elongato-turbinate all enp-bearing' smooth (^leafy, Sm.^, the cups 
regular crenate their margin at length leafy and prolif- 
erous, apothecia brown. — Cenomyce alcicornis, Ach. Syn, p. 250. 

Lichen alcicornis, Light/. — E. Dot. t. 1392. — L. foliaceus, 
Huds. — Ddl. Muse. t. 14. f. 12. 

Heaths in mountainous countries and among rocks. — The cups often 
rise, one above another, in a proliferous manner. 

6. S. anomceus, (con/used hrown-headed Cup-Lichen); thallus 
cartilaginous brittle ash-coloured of numerous imbricated minute 
scales, podetia cylindrical rough and very leafy, cups turbinate 
closed at length dilated and radiated, apothecia marginal sessile 
or stalked brownish-black. Sm. — Bceomyces anomceus, Ach. 
Meth. Lichen anomceus, E. Dot. t. 1867. — Cenomyce gonorega, 
c. Ach. Syn. p. 259. — Dill. Muse. t. 15. /. 20. 

Woolwich heath; and on the Pentland hills, near Edinburgh, Sir J. 
E. Smith. On a barn at Lakenham, Mr. Turner.— 'Sir J. E. Smith 
seems inclined to refer this to S. alcicornis. 

7. S. endiv/olius, {Endive-leaved Cup-Lichen); thallus spread- 

ing leafy cartilaginous deeply lobed the segments forked and 
pinnatifid flattish slightly twisted yellowish-green above, white 
beneath, podetia from the upper-side cup-bearing mostly sim- 
ple, apothecia marginal reddish-brown. Sm Cenomyce endivi- 

folia, Ach. Syn. p. 250. — Lichen endivifolius, Dicks. Cr. Ease. 3. 
p. 17. Hort. Sicc. Ease. 9. n. 24. E. Dot. t. 2361. 

Dry heathy places in Scotland and Surrey, Mr. Dickson. Very fine 
on sand-hills at Herasby, near Yarmouth, Norfolk, Mr. Turner. — This 
has the most ample foliaceous fronds of any Scyjihojilwrus, of a singularly 
yellow-green colour, white beneath. Still some states of it are very 
nearly allied to the following, as both are to S. alcicornis. 

8. S. cervicornis, {Buck' s-horn Cup-Lichen); thallus cartila- 
ginous nearly upright pinnatifid with oblong glaucous segments 
pale beneath, podetia from the disk, the thallus cup-bearing 
upwards at length proliferous, apothecia numerous marginal 
sessile blackish. — Cenomyce cervicornis, Ach. Syn. p. 251. — 
Cladorda verticillata, Schcer. Lich. Helv. Spied, p. 31. — Licit. 
Exsicc. p. 62 — Lichen cervicornis, Ach. Prodr. — E. Bot. 
t. 2574. 

Moist rocks in the mountains. 

9. S. pyxiddtus, {common Cup-Lichen); thallus foliaceous the 
segments crenulated ascending, podetia all turbinate elongated 
cup-bearing at length granulated warty rough greyish-green, 




cups regular the margin at length proliferous, apothecia brown. 
— Cenamyce pyxidata, Ach. Syn. p. ^b^.— CIadotiia pyxidafa, 
SchcBr. Lich. Helv. Spicil. p. 26., Licli. Exsicc. n. 51—61.— 
Lichen pyxidatus, Linn. — E. Bot. t. 1393. DHL Muse. t. I*!. 

/. 6. T- 1 

Heathy places, on moors and in dry woods, frequent. Fornierl}' em- 
ployed as a remedy for the whooping-cough. 

10. fimhridtus, (^fringed Cup-Lichen^; thallus cartilaginous 
lobed and crenate, podetia cylindrical white dilated at the S’lm- 
mit into an impervious cup fringed with acute teeth and which 
ai’e tipped with small brown tubercles. Sni . — Cenomyce Jitn- 
hriata, Ach. Syn. p. 254 . — Lichen Jimbriatus, Linn. E. Bot. 
t. 2438. — L. pyxidatus, (3. Huds. — Dill. Muse. t. 14.^. 8. 

Moors and heaths. 

11. S. radiatus, (^radiated Cup- Lichen^; thallus somewhat 
cartilaginous greenisli-white, apothecia elongated slender pow- 
dery, cups irregularly radiated their points tipped ■with small 
acute reddish (brown) apothecia. Sm.— Cenomyce radiata, Ach. 
Lich. Univ . — C. Jimbriata, b. Ach. Syn. p. 255. Cladoma^ia- 
diata, Hoffm. — Lichen rcidiatus, Schreb. — E. Bot. t. 1835. 

L. pyxidatus, g. Huds. — Dill. Muse. t. 15.y. 16. 

On the ground, in heathy places. 

12. S. cornutus, (^horned Cup-Lichen); thallus cartilaginous 
greyish greenish- white with numerous awl-shaped baiien 
branches, jjodetia cylindrical (scarcely dilated upwards or cup- 
bearing) with scai’let (brown) apothecia. Sm. Cenomyce cor- 
nuta, Ach. Lich. Univ. — C. Jimbriata, L. Ach. Syn. p. 257. 
Lichen cornutus, Linn. — E. Bot. t. 1 836. L. pyxidatus, X. 
Huds.— Dill. Muse, t, 15./. 14. A. C. F. 

Woody or heathy, and especially mountainous places. 

13. S. gracilis, {slender Cup-Lichen); thallus minute (scarcely 
any), podetia long slender smooth cartilaginous greenish -browm 
at length somewhat branched, cups (ob-) conical sharply toot i- 
ed, apothecia brown. Sm. — Cladonia gracilis, Hoffm. Seiner. 
Lich. Helv. Spicil. p. 32., Lich. Exsicc. n. 64—69. — Cenomyce 
ecmocyna, a. Ach. Syn. p.^^l.— Lichen gracilis, Linn — E. Bot. 
t. 1284. — Dill. Muse. t. 14./. 13. 

Mountainous, heathy or dry, woody places.— Porfeha 3—4 inches 
Ion-: cups often proliferous. “To determine the species among the 
cup^bearing Lichens is one of the most difficult problems m Botany. 
Mr. Hudson cuts the gordian knot at once by uniting them all into 
one ; but surely nothing can be more rash. On the other hand, it may 
perhaps be allowed that other Botanists have subdivided.them beyond 
the limits of Nature. If any of ffiem be distinct species, the individual 
now under consideration is one.” Sm. 

** Apothecia scarlet or deep-red. 

14. S.Jiliformis, {thread-shaped thallus cartila- 

ginous greenish- white the lobes or scales imbricated simiated 




and cienate, podetia cylindrical simple scaly, cups cylindrical 
(scm-cely dilated) bordered with minute scarlet apotliecia. Sm. 

— Uadoniajiliformis, SchcBr. Lick. Helv. Spicil. p. \9.— Lichen 
filifornns, Hurls. — Ach. Prodr. — E. Bot. t. ^O^H.— Cenomuce 
bacdlans, Ach. Syn. p. 266.~Lichen tubiformis, Lightf.—L. 
rnactlenius, Ehrh.—DilL Muse. t. 14./ 10. 

New boiest, Hants, C. h-ydl, Exq. Mountainous turfy heaths. — M. 
Schaerer has referred, without any doubt, the Licheri ruhifonnh of E. 
Biit. t. 2112, the Psora? ruljiformis of this work, to the present plant 
making it his var. H. : but his specimen (Lick. Exsicc. n. 37.) is very 
dmeient from the E. Bot. figure, and no doubt is correctly referred to 
ivt^ sjiecies ; and it is, further, tlie plant of Achari'us, to whom 

- chaerer sent his specimen, and receiyed the following remark upon 

It: Ihalora ntbiformis, Ach. Ms.— Lecidea rubifornm, Ach. Syn. et Licit. 

Umv., seel lorma Cenomycidis ccEspititii ibm. quae infantilis Cenoni. sym- 
pnocarpaj ^ 

15. S. deformis, {clumsy indented Cup-Lichen); thallus lea- 

thery pale yellowish-grey the scales roundly lobed, podetia 
tubular thick mostly simple, cups small irregular sharply 
toothed, apothecia scarlet minute. Sm.~Cenomyce deformis, 
Ach. Syn. p. 268 — Cladonia deformis, Schcer. Lich. Helv. 
^.pici. p. 23., Lich. Lxsicc. n. 47. — Lichen deformis, Linn. 

Bot. t. 1394.— Z. pyxidatus, [m. Huds.— Bill. Muse. t. 15. 

/ lo. 

About the roots of old trees, and in woods, Liditf.— On heaths An- 
_ pm, Capf. Carmichael. -This is of a thick and cluLy form and ’of a 
singularly pale yellowish colour. 

16. S. digitatus, {fingered Cup-Lichen); thallus pale-grev 
mealy the scales minute lobed and crenated, podetia subdivided 
digitate and radiating imperfectly cup-bearing, apothecia ter- 
minal deep scarlet. Sm. — Cenomyce digitata, Ach. Sun. p ‘>67 
—Cladonia digitata, Schcer. Lich. Helv. jy. 22., Lich. Exsicc. 

n. 43 — 45. — Lichen digitatus, Linn. — E. Bot. t. 2439 Z puxi 

datus, g. Huds.— Bill. AIusc. t. 15./ 19. ' 

In woods, at the roots of old trees and on barren heaths. 

17. S. coeciferus, {scarlet Cup-Lichen); thallus leathery pale 
greemsh-grey mealy the scales minute lobed and crenated, po- 
detia elongated turbinate mealy all cup-bearing, cups with their 
margins often radiated bearing the scarlet apothecia. — Cenomyce 
cocefera, Ach. Syyi. p. 269.- Cladonia coccifera, Schcer. Lich 
Helv. Spied, j). 34., Lich. Exsicc. n. bQ.— Lichen coeciferus, 

L^nn. — E. Bfi. t. 2051.— Z. pyxidatus, t. Huds (S.cornuco- 

pioides; margins jiroliferous. Z. cornucopioides, Lightf. 

Heathy moors, abundant. 

18. S. bellidifiorns, {daisy -flowered Cup- Lichen); thallus foli- 
aceous pale-green of imbricated crenated lobes or scales pode 
tia elongated cylindrical club-shaped rigid glaucous "mostly 
simple foliaceo-squamose, cups narrow their margins fertile and 
pioliferous, apothecia scarlet crotvded — Cenomyce hellidiflora 
Ach. Syn. p. 270 — Cladonia hellidifiora, Schcer. LJeh. Helv. 




Spicil. p, 21., Lich. Exsicc. n. 39 — 42 . — Lichen hellidijlorus, 
Ach. Prodr. — E. Pot. t. 1894. 

Frequent on the Highland mountains of Scotland. — The largest and 
most beautiful of the Genus. 

39. Pycnothelia. Dufour. Pycnotliella. 

Thallus subcrustaceous, uniform; podetia mostly simple, short 
hollow. Apothecia {ceplmlodici) orbicular, not bordered, capi- 
tuliform, thickened, inflated beneath, terminal, reflexed at the 
margin, uniform within. — Name ; rtmwg, compact, croxvded, and 
a small breast, which its fructification resembles, while the 
thalhis is dense and crowded. — I am far from being satisfied 
with the character of this Genus ; yet there is something in its 
habit so different from the other Cladoniece, that I do not well 
see how it can be united either Avith Cladonia or Scyphophorus. 

1. P. Papilldria, {papillary Pycnothelia'); thallus subcrus- 
taceous uniform greyish- green granulated, podetia erect ven- 
tricose smooth Avhitish simple or rarely divided, apothe- 
cia terminal solitary globose brown. — Cenomyce Papillaria, 
Ach. Ny?*. jo. 248. — Cladonia Papill. Hoffm — Lichen Papilla- 
ria, Ehrh. — E. Pot. t. 907. — Dill. Muse. t. 16.y. 28. 

Dry exposed heaths and moors, in England and Scotland. Appin, 
Capl. CarmichacL 



Ord. V. CHARACEjE. Rich. 

Aquatic Plants, always submerged, composed of simjjle or 
compound, membranaceous, sometimes brittle tubes, smooth 
or spirally striated, often invested with a calcareous covering, 
jointed at the insertion of the branches, which are dichoto- 
mous and whorled. Oi’gans of two kinds,on the 

same or on different plants ; in the latter case approximate or 
remote from each other, always produced on, or at the base of, 
the lesser ramuli or bracteae : — 1. G lobules a, reddish or orange 
coXonr {stamens of many authors), in maturity foniaed of triangular 
scales, each of which, in Chara vulgaris, “ has a vacant portion in 
its centre, but the margin (which has a fluted appearance under a 
small magnifier) consists of a number of parallel, linear-oblong, 
hyaline, hollow tubes, placed at small intervals from each other, 
those forming the angles of the scale being branched. Within 
these tubes are a profusion of globular, minute, orange bodies, 
(exactly similar to the sporules of many cryptogamic plants,) 
ari'anged in no order, and escaping on the least injury of the 
tubes. It is these little bodies which give the orange colour 
to the globule.” ( Grev.) The globule is filled with a muci- 
lage and extremely delicate convoluted filaments, arising from 
minute campanulate bodies, often articulated : — 2. Nucules, which 
are ovate, consisting of a hard, spirally twisted, crustaceous 
integument, often croAvned with 5 projecting points, filled with 
minute granules; which, however, perhaps, in maturity constitute 
but one body, for M. VaucherUias clearly ascertained (and in- 

’ “If,” says this acute naturalist, “ we place the ripe capsules {tiucules)o{ Chara 
in water in the autumn, they will survive the winter without undergoing any 
perceptible alteration ; but on the approach of warm weather, towards the end 
of April, from the upper extremity, between the five valves or points, will be 
seen a little prolongation, which, as it becomes more and more developed, soon 
gives origin to the first whorl of branches, these to a second ; below these 
branches, the stem swells, and there appear some tufts of small roots ; the 
capsule rests for a long time adherent to the base of the stem, even till the lat- 
ter begins to bear fructification. During this development no trace of coty- 
ledons is seen.” Thus, if looked upon in the light of acapsule, this body, though 
in an early stage containing many minute granules, can only be considered as 



deed lias favoured me with specimens in proof of tlie correctness 
of his observations,) that, in germination, these nucules give birth 
only to one plant. 

The Genus C//ara, of which alone this Natural Order consists, 
has been an object of peculiar attention with many botanists, 
and I regret that the limits of these pages will not allow of their 
investigations being here detailed. One of its most remarkable 
characteristics resides in the peculiar natui'e of its organs of 
fructification or reproduction. These being constantly of 2 kinds, 
sometimes standing near, at other times apart from each other, 
the greater number of Botanists of the Linnsean school have 
looked upon them, the one as the stamen, and the other as the 
pistil, and hence have placed the Genus either in Monandria 
Monogynia, or in Moncecia Monandria. But the whole habit 
of the plant is so totally at variance with any of the phaenogamic 
tribe, that even Linnseus himself, at first, placed it in Cryp- 
TOGAMiA. And such seems to be the prevalent opinion with 
the followers of the natural method ; although w'e have the high 
authority of Mr. Brown forarranging Chara among Ilydroclui- 
ridecB in the Monocotyledones, and that of Leman with the Elodea: 
(near Onagrarice) in the Dicotyledones. Richard first proposed 
that it should constitute a separate order ; widely removed as it 
is from every other ; so much so, that it would be difficult to 
say to wdiich it is most allied. Dubis and De Candolle have 
placed it next to the Equisetacece, but with a note of doubt as 
to the propriety of so doing. Mr. Bindley ranges it with his 
Muscoidece, but I think unnaturally. Agardh has made of 
it a subdivision of ConfervoidecB among his Algce, and there (or 
still better perhaps near his Genus Valonia in Ulvacece, if the 
nature of its fronds or stems and branches were alone consi- 
dered,) it would perhaps most conveniently rank ; but the fructifi- 
cation is widely different, and equally remote from every other 
order. It is, then, for the sake of its affinity with some of the 
Algce that I have placed it next to that family, and because it is 
an aquatic. I have inserted it before, rather than after them, 
on account of the more complicated nature of its organs 
of reproduction. 

The calcareous matter, with which several Charce are invested, 
is considered by many to arise from that substance being held in 
solution by the water in which they grow. This idea is contro- 
verted by Dr. Brewster, who found “ while examining the distri- 
bution of the aggregated groupes of the carbonate of lime which 
forms a great portion of these plants, and which is an essential 
and integral part of their constitution, that the plants wei-e 
phosphorescent when laid upon heated iron, so as to display their 
entire outlines in the dark ; — also that each gronpe or mass of 
the calcareous matter (which is held to the stem of the plant by 
a very fine transparent membrane,) consisted of minute aggre- 



gated particles, w liich possessed double refraction, and had re- 
gular and depolarizing axes.”* 

In those species of Chara which are destitute of the calca- 
reous incrustation, and even in those which possess it, when that 
covering is removed, the movement of the sap has been distinctly- 
observed and brought into notice by Professor Amici of Modena. 
Each joint or distinct tube has its oavu peculiar circulation, and 
the movement was ascertained in C. vulgaris to be at the rate 
of 2 lines per minute. M. Blainville witnessed the phenomenon 
with Professor Amici, and observes that the microscope brought 
to view a movement of 2 litpiid currents, the one ascending and 
the other descending, circulating in the same tube, without being 
separated by any partition which could insulate them. Tlie reality 
of this was placed beyond a doubt by the distinct passage of 
certain molecules of one of the currents, which, being attracted 
by the one which moved in the opposite direction, were occa- 
sionally dragged along with it.'^ 

Notwithstanding the minute size of the nucules of the Genus, 
Chara, they occur in a fossil state both in the marie deposits in 
the lakes of Forfarshire, and in the chalk of Montmartre, where 
they are known by the name of Gyrogonites, and were long 
considered by naturalists to belong to some extinct testaceous 
animals. In the first-mentioned situations, the same species (C. 
hispida') has been found also to exist very abundantly in a recent 
state in the water which covers the beds of calcareous marie 
that include the fossil nucules. 

Professor Agardh has divided the Genus into NiteJla and 
Chara, characterizing the former by its having a single, jointed 
tube composed of a very thin colourless membrane, resembling that 
of his Genus Valonia, the globules and nucules separated, desti- 
tute of bracteas and with scarcely any perceptible prominences or 
points crowning the nucules ; — whilst, in Chara, the principal tube 
is covered by several lesser tubes, (except in the part which is 
buried in the mud and in the extremities of the branches,) the 
glohides&nAnucidesvLve placed near each other, supported by many 
bractese, and the nucules are crowned with distinct teeth. But 
the character derived fi’om the simple or compound stems is of 
extremely difficult investigation, and that deduced from the 
situation of the organs of reproduction docs not appear to 
be constant. 

Species of Chara, scarcely differing from those of Europe, 
I have received from almost every part of the world ; from Ice- 
land in the north (where they sometimes grow in the hot 
springs) to the tropics, and in both hemispheres. They are 
found carpetting the bottoms of ditches, and stagnant waters, and 
frequently yielding a very disagreeable odour. Trout and Carp 

1 Ed. Phil. Journ. v. 9. p. 194. 2 Brewster’s Ed. Journ. 1827, p. , 384. 




are said to arrive at a great size where tliese plants abound, 
feeding perhaps on their fruit and, more greedily, on the insects 
which they necessarily harbour. 

1. Chara. Vaill. 

(Character the same as that of the Order.) — Name; its 
origin unknown. 

* More or less pellucid and flexible, not striated. (Nitella. Ag.) 

1. C. transliicens, Pers. {translucent Chara) ; elongated 
smooth flaccid glossy and pellucid, branches of the whorls elon- 
gated patent obtuse simple with a short point, nucules and 
globules upon the smaller ramuli scarcely bracteated. — Pers. 
Syn.Pl. V. '2.J). 531. E. Bot. t. 1703. E. El. v. 1. 7;. 8.— 
Nitella transliicens, Ag. Syst. Alg.p. 124. 

Deep stagnant pools near Shrewsbury ; Browston, Suffolk ; Bagnley 
moor, Chesliire, Mr. IVihon. Several places in Scotland. — This is 
the largest, the brightest coloured and most glossy of any of our 
species. Vaillant and Sir Jas. E. Smith describe the branches as joint- 
ed; but this appearance is, I think, wholly owing to a fold in the mem- 
brane of the tube, which is sometimes transverse and sometimes oblique. 

2. C. flexilis, Linn, {flaccid Chara) ; smooth flaccid some- 
what glossy and ptdlucid much and frequently dichotomous, 
branches of the whorls simple or divided obtuse, nuculeg few', 
scarcely bracteated — E. Bot. t. 1070. E. El. v. 1. 7^. 7. — 
Nitella flexilis, and opaca, Ag. Syst. Alg.p. 124. 

Ditches, lakes, and still waters, frequent. — Professor Agardh’s Niltlla 
opitca, according to specimens I have received from him, only differs 
from the true7?c.ri/i«in having a partial incrustation and hence being more 
opaque. Mr. W, H. Harvey finds a variety in the lake of Killarney near 
Mucruss, with the branches of the whorls more elongated than usual, 
and fertile ramuli nestled among them. Mr. Borrer observes the nucules 
and globules to be intermixed and clustered. 

3. C. nidijica, GEd. {clustered Chara) ; smooth flaccid some- 
what glossy and pellucid simple below, primary whorled branches 
simple elongated, fertile ones very numerous crovvded and pro- 
liferous, nucules separated from the globules on the same plant 
{Borrer) bracteated. — FI. Dan.t. 761. E. Bot.t. 1703. E. El. 
V. \. p. 8. — Nitella nidijica, Ag. Syst. Alg.p. 125. 

In salt-water ditches at Shoreham, Sussex, and Cley, Norfolk, ilfr. 
Borrer. — This is a stouter plant than C. flexilis and more slender than 
C. translucens ; distinguished from both, chiefly, as far as I can discover, 
by the densely crow’ded and proliferous fertile whorls of branches. 
Mr. Borrer observes that it is monoecious. Smith says that in the indi- 
viduals he received from Shoreham no nucules could be found, and 
in those from Cley the globule was stalked; in some specimens the 
globule accompanied the nucule. 

4. C. gracilis, Sm. {slender Chara); smooth transparent 
shining, Avhorled branches acute repeatedly forked often fertile 




as well as the axillary compound ones, bi’acteas none. — E. 
Bot. L 2140. E. FI. V. \ . p. 9. — Nitella gracilis, Ag. Syst. Alg. 
p. 125. 

Fish-ponds in Jersey, Sherard. Boggy pools in St. Leonard’s forest, 
Sussex, Mr. Borrer. Llyn Idwel, N. Wales, Mr. W. Wilson. — My 
specimens of this from Mr. Borrer, corresponding with those figured in 
E. Bot, do appear, at first sight, distinct from C. fiexilis. They are 
small, delicate, pale coloured and very glossy. But I have other indivi- 
duals from the same acute Botanist marked “ C. gracilis as to ramifica- 
tion, not as to size,” which I cannot distinguish from C. fiexilis. Mr. 
Wilson’s specimens are intermediate, but more allied to the E. Bot. 
figure. Sir J. E. Smith observes that the nucules and globules are 
usually together; Mr. Wilson finds them always in Llyn Idwel on dif- 
ferent plants. 

** Opaque and very brittle, striated, often spirally. (Chara. Ag.~) 

5. C. vulgaris, Linn, {common Chaixfi) ; smooth opaque 
brittle (but not incrustcd) very obscurely striated, branches of 
the whorls slender subulate, fertile ones with many short raimili 
or bracteae 3 or 4 of which are much longer than the globule 
and nucule that they accompany. — E. Bot. t. 336. E. FI. 
V. \. p. 6. Ag. Syst. Alg. p. 128. 

Ditches and slow streams, frequent. 

6. C. Hedtcigii, Ag. {Hedioigian Cliarci) ; elongated smooth 
opaque brittle (sometimes partially inci’usted) obscurely stri- 
ated, branches of the whorls subidate, the fertile ones with 
many short ramuli or bracteae 3 or 4 of VAdiich are shorter than 
the nucule and globule that they accompany. — Ag. Syst. Alg. 
p. 129. — C. pulchella, Wallr. Ann. Bot. p. 184. t. 12. Ag, Syst. 
Alg. p. 129. 

Still pools ; Buxtead, Sussex, Mr. Borrer. Near Croft, Yorkshire, 
Rev. J. Dalton. — Larger than the preceding, with more numerous fertile 
branches and shorter bracteae. The branches are jointed in both at the 
setting on of the ramuli or bracteae, which, being numerous, the joints 
are consequently numerous, 

7. C. aspera, Willd. {rough Charai) ; slender opaque brittle 
obscurely striated every vvdiere beset with patent scattered 
spinules, branches of the whorls subulate, the fertile ones with 
many short ramuli or bracteae of which 3 or 4 accompany the 
nucule or globule (on different plants) uncertain in length. 
— Wallr. Ann. Bot. p. 185. t. Q.f. 3. Ag. Syst. Alg. p. 130. 
Grev. Scot. Cr. FI. t. 339. — C. galioides, De Cand. {according 
to specimens from the author^. 

Pools of fresh water, Orkney, Mr. C. Clauston. Prestwick Carr, 
Northumberland, Mr. W. Robertson. Irthing, Durham, Mr. Bowman. 
Peat-pits in Cleiviog Farm, 4 miles from Holyhead, Mr. W. Wilson. — 
In one of my specimens, from Montpellier, I find the globules on the 
same plant with the nucules, but apart from them. 

8. C. hispida, Linn, {liispid Chara)', opaque brittle striated 
covered more or less thickly by a calcareous crust, branches 



Char a ^ 

of the whorls suhulate, fertile ones with many short ramuli or 
hractea) of Avhich 3 — 4 are longer than the nucule and globule 
that they accompany. — a. major ; larger, stems spinulose. C. 
hispida, Linn. — E. Bot, t. 463. E. El. v \.p.l. Ag. Syst. 
Alg. p. 128. — jS. gracilis ; smaller, spinules obsolete. C. his- 
pida, (3. Ag. Syst. Alg. p. 128. E. El. v.X.p.l. 

Ditches, especially in turfy bogs and lakes. — fi. Lancing, Sussex. 
Mr. Borrer. Southport, Lancashire and Anglesea, Mr. W. ]] ilson. 
Near Croft, Yorkshire, Bev. J. Dalton. — In general this plant is thickly 
incrustcdj but in a specimen gathered by Mr, Wilson in Cheshire and 
tallying with the figure in JZ. Bot., the incrustation is scarcely percep- 
tible, Independent of this covering, the smaller variety^ very much 
resembles a large state of C. vulgaris, and the a gigantic C. aspera. 
Indeed, I am sometimes of opinion that all our known CharcB may be 
referred to one or other of 2 species, C. jiexilis, the type of the first divi- 
sion, and C. vulgaris, the type of the 2d; and that, like almost all aquatic 
plants, they are liable to great variation, dependant upon the soil, depth 
and movement of the water, and a variety of other circumstances. Agardh 
enumerates 24 species as natives of Europe, and most of them of tlie 
northern part of it; nearly the whole of which might probably be found in 
the waters of our own country, if carefully investigated. 


OiiD. VI. ALGjE. Juss. (Linn.^partof), 

Aquatic Plants, with very few exceptions; of very varied form 
and texture : a single globule or a series of globules or joints 
placed one at the extremity of the other, so as to form a simple 
or branched filament (in some genera enveloped in gelatine) or 
united and extended in various directions and thus constituting 
a membranous or coriaceous almost horny more or less dis- 
tinctly cellular frond, rounded, compressed or flat, simple or 
branched, the branches often foliaceous, nerveless, or costate 
and nerved, entire or serrated ; the main stems in the coarser 
species almost woody and very fibrous; floating in the water 
or attached by a fibrous or scutate base to substances from 
which they appear to receive no nutriment, that being de- 
rived from the element by which they are surrounded. Their 
colour is vai-ious, different shades of green, brown, red, &c. 
After having been kept dry for a great length of time, they will 
revive by immersion in water ; but only that portion of the plant 
which is immersed imbibes the fluid. The Seeds or Sporules 
consist of minute granules, internal, clustered or scattered, or 
imbedded in tubercles or peculiar processes arising from the 
frond. Often two or three different kinds or rather forms of 
fructification exist in the same species, but each apparently in 
itself is capable of becoming a new plant. There is nothing 
that can be compared to the stamens in phseuogamous plants. 

As we recede from the more perfectly formed (as they are 
termed) or more highly organized Cryptogamous plants which 
stand at the head of this arrangement, we find it more and more 
difficult to characterize in a few words the respective Orders or 
groupes, and to distinguish them from the neighbouring ones. 
But the eye, when a little practised, Avill soon enable the student 
to recognise them ; and though the present extensive Natural 
Order is reckoned among the lowest of the vegetable creation, 
we shall find that it is scarcely exceeded by any in tbe form 
and colour and texture of its species ; so that no cryptogamic 
plants have been more general objects of admiration and re- 
search ; and, if their value is to be estimated by the service that 
mankind derives from them, they will hold a high rank in the 
scale. Many kinds are eaten in different parts of the world, 



especially in the north of Europe, and some are esteemed gieat 
delicacies. Cattle, at certain seasons of tlie year, repair to the 
sliores at low tide and devour the sea-weeds with great eager- 
ness. From the marine Algaj, iodine, a new principle and pos- 
sessed of very remarkable properties, is derived. It has been 
successfully employed in the cure of goitres ; a disease which. 
Dr. Gillies informs us, has yielded in South America to the 
application of the stem of a certain Fimis, long hetoie 
iodine was employed in civilized Europe. lu the manufactory 
of kelp these same plants are of vast importance and the value 
of land rose in Scotland,' (during the war on the Continent 
and when we were deprived of the means of obtaining a pure 
alkali from the south of Europe,) in a most extraordinary de- 
gree ; so that the rocky boundary of our island yielded a great 
revenue to the different proprietors, and to our government, by 
the duty that was paid on the article produced. Acanthophora 
muscoides and Gigartina Helminihochorton hold a place in the 
pharmacopoeia as vermifuges. Chondrus crispus has been of 
late largely collected in Ireland, after it lias lain and become 
bleached upon the beach, and is used very generally as a substitute 
for isinglass, in making blanc-mange. The famous edible nests 
(the nest of the swallow, called Hirundo esculenta) are said to 
be made from a species of sea- weed : and lastly I may mention 
that sea-weed is employed to a vast extent in the manuring of 
land in the vicinity of the coast, either thrown on fresh, or first 
laid in a heap to ferment and mixed with other vegetable 

Low as this Order of plants is in the scale of vegetable beings, it 
is yet the one which approaches the nearest to certain animals. 
Indeed the ablest naturalists have been unable to draw the line 
of distinction between the least perfect of these and the less 
highly organized of animals. 

In no country have the Algie been more successfully studied 
than in Great Britain ; and when the extent of our coast is con- 
sidered, our numerous rivers, lakes and other situations favour- 
able to their growth, it will be at once seen that few can have 
better opportunities of studying them than the naturalists of 
our islands. Woodward and Turner and Dillwpi have most 
extensively investigated and described our maiine and fiesh 
water Alga?, and the late Miss Hutchins of Bantry, and Mrs. 
Griffiths of Torquay, have studied this family of plants with a 
deo-ree of perseverance, ardour and success, Avhicli has ranked 
their names with the most eminent algologists. Stack- 
house, Lamouroux, Agardh and Lyngbye liave been among 
the first to separate the old genera of Fucks, Viva and Conferva, 
under whicli almost the whole of the present Algcc were ar- 
ranged, into distinct and more or less well-marked genera. To 
this subject. Dr. Greville of Edinburgh has long devoted his 



attention, and tlie result of Ins labours is displayed in one of 
the most beautiful and useful books connected with this branch 
of natural history, the Algce Britannicoe. InarticulatcB. His ar- 
rangement and characters of the genera of that division of the 
Algcc I have almost implicitly followed, a§ the best that has ap- 
peared. The Dlatomece he has kindly undertaken expressly for 
this work. I am indebted to W. H. Harvey, Esq. of Summer- 
ville, near Limerick, for all that concerns the rest of the AlgcB; 
and I am here anxious to express my great obligations to that 
gentleman for the readiness with whicli, at my request, he under- 
took this most difficult task, and for which his zeal and his know- 
ledge have rendered him j)eculiarly qualified. Those who have 
occasion to study the British species of this extensive tribe of 
plants, will, I am sure, duly appreciate his labours. The public, 
too, as well as myself, are greatly indebted to the late Capt. 
Carmichael of Appin, Argyleshire, for the ardour with which 
he explored the coasts in the vicinity of his residence, and the 
number of previously un described species which he has added 
to the catalogue. Upon his death, his herbarium and IMSS. 
and drawings came into my possession, and no one is more 
anxious to do justice to the memory of this eminent crypto- 
gamist, by recording his discoveries, than are ]Mr. Harvey and 

Synopsis of the Genera. 


Plants foliaceous, spreading or filiform, inarticulate (or rarely and 
only apparently articidated'). 

Tribe I. Fucoide^. Marine plants, of an olive-hroxon or 
olive-green colour, becoming black on exposure to the air; of a 
firm, coriaceous or ligneous substance and fibrous texture, teax'- 
ing with facility in a longitudinal direction. Frond xoith a hard, 
scutate root, furnished in many species xvitli distinct leaves. 
Vesicles or air-vessels generally present, xvhich are either uniform 
dilatations of pai'ticular parts, or distinct bodies supported on 
little stalks. Fructification ; tubex'cles contained in distinct recep- 
tacles, or imbedded in the frond and containing dark-coloured 
seeds surrounded xoith a pellxicid limbus, xvhich escape by a ter- 
minal pxore. Gx'ev. 

1. Sargassum. leaved. ZmTcs stalked, with a mid- 

rib. Air-vessels simple, axillary, st.alked. Receptacles small, 
linear, tuberculated (mostly in axillary clusters or racemes). 
Seeds in distinct cells. Grev. 

2. Cystoseira. Fx'ond furnished with branch-like leaves, 
becoming more filiform upwards. Air-vessels simple, arranged 
consecutively Avitbin the substance of the branch-like leaves. 



Receptacles cylindrical, more or less lanceolate, tubcrculated, 
terminal. Seeds in distinct cells. Grev. 

3. Halidrys. Frond compressed, coriaceous, linear, pin- 
nated witli distichous branches. Air-vessels, lanceolate, stalked, 
divided by transverse septa. Receptacles lanceolate, stalked, 
compressed. Seeds in distinct cells. Grev. 

4. Fucus. Frond plane, compressed or cylindrical, linear, 
dichotomous, coriaceous. Air-vessels, when present, innate in 
the frond, simple, large. Receptacles terminal (except in F. 
nodosus), turgid, containing tubercles imbedded in mucus, and 
discharging their seeds by conspicuous pores. Grev. 

5. Himanthalia. Frond coriaceous, orbicular, peziziform. 
Vesicles none. Receptacles elongated, strap-shaped, compressed, 
dichotomously divided, springing from the centre of the frond, 
containing immersed tubercles, furnished with a pore. Grev. 

Tribe II. Lichineje. Marine plants, of a hlackish-grcen co- 
lour changing to deep black on exposure to the air, of a cartila- 
ginous substance and Jibroiis texture. Frond flat or cylindrical, 
minute, branched in a dichotomous or suhpahnated manner. 
Fructification terminal or nearly terniincd, composed of caj)sules 
furnished with a pore and filled with a colourless gelatinous 
mass of very fine filaments, among which jjellucid oved or oblong 
seeds are disposed in many radieding moniliform series. Grev. 

6. Lichxna. Frond cartilaginous, blackish-green, dichoto- 
mous. Fructification ; roundish capsules of the same colour as 
the frond, containing radiating moniliform lines of pellucid seeds, 
imbedded in a gelatinous mass of filaments. Grev. 

Tribe III. Laminarie.e. Marine plants, of an olive-broum 
or olive-green colour, becoming someiohat darker on exposure to 
the car, varying in texture from coriaceous to membranaceous. 
Frond tvith a lobed or fibrous root, more or less stipifate and 
forming a plane, entire or cleft expansion, in a few cases fur- 
nished with one or more ribs. Vesicles none, {except in the 
exotic genus Macrocystus,) unless the hollow stem of some species 
be consithred as such. Fructification, so far as is hitherto hnoum, 
either seeds mixed with a mass of vertical, jointed filaments, or 
roundish granules, ivithout filaments, forming, in both cases, 
dense, spreading spots or sori, on the surface of some part of 
the frond. Structure densely fibroso-celhdar, without any ap- 
pearance of reticulation. Grev. 

7. Alaria. Frond membranaceous, furnished with a per- 
current, cartilaginous midrib ; the stem pinnated with distinct 
leaflets. Fructification ; pyriform seeds, vertically aiTanged in 
the incrassated leaflets. Grev. 



8. Laminaria. Frond coriaceous (rarely niembraiiaceous) 
plane, expanded, without a midrib. Fructification ; seeds or 
gramdes forming dense sori or spots, and indjedded in the 
thickened surface of some part of the frond. Grev. 

1 KIBE IV. Sporochnide/E. 3Iai’iue plants, of an olivaceous or 
yellowish-green colour, fwt changing to hlach in drying') ; of a 
cartilagmeo-memhranaceous substance, becoming flaccid almost 
immediately on exposure to the air, in some cases, acquiring 
under such circumstances, a verdigris-green colour, and then pos- 
sessing the property of rapidly decomposing other delicate Algce 
in contact loith them. Frond icith a scutate (^rarely tomentose) 
root, flat, compressed or cylindrical, with distichous (I'arely ir- 
regular) branches, and bearing, in most sjjecies, at some period 
oj their groivth, little pencil-like deciduous tufts of fine green fila- 
ments. Fructification ; so far as it is known, composed of club- 
shaped, moniliform, radiating filaments, either forming sessile 
warts, or arranged concentrically in little stalked, club-shaped 
bodies, terminated by pencils of delicate fibres. Grev. 

9. Desmarestia. Frond cartilaginous, plane or compressed, 
distichously branched, while young furnished with marginal de- 
ciduous tufts of fine green filaments, the branches set with mar- 
ginal spines. Grev. 

10. Dichloria. Frond cylindrical, filiform, cartilaginous, 
pinnated with opposite branches and becoming flaccid and of a 
verdigris-green colour on exposure to the air. Fructification 
unknown. Grev. 

11. Sporochnus. filiform, cylindrical or compressed, 

cartilagineo-membranaceous. Fructification ; club-shaped, moni- 
liform filaments, radiating in scattered warts, or concentrical in 
distinct (mostly clavate, stalked) receptacles, often terminated 
by a deciduous tuft of filaments. Grev. 

Tribe V. Chordariea:. Marine plants, of anolive-green colour, 
becoming darker on exposure to the air, of a cartilaginous and 
lubricous substance. Foot scutate. Frond continuous, cylin- 
drical, filiform, composed of a solid celhdar centre and a dense 
exterior mass of concentrical filaments. FructficatioJi imper- 
fectly knoion. Grev. 

12. Chobdabia. Frond filiform, cartilaginous, solid, con- 
tinuous, composed exteriorly of a stratum of concentrical fila- 
ments. Grev. 

Tribe VI. Dictyoteac. Marine plants, of an olive-green col- 
our, not changing on exposure to the air, of a membranaceous, 
flexible (jarely cartilaginous) substance and reticulated struc- 
ture. Foot either naked and scutate or composed of a mass of 



woolly filcmouts. Frond cijlindriccd or Jlat, nerveless (except 
in Haliseris), thin, entire or divided, often jlahelliform . Fruc- 
tijicntion ; roundish-ovate, pear-shaped or club-shaped seeds 
enveloped in a pellucid case, covering the surface, or scattered, 
or forming minute spots or tremsverse lines. The seeds in most 
cases arejjroduced beneath the epidermis, through which they hurst 
and become prominent. Grev. 

13. ChcSrda. Frond simple, filiform, cyliiulrical, with an 
interrupted cavity. Foot naked, scutate. Fructification ; ex- 
ternal continuous masses of pear-shaped seeds, fixed by their 
base. Grev. 

1 4. Asperococcus. Frond tubular, cylindrical, continuous, 
membranaceous. Foot minutely scutate, naked. Fructifica- 
tion ; distinct spots composed of imbedded seeds, mixed with 
erect, club-shaped filaments. Grev. 

15. PuNCTARiA. Frond simple, membranaceous, flat, with 
a naked scutate root. Fructification scattered over the \ybole 
frond in minute distinct spots, composed of roundish prominent 
seeds, intermixed with club-shaped filaments. Grev, 

16. Striaria. Frond filiform, tubular, continuous, mem- 
branaceous, branched. Root naked and scutate. Fructification ; 
groupes of roundish seeds, forming transverse lines. Grev. 

17. DiCTYosfpHON. Frond filiform, tubular, continuous, 
branched. Foot minutely scutate, naked. Fructification; 
ovate, scattered seeds, lying beneath the epidermis. Grev. 

18. Dictyota. Frond flat, highly reticulated, membra- 
naceous, dichotomous or irregularly cleft (palmato-flabelliform 
in J). atomarici). Foot a mass of woolly filaments. Fructifica- 
tion composed of scattered, or variously aggregated, somewhat 
prominent seeds, on both surfaces of the frond. Grev. 

19. CuTLERiA. jProwrf piano-compressed, cartilagineo-mem- 
branaceous, subflabelliform, ii-regularly cleft. Foot a mass of 
woolly filaments. Fructification; minute tufts oi capsules, scat- 
tered on botli surfaces of tlie frond, the capsules pedicellate, con- 
taining several distinct gramdes. Grev. 

20. Pad/na. Frond flat, highly reticulated, subcoriaceous, 
flabelliform, mostly undivided, marked with concentric lines. 
Foot a mass of woolly filaments. Fructification ; ovate, black- 
ish seeds, fixed by their base, bursting through the epidermis in 
compact concentric lines, (rarely spots,) mostly on one surface 
of the frond. Grev, 

21. Haliseris. Frond flat, linear, membranaceous, with a 

midrib. a mass of woolly filaments. Fructification; ovate 



seeds, forming distinct sori or groupes (mostly arranged in longi- 
tudinal lines). Grev. 

Tribe VII. Furcellarie^. Marine plants, of a dull dark- 
purplish or brownish-red colour, changing to black on exposure 
to the air. Substance cartilaginous. Structure cellular, with a 
dense coloured stratum of horizontal filaments, forming the. cir- 
cumference. Root creeping. Frond cylindrical, filiform, di- 
chotomous. Fructification terminal, composed of pod-like inde- 
hiscent receptacles, loithin which is imbedded, near the circumfe- 
rence, a horizontal circidar stratum of darh-broiun oblong-pear- 
shaped seeds. Grev. 

22. Furcellaria. Frond cartilaginous, cylindrical, filiform, 
dichotomous. Fructification ; terminal, elongated pod-like re- 
ceptacles, containing a stratum of dark, oblong-pear-shaped 
seeds in the circumference. Grev. 

Tribe VIII. SroNGiocARPEiE. Marine plants, of a dull dark 
reddish-purple colour, changing to nearly black on exposure to 
the air, of a cartilaginous substance and cellular structure. 
Root scutate. Frond filiform, cylindrical and dichotomous. 
Fructification uniform, consisting of naked, spongy warts, com- 
posed of a mass of radiating filaments, among which are imbed- 
ded numerous, roundish clusters of seeds, surrounded xviih a 
pellucid bolder ; the seeds wedge-shaped, fixed by their base to a 
central point. Grev. 

23. PoLYiDES. Frond cartilaginous, filiform, cylindrical. 
Fructification; naked, spongy warts, composed of radiating 
filaments, among which are imbedded roundish clusters of wedge- 
shaped seeds, surrounded with a pellucid border. Grev. 

Tribe IX. Floride^. Marine plants, of a purplish-reddish or 
fine rose colour, seldom changing much by exposure to the air ; 
of a coriaceous, cartilaginous or membranaceous substance and 
cellular texture, often reticulated. Frond fiat, compressed or 
cylindrical, with or xoithout a midrib ; sometimes furnished with 
distinct leaves or foliaceous expansions. Fructification often of 
two kinds ; the first, spherical or hemispherical capsules, sessile 
or stalked and containing a round mass of seeds — the second com- 
posed of granules, (inostly ternate') scattered or collected into 
little spots {sori) or lines, and situated either in the general sub- 
stance of the frond, or in leaflets or distinct pod-like foliace- 
ous processes. 3Iore than one kind of fructification is never 
found upon the same individual. Grev. 

24. Delesseria. Frond rose-red, flat, membranaceous, 
with a percurrent midrib. Fructification of two kinds : — caji- 
sules containing a globular mass of seeds, and ternate granules, 



forming definite sori in the frond, or in distinct foliaceous leaf- 
lets. Grev. 

25. Nitophyllum. Frond plane, delicately membranace- 
ous, rose-coloured, reticulated, M-holly without veins or only 
with very slight vague ones towards the base. Frtictificalion ; 
hemispherical capsules, imbedded in the substance of the frond ; 
and ternate granules, fonning distinct scattered spots. Grev. 

26. RhOdomenia. Frond plane, membranaceous, fine pink 
or red, quite veinless, sessile, or with a short stem which ex- 
pands immediately into the frond. Fructification ; hemispheri- 
cal scattered cajjsules ; and minute ternate granules, spreading 
over the whole or some part of the frond, (not in defined spots.) 

27. Plocamium. Frond filiform, compressed, between mem- 
branaceous and cartilaginous, fine pink-red, much branched, 
branches distichous (alternately secund and pectinate). Fruc- 
tification : spherical, sessile capsules; and lateral minute pro- 
cesses, containing oblong granules, transversely divided into 
several parts by pellucid lines. Grev. 

28. Microcladia. Frond filiform, compressed, subcartila- 
ginous, irregularly branched, the branches distichous. Fructi- 
fication ; sessile spherical capsules, accompanied by an involucre, 
in the form of several short ramuli ; and ternate granules, in the 
swollen apices of the branches. Grev. 

29. Odonthalia. Frond plane, between membranaceous 
and cartilaginous, dark vinous-red, with an imperfect or obso- 
lete midrib, and alternately toothed at the margin. Fructifica- 
tion marginal, axillary or in the teeth : — capsules containing 
pear-shaped seeds, fixed by their base ; and slender processes 
containing ternate gramdes. Grev. 

30. Frond cylindrical or compressed, filiform, 
much branched, coriaceo-cartilaginous (the apex sometimes in- 
volute). Fructification ; subglobose capsules, containing free, 
pear-shaped seeds ; and pod-like receptacles with imbedded ter- 
nate granules. Grev. 

31. Bonnemaisonia. membranaceous, compressed or 

plane, filiform, much branched, the branches pectinate with 
distichous cilise. Fructification ; sessile or pedicellate cap- 
sides, containing a cluster of pyriform (compound ?) seeds, fixed 
by their base. Grev. 

32. Laurencia. Frond cylindrical, filiform, between car- 
tilaginous and gelatinous, mostly yellowish or purplish-red. 
Fructification of two kinds : ovate capsules, with a terminal 
pore, containing a cluster of stalked pear-shaped seeds, fixed by 
their base ; and ternate granules imbedded in the ramuli Grev. 



33. Chylocladia. Frond cylindrical, filiform (often con- 
tracted as if jointed), between gelatinous and cartilaginous, of 
a pinky-red colour. Fructification of two kinds : spherical ovate 
or conical capsides, witli wedge-shaped or angular seeds ; and 
imbedded, ternate granules. Grev. 

34. Gigartina (Gracilaria and Gigartina, Grev.) Frond 
cartilaginous, filiform, cylindrical or compressed, irregularly 
branched, of a dull red colour. Fructification ; — capsules con- 
taining a mass of minute roundish seeds ; and roundish or ob- 
long, simple granules, imbedded in the fronds of distinct plants. 

35. Chondrus. Frond cartilaginous, dilating upwards, 
flat, nerveless, dichotornously divided, of a purplish or 
livid-red colour. Fructification ; subspherical capsules, in the 
substance of the frond (rarely supported on little stalks), con- 
taining a mass of minute free seeds. Grev, 

36. Phyllophora. Frond cartilaginous or membranaceous, 
of a purple rose-colour, plane, proliferous from the disk, fur- 
nished with a more or less imperfect or obscure midrib. Fruc- 
tification ; capsules containing a mass of minute roundish free 
seeds; — and sori of simple granules, in little foliaceous proces- 
ses. Grev. 

37. SPHiEROCoccus. Frond cartilaginous, compressed, two- 
edged, linear, distichously branched. Fructification; mucro- 
nate capsules, containing a mass of ovate shortly pedicellate red 
seeds. Grev. 

38. Gelidium. Frond between cartilaginous and horny, 
compressed, linear, more or less regularly pinnated. Fructifica- 
tion ; cajusii/es imbedded in the substance of the I’amuli, con- 
taining a mass of minute roundish seeds ; and ternate or other- 
wise compound granules in the raniuli, on distinct individuals. 

39. Grateloupia. Frond cartilagiueo-meinbranaceous, 
plane, sometimes pinnated with branchlets or fringed with foli- 
aceous processes. Fructification ; minute aggregated tubercles 
furnished with a pore and containing a mass of free elliptical or 
roundish seeds. Grev. 

40. ChjETospora. Frond subcartilaginous, filiform, branched, 
rose-coloured, ultimate ramuli setaceous, swelling into lanceolate 
receptacles, composed of naked bi’anched filaments radiating fiom 
an axis, in the centre of which is situated the obscure 

tion (minute seeds or capsides). Grev. 

41. Ptilota. Frond compressed or flat, pectinato-pinuate, 
of a red colour, between membranaceous and cartilaginous. 



Fructijication ; minute, aggregated capsules, surrounded by an 
involucre. Grev. 

Tribe X. Gastrocarpe/E. Plants all marine, with a scu- 
tate root, of a pink, red, or pu,rplish-red colour, most of them 
not changing much on exposure to the atmosphere, of a 
carnose, gelatino-cartilaginous or gelatino-membranaceous sub- 
stance ; the structure consisting of a cellular external coat 
or membrane, and a pellucid, gelatinous, internal mass, mostly 
traversed by colourless jointed filaments arising from the outer 
membrane. Frond cylindrical, compressed or flat, continuous, 
destitute of midrib or veins. Fructification; roundish clusters 
or globules of red seeds, imbedded in the internal gelatinous sub- 
stance of the frond, and often unaccompanied by an external 
pore. Grev. 

42. IridvEA. Frond flat, expanded, carnose or gelatino- 
cartilaginous, more or less of a purplish-red colour. Fructifica- 
tion ; globules of roundish seeds, imbedded between the two coats 
of the frond. Gi'ev. 

43. Haly3Ienia, Frond neai’ly flat or cylindrical, gelatino- 
membranaceous, of a pinky-red colour, more or less di- 
chotomous, the segments often laciniated. Fructification; puncti- 
form globules of seeds, imbedded in the central substance of the 
frond. Grev. 

44. Dumontia. Frond cylindrical, simple or branched, 
membranaceous, tubular, gelatinous within, of a red or purple- 
red colour. Fructification; globules of seeds, attached to the 
inner surface of the membrane of the frond. Grev. 

45. Catenella. Frond filiform, somewhat compressed, 
creeping, throwing up numerous branches, contracted, as if 
jointed, in a moniliform manner, composed internally of branched 
filaments radiating from the centre. Fructification unknown. 

Tribe XI. Uevace^e. Plants found in the sea, in fresh-water 
or on damp grotmd, S^c., of an herbaceous green or fine purple 
colour, of a thin tender membranaceous substance and reticulated 
structure, rarely gelatinous. Frond with a very minutely scu- 
tate root, expanded, or tubular and continuous. Fructification; 
roundish and mostly quaternate granules or minute sporular 
grains, imbedded in the delicate membrane of the frond. Grev. 

46. PoRPHYRA. Frond plane, exceedingly thin and of a 
purple colour. Trxwtfication ; 1. scattered soil of oval seeds ; 

2. roundish granules, mostly arranged in a quaternate manner, 
and covering the whole frond. Grev. 




47. Ulva. Frond membranaceous, of a green colour, plane 
(In some cases saccate, and inflated in a young state). Fructi- 
fication ; minute granules, mostly arranged in fours. Grev. 

48. Tetraspora. Frond tubidar or inflated, gelatinous. 
Fructification; minute granules, loosely arranged in fours. 

49. Enteromorpii A. Frond tubular, hollow, membran- 

aceous, of a green colour and reticulated structure. Friictf- 
cation ; three or four roundish granules, aggregated in the reti- 
culations. Grev. 

50. Bangia. Frond flat, capillary, membranaceous, of a 
green, reddish or purple colour. Fructification ; granules ar- 
ranged more or less in a transv^erse manner. Grev. 

Tribe XII. Siphone/e. Plants founi in the sea, in fresh 
water or on damp ground, S;c., of an herbaceous green colour. 
Frond either composed of membranaceous, filiform, contin uous, 
simple or branched tubes, or formed oj a combination oj similar 
tubes, and then presenting a lax spongy body of various forms, 
crustaceous, globular, cylindrical or fiat. F ructification; vesi- 
cles (coniocystce, Ag.) produced on the outer surface of the tubes, 
filled with a dark-green granular mass : (in Yiotvy dmm,) the ent fie 
plant is little more than a hollow green globule icith a radicating 
tuft of fibres, lohose fructification is unknown. Grev. 

51. CoDiuM. spongy, dark-green (crustaceous, glo- 

bular, cylindrical or flat), composed of an interwoven mass of 
tubular continuous filaments. Fructification ; opaque vesicles, 
attached to the filaments near the surface of the frond. Grev. 

52. Bryopsis. Frond membranaceous, filiform, tubular, cy- 
lindrical, glistening, branched, the branches imbricated, or dis- 
tichous and pinnated, filled with a green minutely grantdiferous 
fluid. Grev. 

53. Vaucheria. Fronds aggregated, tubular, continuous, 
capillary, coloured by an internal green pulverulent mass. 
Fructification ; dark-green homogeneous vesicles (coniocystse, 
Ag.) attached to the frond. Grev. 

54. Botrydium. Pla 7 it a sphserical vesicular receptacle, 
filled with a watery fluid, dehiscent at the apex, terminating 
below in a radicating tuft of fibres. Grev. 

Tribe XIII. Lemanie,e. Aquatic plants, existing in fresh 
and rapidly running water. Fronds slender, tubulose, either 
whorled with papUlce or moniliform, formed of a coriaceous cellu- 
lose membrane, the cells regular, interspersed icith intercelhdar 
ducts. From scattered jwints obscurely conspicuous, even exter- 
nally upon this membrane, but on its interior surface, there 



arise fascicles of minute simple or dichotomous, moniliform, arti- 
culated threads ; the articidations ellipticcd, being themselves the 
seeds or sporidia, separating in age and gtrminating. Ag. 

55. Lemania. Frond filiform, torulose or inflated at inter- 
vals, coriaceous, cellular. Seeds or sporules beaded, collected 
into pencil-shaped tufts, and fixed to the inner surface of the 
hollowed part of the frond. 


plants filamentous, really or apparently articidated {destitute of 

definite gelatine). 

Tribe XIV. EctocarpEjE. Plants olivaceous or virescent, 
marine. Fructification monoecious; external capsules, and glohides 
in swollen ramuli. 

56. Cladostephus. Bamidi whorled. 

57. Sphacelaria. Rigid, mostly pinnate, longitudinally 
striated, the apices sphacelated. 

58. Ectocarpus. Capillary, flaccid, the apices attenuated, 

Tribe XV. Ceramie^. Plants red or purple, rarely hrotcn, 
marine. Fructification double, dioecious; — 1. external cap- 
sides ; — 2. polymorphous receptacles or granules in swollen 

59. Polysiphonia. Longitudinally striated, with internal 
parallel tubes. Fructification ; — 1. ovate capsules; — 2. granules 
in swmllen ramuli. 

60. Dasya. Stems inarticulate, cellulose, the ramuli articu- 
lated. Fructification ; — 1. ovate capsules ; — 2. lanceolate receji- 
tacles, including gramdes in transverse fasciae. 

61. Ceramium. reticulated, dissepiments opaque. 

Fructification ; — 1. roundish cajjsules with Ji membranaceous 
pericarp ; — 2. oblong gramdes in the upper ramuli. 

62. Spyridia. Main filaments inarticulate, cartilaginous, be- 
set with articulated ramuli ; dissepiments opaque. Fructifica- 
tion; — 1. trisporous capsides with hyaline pericarps clustered 
round the bases of the ramuli : — 2. pedunculated gelatinous re- 
ceptacles with membranaceous pericarps, often surrounded by an 
involucre of short ramuli, containing two or three masses of 
roundish granules. 

63. Griffithsia. Filaments mostly dichotomous, dissepi- 
ments hyaline. Fructification ; — 1. clustered capsules and 

' By W. H. Harvey, Esq. 



hyaline pericarps ; — 2. roundish, gelatinous, involucrated re- 
ceptacles, including minute granules. 

64. Calithamnion. Filaments mostly pinnated, dissepi- 

ments hyaline. Fructification ; — 1. scattered capsules with 
hyaline — 2. polymorphous receptacles, containing large 


Tribe XVI. Conferve^. Plants green, very rarely pink or 
brown. Fructification {except in Bulbochfete) a granular 
coloured internal mass {called endochrome) which affects vari- 
ous forms. — Frcsh-wcder or marine. 

65. BuLBOCHiETE. Filaments branched, each articulation 
bearing a deciduous inarticulate seta, fixed by a scutate base. 

66. Conferva. Filaments simple or branched, articulated, 
uniform. Fruetification; a granular internal mass filling the tube. 

67. Hydrod/ctyon. Filaments forming a net-work with 
regular polygonal meshes. 

68. Mougeotia. Filaments simple, finally united by trans- 
verse tubes. Endochrome uniform, granular. 

69. Tentaridia. Filaments simple, finally united by trans- 
verse tubes. Endoehrome bipinnate. 

70. Zygnema. Filaments simple, finally united by transverse 
tubes. Endochrome forming spiral rings. 

Tribe XVII. Oscillatori.®. Plants green or hroum, rarely 
purple, continuous, tubular, seldom branched, though often ag- 
glutinated together so as to appear branched. Fructification ; an 
internal mass divided by transverse septa, which finally separates 
into roundish or lenticular sporidia. — Fresh-water, marine, or 
on damp ground. 

71. Stigonema. cartilaginous, branched, marked 

with transverse dotted rings. 

72. ScYTONEMA. Filaments brown, truly brancbed, flaccid, 

73. Calothrix. Filaments green or purple, short, erect 
simple or pseudo-branched. 

74. Lyngbya. green or purple, decumbent, very 

long, flaccid. 

75. Rosaria. Filaments contracted at regular intervals ; 
locides bipartite. 

76. OsciLLAToRiA. rigid, acicular, radiating and 

oscillating from a slimy stratum. 



77. Belonia. Filaments minute, heaped together, submo- 
iiilifonn, finally dissolving into elliptic sporidia. 

Tribe XVIII. Byssoide^. Plants of doubtful affinity, re- 
lated to the Fungi. Filaments articulated, hyaline or coloured. 
Fructification ; granules scattered among the filaments, or cap- 
sules. — Found on rotten wood, among mosses, on the ground, on 
glass, or in chemical solutions : a feto inhabit fresh-water and 
one or two the sea. 

78. Byssocladium. Filaments arachnoid, radiating from a 
centre, with scattered external granules. 

79. jNIycinema. Filaments membranaceous, opaque, tenaci- 
ous, coloured, (on rotten wood.) 

80. Chroolepus. Filaments rigid, snbsolid, opaque, torulose, 
falling to powder. 

81. Trentepohlia. - Filaments flexile, coloured, capsulifer- 
ons. Capsules terminal, (on trees, rocks, and in fresh-water.) 

82. Protonema. Filaments subarticnlated, rooting, (among 

83. Hygroorocis. Filaments hyaline, interwoven into an 
uniform membrane or gelatine, (in chemical solutions.) 

84. Leptomitus. Filaments hyaline, erect, parasitical, 
(growing in fresh water or the sea.) 

Div. III. Gloioclade^.i 

plants consisting of ?iumerous globules, or filaments invested ivith 
a definite gelatine and forming globose or filiform fronds. 

Tribe XIX. Batbaciiosperiue^. Plants filiform or globose, 
composed of articulated, branched filaments, investedwith gelatine. 
Frtictification; so far ns it is hnoivn, capsules on the idtimate ram- 
tdi — 3Iarine or in fresh-water. 

A. Filiform. 

85. Mesogloia. Axis gelatinous. Periphery composed of 
branched subdichotomous filaments. 

86. Batrachospermum. Filaments hyaline, longitudinally 
striated, set with distant wliorls of moniliform rainuli. 

87. Draparnaldia. Filaments hyaline, emitting scattered 
pencils of coloured rarnuli. 

B. Globose or lobed. 

88. CiiiEToPHORA. Frond gelatinous, globose, plane or 
lobed, formed of filaments issuing from the base. 

1 By W. H. Harvey, Esq. 

• 26-2 


89. CoiiYNEPHOiiA. Frond carnoso-coriaceous, liollow, form- 
ed of filaments issuing from a central point. 

90. Myrionema. Frond minute, gelatinous, parasitical 
composed of short, erect, clavate, simple filaments “ fixed at 
their base to a thin expansion.” Grev. 

Tribe XX. Rivulariea;:. Plants more or less globose, never 
Jiliform, carnose, composed of continuous filaments annulated 

91. Rivularia. — C haracter the same as that of the Family. 

Tribe XXI. NosTocniNEiE. Plants more or less globose, gela- 
tinous or carnose, including granules scattered through the mass 
or arranged in .moniliform series. 

92. Protococot’s. Globules aggregated, naked, filled with 
granides, seated on a hyaline jelly. 

93. HjEmatococcus. Minute gelatinous aggregated 
into a frustulose crust and including scattered granules. 

94. Palm ELLA. A polymorphous gelatine, filled with dis- 
tinct globular or elliptic granides. 

95. Echinella, Minute gelatinous fronds, filled with ellip- 
tical corpuscides, radiating from a centre. 

96. Nostoc. a gelatinous polymorphous frond, filled with 
crisped moniliform filaments. 


97. ScHYTHYMENiA. A tougli, coi’iaceous, spread! ng^rwit?, 
composed of fibres intermixed with granules. 


Granides (^frustulci) of various forms, plane or compressed, more 
or less hyaline or transparent, rigid and fragile, in parallel series 
or circles, free, nalied, or imbedded in a mucous mass or gelatinous 
frond, at length separating into definite segments. Small, often very 
minute plants, in the sea or in fresh-water, mostly parasitic or 
forming floating masses, or mixed with other aquatic vegetables. 

Tribe XXII. Desmidie^e. Filaments cylindrical or angular, at 
length separating into segments (^frustulaf 

98. Meloseira. Frustula forming simple pseudo-articulat- 
ed filaments, constricted at the articulations, fragile, easily se- 

1 By Dr. Grevillo. 


99. Desmidium. Frustula forming' simple angular pseudo- 
articulated jUaments, hyaline at the creuate angles, at length se- 

Tribe XXIII. Fragilarie.e. Filaments plane, extremely 

fragile, composed of rectilinear frustula; (^frustula sometimes ap- 
parently radiating from a centre and not presenting the appear- 
ance of a f lament.) 

100. Fragilaria. Frustula ^ormmg plane, pseudo-articu- 
lated, densely striated, fragile filaments, separating at the stiiae 
(not cohering at their angles). 

101. Achnanthes. Frond stipitate, standard-shaped, com- 
posed of frustula, which at length separate (without coher- 
ing at their angles). 

102. Diatoma, forming pseudo-articulated, plane 

filaments, at length separating and cohering at their angles. 

103. Frustulia. Frustula linear, free or imbedded in a 
shapeless mass, solitary or'binate. 

Tribe XXIV. Styllariea^. Frustula plane, loedge-shaped. 

104. Style aria. Frustula wedge-sluiped, separate, stem- 
less, not united into plane lamime. 

105. Licimophora. Frustula wedge-shaped, flahelliform, 

106. Mer/dion. Frustula wedge-shaped, in plane sessile 
■circles or segments of cii’cles. 

Tribe XXV. Cymbelle.e. Frustula elliptical. 

107. Gomphonema. Frustula suhgeminate, terminating a 
very slender, simple or branched filament. 

108. Hojvkeocladia. Frustula arranged in numerous, bi- 
nate, distant, parallel series, within a tubular yrowf?. Ag. 

109. Berkleya. Frustula in longitudinal series, within 
simple mucous filaments, which are free at the extremity, but 
united below into a roundish gelatinous mass. 

110. Micromega. Frustula arranged in longitudinal series, 
within a cartilaginous or gelatinous/row<?. Ag. 

111. Schizonema. Frustula in longitudinal series and in- 
closed in a simple or branched, filiform, mucous, membranaceous 

112. Cymbella. Frustula elliptical, binate, free, or imbed- 
ded in a mucous mass. 





Fronds more or less spreading, rarely filiform, never distinctly 
jointed. Gen. 1 — 55. 

Plants all marine, of an olive-brown or olive-green colour, be- 
coming black on exposure to the air ; of a firm, coriaceous or ligneous 
substance and fibrous texture, tearing ivith facility in a longitudinal 
direction. Frond with a hard scutate root, furnished in many 
species ivith distinct leaves. Vesicles or air-vessels generally pre- 
sent, which are either uniform dilatations of particular parts, or 
distinct bodies supported on little stalks. Fructification ; tubercles 
contained in distinct receptacles, or imbedded in the frond, and con- 
taining darh-coloured seeds surrounded with a pellucid limbus, and 
escaping by a terminal pore. Grev. 

Frond leaved. Leaves stalked, with a midrib. Air-vessels 
simple, axillary, stalked. Peceptacles small, linear, tuberculated 
(mostly in axillary clusters or racemes). Seeds 'wx distinct cells. 
Grev. Alg. Brit. p>. 1. t- 1. — Name, from the Spanish sargazo, 
applied to tlie floating masses of this genus, which, in the seas 
of warmer climates, are so abundant as even to impede the pro- 
gress of vessels. 

1. S. vidgdre, Ag. (common Sargassumj; stem compressed 
filiform pinnated, branches alternate simple, leaves linear-lance- 
olate serrated, vesicles sphserical on flat petioles, receptacles 
cylindrical racemose. Ag. Sp. Alg.v. 1.^^. 3. Grev, Alg. Brit, 
jj. 2. t. 1. — Fucus natans, Turn. Hist. Fuc. t. 46. E. Bot. 

Occasionally cast ashore on the Orkney islands, wafted by the 
currents, probably from the West Indies, along with other exotic pro- 

2. S. bacciferum, Ag. (berry -bearing Sargassum'); stem cy- 
lindrical filiform hipinnate, branches alternate mostly simple, 
leaves linear serrated, vesicles serrated on cylindrical petioles. 
Ag. Sp. Alg. v.l.p. 6. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 3. — Fucus bacciferus, 
Turn. Hist. Fuc. t. 47. E. Bot. t. 1967. 

Sometimes wafted, like the last, to the Orkney islands. Shore of 
Castle Eden Dean, Durham ; Mr. W. Backhouse. 

Tribe I. Fucoidk^. 

1. Sargassum. Ag. Sargassum. 

t. 2114. 




2. Cystosei'ra. Ay. Cystoseira. 

Frond furnished with branch-like leaves, becoming more fili- 
form upwards. Air-vessels simple, arranged consecutively Avithin 
the substance of the branch-like leaves. Receptacles cylindrical, 
more or less lanceolate, tuberculated, terminal. Grev. Alg. 

Brit. p>. 3. t. 2 Name, xuitt*?, a bladder, and rs/ga, a chain, from 

the chain-like little bladders. 

1. C. ericoides, Ag. (liecdli-like Cystoseira); frond cylindrical 

branched closely beset every Avhere with very short subulate 
spinous leaves or branchlets, vesicles elliptical solitary, recep- 
tacles swelling at the base of the terminal spines. Grev. — Ag. 
Sp. Alg. V. 1 . p. 32. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 4. — Fuciis ericoides, 
Linn. — Turn. Hist. Fuc. t. 191. F!. Bot. t. 1968. — F. ta- 

mariscifolius, Huds. — F. selaginoides, Linn . — Turn. Sign. Fuc. 
p. 85. 

Rocks, especially on the S. West coast of Englanil, where Mrs. Griffiths 
finds it abundantly. Bantry Bay, Miss Hutchins. Summer ami 
Autumn. J . 

2. C. gramddta, Ag. (gramdatcd Cystoseira) ; frond cylin- 

drical, stem bearing elliptical knobs each producing a filiform 
repeatedlv dichotomo-pinnate bi-anch furnished with remote 
subulate spines, air-vessels elliptical-lanceolate two or three 
connected together, receptacles elongated. Grev. — Ag. Sj). 
Alg. v. 1. 55. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 5. t. 2. — Fucus gramdatus, 

Linn . — Turn. Hist. Fuc. t. 251. E. Bot. t. 2169. — F. niucro- 
natus. Turn. Syn. Fuc. p. 73. — F. fcerdculaceus , Good, et 
Woodiv. in Linn. Trans, v. Q. p. 134. 

Rocky pools left by the receding of the tide, particularly iu Devon 
and Cornwall, Airs. Griffiths, Mr. Rashleigh, Air. Turner, Sfc. Bantry 
Bay, Aliss Hutchins. Summer, l/l. — Distinguishable from all other 
British species by the numerous elliptical knobs on the stem, e.vcept 
from the following, from which it is known by the absence of the ter- 
minal spine of the receptacles. 

3. C. harhuta, Ag. (bearded Cystoseira) ; frond cylindrical, 
stem furnished with elliptical knobs eacli producing a branch 
many times dichotomo-pinnate and filiform, air-vessels lanceo- 
late chain-like, receptacles OA'ato-elliptical mucronate. Grev — 
Ag. Sp. Alg. V. \. ]). 57. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 6. — F. barbatus, 
Good, et IVoodw. in lAnn. Trans, v. 3. ]). 128. Turn. Hist. 
Fuc. t. 250. E. Bot. t. 2170. — F. gramdatus, TVoodw. 
in Linn. Trans, v. S. p. 131. (excl. the syn.) 

Said to have been gathered by Hudson on the Devonshire coast. 

4. C. fceniciddcea, Ag. (fennel-leaved Cystoseira) ; frond 
compressed, stem destitute of tuberous knobs, brandies more 
or less rough with little hard points repeatedly pinnate filiform, 
air-vessels solitary or about two together, receptacles linear- 
lanceolate mostly proceeding from the terminal vesicles. Grev. 




' — Ag. Sp. Alg. v. p. 62. Grev, Alg. Brit. p. 7. — C. abro- 

tanifolia, Ag. Sp. AJg. v. I. 7 ). 63 Fucus fceniculaceus, Linn. — 

Turn. Hist. Fuc. t. 252. — F. discors, Linn — Turn. Syn. Fuc. 
p. 70. E. Bot. t. 2131. — F. abrotanifolius, Linn — Turn. Syn. 
Fuc. p. 66 . E. Bot.t. 2130. 

Coast of the south and south-west of England. Summer. — In 
a young state this plant has flat, pinnated leaves, one or two lines 
broad, which in age are gradually converted into branches, and hence 
has arisen the idea of 2 species, which the observations of Mrs. Grif- 
fiths, Mr. Turner, and Dr. Greville have clearly shown to be only dif- 
ferent states of the same plant. 

5. C. fibrosa, Ag. (^fibrous Cystoseira^ ; frond bushy very 
much branched, branches filiform the terminating hranchlets (or 
leaves) linear plane, vesicles elliptical mostly solitary, receptacles 
filiform much elongated. Grer. — Ag. Sp. Alg. v. \. p. 65. 

Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 8 Fucus fibrosus, Huds . — Turn. Syn. 

Fuc. p. 93, Hist. Fuc. t. 209. E. Bot. t. 1969. 

Chiefly on the southern coasts, as Falmouth, Ilfracombe, Weymouth, 
Hampshire, Dover, and Selsey. Yarmouth Beach and coast of York- 
shire. Summer. 1^. — “ The vesiclesof this fine species,” Dr. Greville 
observes, “ which are 3 or 4 times wider than the part in which they 
appear, and about the size of a vetch-seed, with the bushy and some- 
what harsh appearance of the frond, suffice to distinguish it at first sight.” 

3. Halidrys. L.,yngb. Halidrys. 

Frond compressed, coriaceous, linear, pinnated with disti- 
chous branches. Air-vessels lanceolate, stalked, divided by 
transverse septa. Receptacles lanceolate, stalked, compressed. 
Seeds in distinct cells. Grev. Alg. Brit. jj. 9. t. 1 — Name ; 
aX/s the sea, and an oak, or tree. 

1. H. siliquosa, Lyngb. {podded Halidrys). Lyngb. Hydroph. 
Dan. p. 37. — Cystoseira siliquosa, Ag. Sp. Alg. v. 1. />. 72. 
Turn. Syn. Fuc. p. 60, Hist. Fuc. t 159. E. Bot. t. 474. — /3. 
smaller. Fucus siliquosus, Stackh. 

Sea-coast, every where. — P>. in pools or basins, exposed by the receding 
of the tide. $ . 

4. Ftrcus. Ag. Linn, {part of). Fucus. 

Frond plane, compressed or cylindrical, linear, dichotomous, 
coriaceous. Air-vessels, wdieu jiresent, innate in tlie frond, 
simple, large. Receptacles terminal (except in F.nodosus), turgid, 
containing tubercles imbedded in mucus, and discharging their 
seeds by conspicuous pores. Grev. Alg. Brit. />. 11. t. 2. — Name, 
(pv/og, a sea-iveed. ^ 

I have followed Dr. Greville in restricting the old genus 
Fucus to those species enumerated by Agardh,wdth the exception 
of Fucus (now Hinmuthalia) loreus, and Fucus (now Splach- 
nidium) rugosus. The Fuci are among the most valuable of tbe 
tribes in the preparation of kelp. 




1. F. vesiculosm, Linn, (bladdered Fucus) ; frond plane 
linear dichotomous quite entire with a central rib, vesicles 
sphserical, receptacles tei’ininal compressed turgid mostly ellipti- 
cal and solitary. — Turn. Syn.Fuc.p. 117, Hist. Fuc.t.^b. h.Hot. 
t. 1066. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 12. t. 2. Grev. FI. Crypt, t. 319.— 
/S. spiralis ; frond spirally twisted, vesicles none, receptacles 
roundish. Turn. — F. spiralis, Light/. — E. Bot. t. 1685. 
y. linearis ; frond narrow dwarfish, vesicles none, receptacles 
long between linear and lanceolate. Turn. — F . distichus, 
Liglitf . — S. halticus ; yellow-brown, very dwai’f, densely tufted, 
with an indistinct midrib and no vesicles or receptacles. — F. hal- 
ticus, Ag. in Svensh, Bot. t. 576. Grev. Crypt. FI. t. 181. 

Rocky shores, every where, most abundant. — /3. Leith and Newhaven, 
&c. — y. Orkney, Dr. Hope. Ardthur, Capt. Carmichael. — S. Salt-marshes 
and sands occasionally flooded by the sea in the West Highlands and 
islands of Scotland. Summer and autumn. If. — Very variable, accord- 
ing to the substance on which it grows and its being more or less con- 
stantly covered with salt-water : sometimes, besides the usual true 
vesicles, there are elongated swellings occasioned by an accidental ac- 
cumulation of air between the coats of the frond. This sea-weed is 
abundantly employed in the manufacturing ot kelp, if it be not the best. 
But this, important as it is in a commercial point of view, is not the 
only end it serves. In the isles of Jura and Skye it is frequently a 
winter food for cattle, which regularly come down to the shores at the 
receding of the tide to seek for it ; and sometimes even the deer have been 
known to descend from the mountains to the sea-side to feed upon this 
plant. Linnanis informs us that the inhabitants of Gothland, in Sweden, 
boil this Fucus with water, and, mixing with it a little coarse meal or 
flour, feed their hogs upon it ; for which reason they call the plant 
Swintang: and in Scania, he says, the poor people cover their cottages 
with it, and use it for fuel. In Jura and some other Hebrides, the inha- 
bitants dry their cheeses without salt, by covering them with the ashes 
of this plant ; which abounds so much in that substance, that from five 
ounces of the ashes may be procured two ounces and a half of fixed 
alkaline salts, or half their own weight. 

2. F. ceranoides, Linn. (Jiorned Fucus^; frond coriaceo-mem- 
branaceous linear subdicliotomous with a central rib pinnated 
with narrow lateral scattered inultifid spreading fruit-bearing 
branches, receptacles solitary terminal subcylindrical linear 
acuminated. — Turn. Syn. Fuc. p. 136, Hist.Fuc. t. 89. E. Bot. 
t. 2115. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 14. Ag. Sp. Alg. v. \. p. 93. 

Abundant on the sea-shores of Scotland, especially in the sheltered 
bays and inlets of the sea on the w'est coast, often half imbedded in sand. 
Rare in F.ngland. Coast of Hampshire, Shoreham, Anglesea, Dorset ; 
near Belfast, Ireland. Spring and Summer, y .- — This is of a thinner 
substance and paler colour than the preceding, and its ramification is con- 
siderably different. 

3. F. serrdtus, Linn, /serrated Fucus^; frond flat broadly linear 
dichotomous with a central rib and serrated, receptacles solitary 
terminal flat elongated serrated. — Turn. Syn. Fuc. p. 110, 




Hist. Fuc. t. 90. E. Bot. t. 1221. Ag. Sp. Alg. v. 1. p. 95. 
Gi 'ev. Alg. Brit. p. 15. 

Rocky sea-shores, abundant. Spring and Summer. 7/ . — This con- 
tains far less salt than F. vesiculosus, and is consequently much less 
esteemed for kelp. In Norway it is the food of cattle, sprinkled with a 
little meal, according to Gunner. The Dutch cover their crabs and 
lobsters with it, and say that it is preferable to F. vesiculosus, because 
the mucus from the vesicles of the latter ferments and soon becomes 
putrid. Captain Carmichael observes that “ this Fucus is never 
burnt for kelp on the shores of Appin, being found less productive of soda 
than F. nodosus and F. vesiculosus, the only species here used for that 
manufacture. It is employed as manure, and with much benefit, 
though its value endures but for a single season. It is found peculiarly 
well adapted to potato culture, and when spread on the ground in winter 
yields an abundunt crop of the very best hay. But if its application 
be deferred till the time of planting, the former produce, though equally 
abundant, is watery, ill-tasted, and unfit for the table, though it answers 
well enough for seed. This remark equally aj)plies to all the Algae, 
which, under the general name of Cart-wracks, are rolled ashore by the 

4. F. 7iodosus, Linn. (Jmotted Fticus'); frond compressed 
without a midrib subdichotomous branched in a pinnated man- 
ner, vesicles remote, receptacles lateral distichous large pedun- 
culated roundish-pyriform. — Turn. Syn. Fuc. p. 252, Hist. Fuc. 
t. 91. E. Bot. t. 570. Ag. Sp. Alg. v. i. 85. Grev. Alg. Brit, 
p. 16. — Halidrys nodosa, Lyngh. 

Rocky shores, common. Winter and Spring. . — This is the most 
thick and coriaceous of any of our Fuci. It is said in the Hebrides to 
be preferable to all other Fuci in the manufacturing of kelp, and passes 
there under the name of kelp-wrack. 

5. F. Mackdii, Turn. (ISIr. Mackay s Fucus); frond nearly 
cylindrical subcompressed slender dichotomous the extremities 
obtuse, vesicles elliptical solitary often wanting. — Turn. Hist. 
Fuc.jJ. 52. E. Bot. t. 1927. Ag. Sp). Alg. v. 1. p. 87. Grev. 
Alg. Brit. p. 17. — F. nodosus, y. Mackaii, Ag, Syst. Alg. 
p. 275. 

Sea-shore of Cunnemara, Ireland, Mr. J. T. Mackay. From Arisaig 
on the west coast of Koss-shire, to Kyle Scough in Sutherland, and on 
the eastern shores of the isles of Skye and of Lewis. If! . — It is found among 
stones and on mud and sand, but apparently not growing there; collected 
into very dense tufts; the fronds 8 — 10 inches long. Fi'uctification un- 

6. F. canaliculdtus, Linn, (channelled Fucus); frond linear 
channelled destitute of midrib and vesicles dichotomous emar- 
ginate at tlie extremities, receptacles terminal oblongo- cunei- 
form turgid bipartite obtuse. — Turn. Syn. Fuc.p. 242, Hist. Ftcc. 
t. 3. E. Bot. t. 823. Ag. Sp. Alg. v. \. p. 96. Grev. Alg. Brit. 

p. 18. 

Abundant on rocks on the sea-shore. Summer and Autumn. Ij! . — 
6 — 7 inches long ; well distinguished by its small grooved fronds. 




“ Cattle are exceedingly fond of this plant, and never fail to browze on 
it in winter, as soon as the tide leaves it within their reach. At this 
season it is peculiarly wholesome, as counteracting the costiveness in- 
duced by their ordinary straw-coniinons.” Carm. 

7. F. tuber ciildtus, Huds. (tuber culated Fuchs'); frond eiect 
cylindrical dichotomous destitute of midrib and vesicles, recep- 
tacles terminal cylindrical. Turn. Syn. Fuc. p. 305, Hist. Fuc. 
1. 1. Ag. Sp. Alg. v.\.p. 98. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 18. — F. bifurca- 


Rocky coasts of Cornwall ; Ilfracombe; Bill of Portland and North 
of Ireland. Summer and Autumn. — Root somewhat creeping. Fronds 
olivaceous when fresh ; when dry, hard, black and brittle. 

5. Himanthalia. Lyngh. Himanthalia. 

Frond coriaceous, orbiculai*, peziziform. Vesicles none. Re- 
ceptacles (frond-like) elongated, strap-shaped, compressed, 
dicliotomously divided, springing from the centre of the frond, 
containing immersed tubercles furnished w ith a pore. Grev. 
Alg. Brit.p. 19. t. 3. — Name; (asKToj, a strap, and acAf, the 

This is indeed a very extraordinary production, if we are to look 
upon the peziziform base alone, in conformity with the opinion of Wah- 
lenberg, Bory and Greville, as the frond ; while the frond-like portion 
is all destined to produce the fructification. At any rate, no genus can 
be more distinct in the whole Order of Algm. 

1. H. lorea, Lyngh. (strap-shaped Himanthalia); frond sub- 
pyriform at length collapsing plano-concave stalked, recepta- 
cles repeatedly dichotomous linear slightly tapering at the 
extremity. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 20. t. 3 . — Fucus loreus, Linn. 
Turn. Syn. Fuc. p. 246, Hist. Fuc. t. 196. Ag. Sp. Alg. v. 1. 
p. 98. 

Rocky sea-shores, frequent. Winter and Spring. 0. (Grev.) 
(Carm ). — Receptacles, as theyarehere considered, from 2 to 10 feetlong. 
The young fronds have a very curious appearance, before the receptacles 
appear. They are about an inch in length, densely clustered, obovate or 
turbinate, at length peziza-shaped, covering the rocks to a great extent, 
especially in the north. I have seen some, on exposed rocks in the 
Orkneys, swollen into a large, hollow, exactly sphaerical, smooth, black 
ball, probably in consequence of the heat of the sun, rarifying and 
expanding the air within. Captain Carmichael, who could not have 
been aware of the views entertained upon this subject by Bory and 
Dr. Greville, has in his MSS. defined the Genus, ^%ci- 

formis stipitata, rcccpiacu/a longissima dichotoma e disco emittens;” 
and farther adds, “ I would not have ventured to give the above defini- 
tions of this genus, had I not found that the fronds, hitherto so called, 
drop off annually from the very base, and thus become identified with 
the receptacles of the Fucus, as mere fructification. The cup alone is 
perennial. The receptacles of the first year issue from its centre, but 
every part of the disk is equally capable of producing them, and it will 
be found, accordingly, that in old plants, they are always more or less 




Tribe II. Lichine^. 

Marine plants, of a hlackish-green colour, changing to deep black 
on exposure to the air, of a cartilaginous substance and fibrous tex- 
ture. Frond fiat or cylindrical, minute, branched in a dichoto- 
mous or subpahnated manner. Fructification terminal or nearly 
so, composed of capsules furnished tvith a pore, and filled with 
a colourless gelatinous mass of very fine filaments, among lohich 
pellucid ovcd or oblong seeds are disposed in many radiating 
nioniliform series. Grev. 

6. Lichina. Ag. Licliina. 

Frond cartilaginous, blackish-green, dichotomous. Fructifi- 
cation; roundish capsules of the same colour, containing radiat- 
ing moniliform lines of pellucid seeds, imbedded in a gelatinous 
mass of filaments. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. ^\. t. Q >. — Named fi’om 
its similarity to some of the Lichen family, among which, indeed, 
Acharius had placed it. 

1. L. j)ygmcea, Ag. (dwarf Lichinaf; frond between flat and 
compressed, capsules globose. Grev. — Ag. Sp. Alg.v. \.p. 105. 
Hook. FI. Scot. P. IL p. 96. Grev. Alg. Brit.]). 22. t. 6, Crypt. 
FI. sub t. 219. — Fucus pygmceus, Lightf. Scot. p. 964. t. 32. 
Turn. Syn. Fuc. p. 258, Hist. Fuc. t. 294. f. a — h. E. Bot. 
t. 1332 — F. pusillus, Huds. — F. lichenoides. Good, et Woodw. 

On rocks which are exposed and almost dry at low water, frequent. 
Summer and Autumn. 1^. — About half an inch high. This and the 
following have almost the habit, but not the texture, of Stereocaulon 
among the Lichens. 

2. L. conftnis, Ag. (least Lichina'); frond cylindrical, capsules 
terminal oval. Grev. — Ag. Sp. Alg. v. \. p. 105. Grev. Alg. 
Brit. p. 23. f. 6, Crypt. Scot. t. 221. — L.pygmcea, (3. minor. 
Hook. FI. Scot. P. II. p. 96. — Fucus pygmceus, j3. minor. Turn. 
Hist. Fuc. t. 204. y. i — o. — Lichen confinis, Ach. Prodr. — E. Bot. 
t. 2575. — Stereocaulon confine, Ach. Meth. 

On rocks partially covered only at high tides, chiefly in Scotland. 
Dunbar. Ardthur, Capt. Carmichael. Caroline Park, Dr. Greville. 
Colvend, Dr. Richardson, &c. — Summer and Autumn, 'll . — My own 
observations have led me to consider this as a mere variety of the pre- 
ceding, whose different appearance is due to a more frequent exposure 
to a dry atmosphere. Its height is scarcely 2 or 3 lines. 

Tribe III. Laminari,e. 

Plants all marine, of an olive-brown or olive-green colour, be- 
coming somewhat darker on exposure to the air, varying from cori- 
aceous to membranaceous. Frond with a lobed or fibrous root, 
more or less stipitate and forming a plane, entire or cleft expansion, 
in a few cases, furnished with one or more ribs. Vesicles none, 
(except in the genus Macrocystis,) unless the hollow stem of 




some sjjecies be considered as such. Pructijication, as Jar as 
hitherto knoivn, either seeds mixed with a mass of vertical, jointed, 
filaments, or roundish granules, loithout filaments ; forming, in both 
cases, dense spreading spots or sori, on the surface oj some part of 
the frond. Structure densely fihroso-ceUular, without any appear- 
ance of reticulation. Grev. 

7. Alaria. Grev. Alarla. 

Frond membranaceous, furnished with a percurrent, cartila- 
ginous midrib, the stem pinnated with distinct leaflets. Fruc- 
tification ; pyriform seeds, vertically arranged in the incrassated 
leaflets. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 25. t. 4 — Name; ala, a iving, from 
the winged base of the frond. 

1. A. esculenta, Grev. (esculent Alarici); frond linear-ensiform 
entire at the margin, piniue linear-oblong fleshy. — Grev. Alg. 
Brit. p. 25. t. 4. — Agarum esculentum. Bony. — Laminaria 
escidenta, Lyngb. — Ag. Sp. Alg. v.\.p. 110. — Fucus escul.Lightf. 
Scot.p. 938. t. 28, E. Bot. t. 1759. Turn. Syn. Fuc. p. 104. 
Hooh. in FI. Lond. cum Ic. 

Coasts of England, Scotland and Ireland, especially in sheltered rocky 
bays. Winter and Spring. ©. — Frond 2 — 12 and even 20 feet long, of 
a greenish-brown colour. In Scotland it is known by the name ot 
Badder-locks, and is eaten both by men and cattle ; the former prefer 
the midrib, rejecting the more membranaceous portion. 

8, Laminaria. Lamour. Laminaria. 

Frond coriaceous (rarely membranaceous), plane, expanded, 
without a midrib. Fructification ; seeds or gramdes forming 
dense sori or spots, and imbedded in the thickened surface 
of some part of the frond. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 27. t. 5. — Named 
from lamina, a thin plate, characteristic of the frond. 

1. L. digitata, Lamour. (digitated Laminarici); stipes woody cy- 
lindrical expanded at its apex into a cartilaginous flat roundish 
frond deeply cleft into numerous ensiform mostly simple 
segments. — Ag. Sp. Alg. v. 1. p. 112. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 27. 
t. 5. — Fucus digitatus, Linn . — Turn. Syn. Fuc. p. 207, Hist. 
Fuc. t. 162. E. Bot. t. 2274. 

Sea-shore, especially in deep water. . — 2—12 feet or more in length, 
olive-brown. Occasional specimens are found with the segments con- 
nected at the top, from which springs a new sessile frond. This is the 
Tang or Tangle of the Scotch; Sea-girdle.i of the English. The young 
frond is ovate or elliptical and entire, and then much resembles a small 
plant of L. saccharina. 

2. L. bulbosa, Lamour. (bulbous Laminaria?)', root hollow 
swollen into a bulb-like form and tuberculated, stipes plane 
waved once-twisted at its base, expanded into a flat cartilagin- 
ous oblong or rounded frond, deeply cleft into numerous ensiform 
segments. — Ag. Sj). Alg. v. 1. p. 114. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 29. 




— Fmus bulbosus, Huds . — Turn. Syn. Fuc.p. 212, FList. Fuc. 
t. 161. E. Bot. t. 1760. — F. jiolyschides, Light/, 

Sea-shore, in deep water. If. — Very variable in the outline of its 
frond, which when young is, like the last species, quite entire, and of so 
large a size that Mrs. Griffiths measured one which formed a circle of at 
least twelve feet in diameter. Grev. 

3. L. saccharma, Lamour. {sugary Laminarki); root fibrous 
long and branching, stipes cylindrical expanding at its apex in- 
to a cartilaginous flat linear-oblong attenuated entire frond. — 

Ag. Sp. Alg. V. p. 117. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 32 Fucus sac- 

charinus, Linn.— Turn. Syn. Fuc.p. 198, LFist. Fuc. t. 163 (3. 

bulhita; frond bullate in tlie centre, the margins w’aved. Turn. 
— F. sacchar., E. Bot. t, 1376. — y. latifolia; stipes short cylin- 
drical expanding into an ovato-elliptical subinembranaceous 
undivided frond. F. sacchar. var. latissima, Turn. — Laminaria 
latifolia, Ag. Syst. Alg.v.l.p. 119. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. st.— 
Ulva maxima, Gunn. FI. Norv. 2. t. 7 . f. 5. 

Abundant on all the shores of Britain.— /S. Scotland.— y. Among re- 
jectamenta at Yarmouth, Mr. Mason. Firth of Forth and Isle of Bute. 
Dr. Greville. $ ? — This well known plant attains a length of many feet 
and derives its specific name from its being, after having been steeped in 
fresh water and exposed to the sun, covered with a white efflorescence re- 
sembling sugar, but nauseous to the taste. It is not the “saccharine Fucus” 
of the Icelanders, as has been generally supposed : nor do I think it is 
eaten at all by the natives of that country. It is said, however, to be 
eaten in England by the poor, boiled as a potherb; but I know not 
whether this has been asserted by any person besides Pallas. Thunberg 
tells us, that in Japan it is prepared in such a manner as to be quite 
esculent, and that it is customary there, when presents are made, to lay 
upon them a slice of this Fucus attached to a piece of paper folded in a 
curious manner, and tied with threads of gold or silver. Cattle eat it 
not unfrequently. The var. y., Dr. Greville has, following Agardh, made 
a distinct species ; not however without expressing his doubts as to the 
propriety of so doing. 

4. L. Phyllitis, Lamour, {thin-leaved Lammariai) ; root 
fibrous branched, stipes somewhat compressed expanding at its 
apex into a thin membranaceous linear-lanceolate frond. — Ag. 
Sp. Alg. V. \. p. 121. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 34. — L. saccharina 
var. attenuata, Grev. FI. Edin. p. 282. — Fucus Phyllitis, 
Stachh. Ner. Brit . — Turn. Sy7i. Fuc.p. 193, Hist. Fuc. t. 164. 
E. Bot. t. 1331. 

On the stems of the larger marine Algae, in several parts of England, 
Ireland and Scotland. $ . — The smaller size, thin and membranaceous 
frond tapering at the base, are the characters by which this species is dis- 
tinguished from L. saccharina. 

5. L. debilis, Ag. {delicate Laminaria^) ; root minute scarcely 
fibrous, stipes extremely short slender expanding into a broadly 

oblong membranaceous frond cnneate at the base. Ag. Sp. 

Alg. 1. p. 120. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 35. t. 5. — L. papyrina, 




Shores of the island of Islay, one of the southern Hebrides, Jamex 
Chalmers. ©.—In length from 2 to 8 or 10 inches, obtuse, sometimes 
almost obovate, of a thin and flaccid texture, with an extremely short 

TitiBE IV. Sporochxoidea:. 

Plants all marine, of an olivaceous or yellowish-green colour, 
not changing to black in drying ; of a cartilagineo-membranaceous 
substance, becoming flaccid almost immediately after exposure to 
the air, in some cases acquiring, under such circumstances, a verdi- 
gris-green colour, and then possessing the property of rapidly de- 
composing other delicate Algcc in contuct with them. Frond with 
a scutate {rarely tomentose) root, flat, compressed or cylindrical, 
with distichous {rarely irregidar^ branches, and bearing in most 
species, at some period of their growth, little pencil-like deciduous 
tifts of fine green filaments. Fructification, so far as it is hnoivn, 
composed of club-shaped, moniliform, radiating filaments, either 
forming sessile ivarts, or arranged concentrically in little, stalked, 
club-shaped bodies, terminated by pencils of delicate filmes. Grev. 

9. Desmarestia. Lamour. Desmavestia. 

Frond cartilaginous, plane or (*ompressed, distichonsly 
branched, while young furnished with marginal deciduous tufts 
of fine green filaments, the branches set with marginal spines. 

Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 36. t. 5 Named in compliment to A. G. 

Desmarest, a celebrated French naturalist. — The fructification 
is unknown. 

1. Y). ligiddta, IjAxwowr. {Ugidate Desmarestia) ; frond elong- 
ated plane with an obscure midrib 3 — 4 times pinnate, the pinnm 

and pinnulte opposite linear-lanceolate attenuated at the base 

Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 37. t. 5. — Sporochnus ligul., Ag. Sjj. Alg. v. 1 . 
jj. 158. — Desmia ligid., Lyngb. — Fucus ligul., Lightf. Scot, 
p. 946. t. 29. Turn. Syn. Fuc. p. 99, Hist. Fuc. t. 96. E. Bot. 
t. 1636. 

Principally on the southern and south-western shores of England. 
Firth of Forth and Orkney, Rev. C. Clouston. IMiltown Malbay, 
Ireland, Mr. Harvey. 0. Summer. — Two to 5 or 6 feet in length; 
colour a pale olive-green. Dr. Greville mentions Mr. Turner’s var. 
dUalata, with the frond nearly 4 lines broad, as being found in Orkney 
by Ah'. Clouston. 

2. D. aculedta, Lamour. {acideated Desmarestia) ; stem short 
rounded hearing numerous filiform flattened branches which are 
again divided in a pinnated manner, the pinnules with dis- 
tichous spines. — Grev. Alg. Brit.p. 38. t. b.f. 2, 3. — Sporochnus 
aculeatus, Ag. Sp. Alg. v. 1. p. 151. — Desmia acideata, Lyngb. — 
Fucus aculeatus, I Ann . — Turn. Syn. Fuc. p. 262, Hist. Fuc. 
t. 187. E. Bot. t. 2445. 





vSea-sliore, frequent. "4. — The young plants are flaccid, and furnish- 
etl with tufts of hairs arranged in a distichous manner, which, falling oft’, 
are succeeded by spines : old plants are harsh and rigid. 

10. Dichlorta. Grev. Dicliloria. 

Frond cylintlrical, filiform, cartilaginous, pinnated with op- 
posite brandies, becoming flaccid and of a verdigris-green 
colour on exposure to the air. Frnctificatmi unknown. Grev. 
Alg. Brit. p. 39. f. G. — Name ; bn, twice and x>.oopi, green, “ in 
allusion to its singular change of colour.” 

J . D. viridis, Grev. {fjreen Dichlorid). Grev. Alg. Brit, 
p. 39. t. 6 . — Sporoclmus viridis, Ag. iSjJ. Alg. v. 1. p. 154. — 
Chordaria viridis, Ag. Sign. Alg. Scund.p. 14. — Gigartina viridis, 

Lyngh. — Desmarestia viridis, Lamour Fucus viridis, FI. Dan. 

t. 886. Turn. Sipi. Fuc. p. 397, Hist. Fuc. t. 97. E. Bot. 
t. 1669. 

Sea-coast, on rocks and on the larger Algae, in various parts of Eng- 
land and Ireland, and in Scotland, both on the east and on the west coast 
{Capt. Carmichael). ©. Summer. — This is one of the most beautiful 
and slenderest of the inarticulated Algae. One or two feet or more 
long, much divided in a pinnated manner, with dense capillary and inostlj^ 
long branches, of an olive-green colour, inclining to orange in age, verdi- 
gris-green when exposed (while recent) to the air. 

11. Sporochnus. Ag. Sporoclmus, 

Frond filiform, cylindrical or compressed, cartilagiiieo-mera- 
hrauaceous. Fructification ; club-shaped, moniliform filaments, 
radiating in scattered warts, or concentrical in distinct (mostly 
davate, stalked) receptacles, often terminated by a deciduous 
tuft of filaments. Grev. Alg. Brit. pr. 40, t. 6. — Name, 
a seed or sporule, and yy(to~, wool, from the tuft of filaments, \vith 
which the fructifications are often terminated. 

1. S. pedunctddliis, Ag. (^peduncidated Sporoclmus'); frond 
filiform with long slender branches pinnated with clavate recep- 
tacles terminated by a deciduous tuft of articulated filaments. — 
Ag. Sp. Alg. V. \.p. 149, Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 41 . t. 6. — Gigartina 
pedimc., Lamour. — Fucus pedunc., Iluds. — E. Bot. t. 345. Turn. 
Syn. Fuc. p. 367, Hist. Fuc. t. 188. 

Marine rocks in various parts of Englanil. Preston Pans, Scotland. 
©. Summer and Autumn. — Colour yellowish-grey. 

2. S. villosus, Ag. {liairtj Sporoclmus); frond filiform, 
branches pinnated with opposite pimue and nodose with nu- 
merous whorls of dense branched filaments. — Ag. Sp. Alg. 
p. 155. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 42.— Co)iferva villosa, Huds . — 
E. Bot. t. 546, Diilw. Conf. t. 37. 

Marine rocks, on the same coast with the last; and at Ardthur, Ar- 
gvleshire, Carmichael. — A beautiful species. Mr. Hasell, who 

found it with the preceding in the Firth of Forth, observes of it that 

Chordaria.] ALG,^; INARTICULAT^E. 

“ fresh specimens, when spread upon paper, rendered it transparent as 
if it had been touched with oil, but in a short time this transparency 

3. S. rhizodes, Ag. (^root-like Sporochnus); frond rather stout 
filiform with subdichotomous branches covered with nninerous 
warts of fructification. — Ag. Sp. Alq. v. 1. j). 156. — Chondria 
rhizodes, Ag, Sgn. j}. 15. J^yngb, Ilgdropli. Dan. t. 13, et C. 
paradoxa ejusd. t. 14. — Fucus rhizodes, Turn. Hist. Fuc. t. 235. — 
Conferva verrucosa, E. Hot. t. 1688. 

In the sea, parasitic on other Algae, on the south coasts of England and 
Ireland. ©. Summer. 

Tribe V. Choudarie.e. 

’ Plants all marine, of an olive-green colour, hecommg darker on 
exposure to the air ; of a cartilaginous and lubricous substance. 
Foot scutate. Frond continuous, cylindrical, filiform, composed 
of a solid cellular centre and a dense exterior mass of concentrical 
filaments. Fructifieation imperfectly knoivn. Grev. 

12. Chordaria. Ag. Sea- Whipcord. 

Fro 7 id filiform, cartilaginous, solid, continuous, composed ex- 
teriorly of a stratum of concentrical filaments. Grev. Alg. 
Brit. p. 44. t. 7. — Named from Chorda, a cord or strmg, conse- 
quently much too like the following and older Genus Chorda. 
Our C. fiagellforniis, the type of the present Genus, my valued 
friend Mr. Harvey is inclined to place with the Batrachospermece 
in the Confervoidece; but I rather follow Dr. Greville in retain- 
ing it among the “ Inarlicidatce," with Avhich the internal 
Structure and texture of the stem most accords. 

1. C. flagelliformis, Ag. {common Sea-Wldpcord); frond 
throughout equal filiform branched, branches long mostly simple 
and distichous, seeds naked among the concentrical filaments. — 
Ag. Syn. p. 12, Sp. Alg. v. \. p. 166. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 44. 
t. T . — Gigartina flagell., Lamour. — Fucus flagell, FI. Dan. A 650. 
Timi. Syn. Fuc. p. 335, Hist. Fuc. t. 85. E. Bot. t. 1222. 

Sea-coast, on rocks and stones. 0. Summer. — 1 — 3 feet long, very 
slender, olive-brown, almost black when dry, “ Fructification,” ac- 
cording to Cnyl. Carmichael, “ external, consisting of obovate brown 
sporidia, mixed with clavate jointed filaments, covering the whole sur- 
face of this frond.” — The same acute observer remarks, that there is 
little or no vestige of the filaments in the young plants, and their deve- 
lopement appears to keep pace with that of the sporidia. 

Tribe VI. DicTYOXEiE. 

Plants all marine, of an olive-green colour, not changing on 
exposure to the air, of a membraimceous flexible substance {rarely 
cartilaginous^ and I'cticulated structure. Boot either naked and 

AL(’rA': I NA R'l'ICULAT/K. 



scuta fa or composed of a mass of woolly filaments. Frond cylin- 
drical or fiat ; when fiat, nerveless (except in Haliseris), thin, entire 
or divided, often fiahelliform. F rvctification ; roundish-ovede, 
pear-shaped or club-shaped seeds, enveloped in a pellucid case, 
covering the surface, or scattered, or forming minute spots or trans- 
verse lines. The seeds in 7nost cases are produced beneath the epi- 
dermis, through which they burst, and become prominent. Grev. 

1-3. Chorda. Stachh. Sea Wliip-lasli. 

Frond simple, filiform, cylindrical, with an interrupted ca- 
vity. naked, scutate. Fructification; external continuous 

masses of pear-shaped seeds, fixed by their base. Grev. Alg. 
Brit. p. 46. t. 7. — Name, chorda, a cord. 

1. C. Filum, Lamour. (common Sea Whip-lash); frond carti- 
laginous slimy cylindrical filiform attenuated at botli extremi- 
ties internally jointed externally not regularly constricted, spi- 
rally twisted when old. — Lamour. — Hook, in FI. Lond. N. S. 
cum Ic. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 47. t. 7 — Scytosiphon Filum, Ag. 
Sp. Alg. V. 1. p. 161. — Fucus Filum, Linn. — Turn. Syii. Fuc. 
jt). 339, Hist. Fuc. t. 96. E.Bot.t.^^Ql — /3. Thrix ; frond 
very slender almost capillary, 2 — 4 inches in length. Grev. — 
Fucus Thrix, Stachh. Ner. Brit. t. 12. 

Abundant on the rocky shores of Great Britain, often in deep water. 
0. Summer and Aut. — From 1 — 20 feet long, “ composed of a simple 
fillet, one or two lines in breadth, spirally twisted into a filiform tube, 
formed by the cohesion of its edges,” (Cam/.,) olive-brown, covered with 
slimy, minute, conferva-like hairs. F/'uct if cation covering the surface 
of old fronds with the pyriform seeds. Capt. Carmichael has likewise 
found another kind of fructification, represented in the Flora Londin- 
ensis and consisting of sessile, ovate capsules, scattered among clavate 
articulated filaments. 

2. C. lomentdria, Grev. (jomted Sea WhijJ-lash); frond mem- 

branaceous, the transverse septa remote and at irregular inter- 
vals accompanied with external constrictions, the interval some- 
what inflated Lyngb. Hydroph. Dan. p. 74. t. 18. Grev. Alg. 

Brit. /). 48. — Scytosfihon Filum, var. y. Ag. Sp. Alg. v. 1. 

p. 162. 

Rocks and stones in the sea ; frequent in Devonshire, Mrs. Griffiths. 
Near Belfast, Dr. Drummond. Miltown Malbay, Mr. Harvey. 
Abundant both on the western and eastern coasts of Scotland, Dr. 
Greville. Q. Summer and Aut. — 3— 16 inches long ; spurious dissepi- 
ments, occasioning the apparent internal articulation, are at very une- 
qual and generally considerable distances from each other, externally 
constricted in those places. Dr. Greville describes the fructification as 
interrupted masses of cylindrical or somewhat clavate filaments, wdiich 
are in pairs ; each pair of filaments being connected by their bases. 

14. Asperococcus. Lamoxtr. Asperococcus. 

Frond (simple) tubular, cylindrical or compressed, continu- 




oils, iiiGnibranticeous. Hoot luiiuitely scutiite, naked. l^iuc- 
tification; distinct spots composed of imbedded seeds, mixed 
with ei’ect, club-shaped filaments. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 49. 9. 

Name ; — a barbarous compound ot Latin and Greek which 

ought not to be tolerated; asptr signifying rough, and xoxKog, a 
seed, from the rough surface occasioned by the seeds. 

1. A. fistulosus, {Jistulose Asperococcus); frond elongated 
cylindrical filiform tapering at the base subgelatinous contract- 
ed here and there. — Asperococcus echinatiis, Grev. Alg. Brit, 
p. 50. t. 9.—^. rugosus, Lamour. — Euccelium echinatum, Ag. Sp. 
Alg. 1. p. 145. — E. Lynghyanum, Grev. Crypt. FI. t. 290. — 
Scytosiphon Jistul., Lyngb. — S. Filum, vur. Jistidosus, Ag. Sp. 

Alg.v. \.p. 163 Ulva Jistul., Huds . — E. Bot.t.Q>A2 . — Conferva 

Jistul., Roth. 

Rocks on the sea-shore, England, Scotland and Ireland; not untre- 
qiient. ©. Summer and Aut. 

2. A. castdneus, f'ed-hrown Asperococcus); frond filiform com- 
pressed coriaceous red-brown attenuated at both extremities — 
Scytosiphon caskineus, Carm. MSS. 

On the leaves of Zostera, coast ol Appin, abundantly, CfijH. Carmichne!. 

' Colvend, Dumfries-shire, Dr. Richardson. ©. Spring — fronds gregari- 
ous, 4 — 9 inches long, and scarcely half a line in diameter, attenuated 
at both ends, regularly compressed, of a firm substantial texture and 
deep chestnut colpur. No fructification has been detected on it.-— I 
have no doubt that this is a distinct species from A.fslulosus, with whicli 
alone there is any chance of its being confounded. Besides being com- 
pressed, its texture is much firmer and more substantial, and its colour 
deeper. Carm. MSS. 

3. A. ? pusillus, {least Asperococcus); frond rounded capillary 
spuriously articulated brown. Carm. MSS. cum Ic. 

On Chorda Filum, Appin, abundantly. Captain Carmichael. Mead- 
foot, Devonshire, Mrs. Griffiths. ©. Autumn.— The fronds of this 
diminutive species are so closely aggregated as to give to a section of the 
plant on which they grow, the appearance of a bottle-brush. They are 
from 1 to 2 inches long, simple, the thickness of horse-hair, attenuated 
at both ends, transversely striated in imitation of joints and closely beset 
with pellucid fibres. Carm. MSS. 

4. A. Turneri, {Turnerian Asperococcus); frond oblong cy- 
lindrical obtuse attenuated at the base tbin and membranaceous. 
A. btdlosus, Lamour. — Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 51. — Enccelium bullo- 
sum,Ag. Sp. Alg.v. \.p. 146. — Ulva Turneri, E. Bot. L 2570 — 
Gastridium Opuntia, Lyngb. Hydroph. Ban. t. 18. 

Rocks on the sea-coast of Sussex, Mr. Borrcr. Sidmouth, Mrs. 
Griffiths. Bantry, Ireland, Miss Hntchivs. Appin, Capt. Carmichael. 
©. Summer. — Mrs. Griffiths remarks of this plant, that it is not very 
conspicuous when growing in the water. The cavity being filled with 
that fluid and the substance thin and transparent, it appears to be of 
the colour of the water itself, and therefore not easily seen, unless the 
light be cast upon it in a particular manner. (Grev.) — I venture to 

retain the Engl. Botany specific name of this plant. It was published 


alga: inarticulata:. 


observes “ as nearly as possible at the same time with 
, Lamouroux, 1813;” and, being a compliment to our greatest 
liiitisn Algologist, should have the prejference, 

o. A. compressus, (^compressed Asperococcus^ ; frond flat thick- 
ened at the edges ratlier short attenuated at both extremities 
heie and there sliglitly contracted g'elatinous. — A, comnressus, 
Mrs. Griffiths' 3ISS. 

Rocks on the south coast of England, rare. Meadfoot, Sidmouth 
and loiquay, ]\/[rs. GriJfUhs. 0. Summer. — To Mrs. Griffiths is en- 
tirely due the merit of discovering and distinguishing this Alga, which 
IS from 3 to 6 inches in height and from 3 lines to nearly an 
inch in diameter, “ tender and gelatinous in all stages, always flat, but 
consisting of a double membrane united at the edges, which, when the 
plant is fresh, are considerably thickened : there is not the slightest ten- 
dency to be tubular or inflated.” — The larger fronds are often invested 
with a parasite, apparently a young Entermorpha and with Ceramium 
diaphanum. This plant may, as Mrs. Griffiths observes, be considered 
intermediate between Asperococcus and Punctaria. 

15. Punctaria. Grev. PunctaiTa. 

Frond simple, membranaceous, flat, witli a naked scutate root. 
Fructijication scattered ov'er the whole frond in minute distinct 
spots, composed of roundish prominent seeds, intermixed with 

club-shaped filaments. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 52. t. 9 Name 

derived from the Latin (contrary to a Linnaean axiom, though a 
practice sanctioned by many eminent Botanists besides the au- 
thor of this Germ'S,^ punctuni, Vidot; the numerous fructifications 
exhibiting a dotted appearance. 

1. P. plantagitiea, Grev. (plcmtain-leaved Punctaria^; frond 
coriaceo-membranaceous attenuated at the base into a short 
stipes reddish-brown. — Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 53. t. 9. — Zonaria? 
plantaginea, Ag. Sp. Alg. v. \. p. 138 — Ulva plantaginea, 
Roth. — E. Bot. t. 2136. Lyngh. Hydroph. Ban. p. 31. t. 6. 

Marine rocks, Sidmouth and Torbay, Mrs. Grifliths. Near Belfast, 
Er. Druvimond. Q. April, May. — Of this fine species I possess ex- 
cellent specimens from Mrs. Griffiths, 6 — '10 inches long; that 
lady describes them to be “ of a thick, gelatinous (hence shrinking 
much in drying) and tender substance, yet brittle, breaking when bent 
without great care; every where covered with short hair-like fibres which 
give it a satiny feel.” She rightly distinguishes it from the preceding, 
which (independent of its different outline,) is “ thin, membranaceous, 
leathery, smoother and with a different fructification.” In the present 
species. Dr. Greville, who had the opportunity of examining specimens 
in a recent state, says the “ fructification represents minute dots, scat- 
tered over the whole surface, composed of roundish seeds intermixed 
with linear-elliptical, articulated, short filaments, filled with a dark red- 
dish mass.” 

2. P. latifolia, Grev. (broad-leaved Punctaria^; frond oliva- 
ceous thick subgelatinous tender oblong or ohovate suddenly 
tapering into a very short stipes. — Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 52. 



Rocks imd stones in the sea, principally on the south coast of Eng- 
land; Sussex, Falmouth, Dawlish. Meadfoot and Sidinouth 
Giiffiths. Cromer, Mr. Turner. Near Belfast, Drummond. Firth of 
Forth, Dr. Grcville. © . Summer. 

3. P. tenuissima, Grev. {delicate Punctaria); frond sublinear 
very tliin transparent. — Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 54. — Zonaria .■ 
tenuissima, Ag. Sgst.Alg. 268 — Zonaria? plantaginea, var.temaor, 
Ag. Sp. Alg.v. \ . p. 138. — Ulva plantaginea, var. tenuior, Lyngu. 

Hydroph. Ban. p>. 31. <. 6. • ' t i f 

Parasitic on Zostera marina, frequent on the coasts of the Isle o 
Bute, Dr. Greville. Appin, Captain Carmichael. — “ Two to 8 inches in 
length. Substance exceedingly thin and transparent, highly and 
beautifully reticulated, slightly lubricous. Fructification unknown. 

16. Striahia. Grev. Striaria. 

Frond filiform, tubular, continuous, membranaceous, branch- 
ed. Root naked and scutate. Fructification; groupes of round- 
ish seec/s, forming transverse lines. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 54. t. 9. 
— Named from the transversely striated appearance, caused by 
the lines of fructification. “ It is distinguished from the preceding 
Genus, by its tubular or branched frond, and by the uniformly 
transverse disposition of the groupes of seeds. From the fol- 
lowing it differs in the last named character and in the more 
highly reticulated structure.” 

1. S. attenudta, Grev. {attenuated Striaria'). Grev. Cryjjt.Fl. 
(Synopsis,) p. 44. Alg. Brit. p. 55. t. 9. — Carmichaelia at- 
tenuata, Grev. Crypt. FI. t. 288. 

In the sea, on various Algae; Appin, Capt. Carmichael. Shores of Bute, 
Dr. Greville. Belfast Lough, Dr. Drummond. 0. Summer. — “ Frond 
3 — 12 inches in height, less than a line in diameter, much branched, the 
branches elongated, attenuated at both extremities, mostly opposite, 
pale olivaceous green.” 

17. Dictyosiphon. Grev. Dictyosiphon. 

Frond filiform, tubular, continuous, branched. Boot mi- 
nutely scutate, naked. Fructification ; ovate scattered seeds, 
lying beneath the ejiidermis. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 55. t. 8. — 
Name ; bty-Tvov, a net, and a tube, from the tubular and re- 

ticulated frond. 

1. Y) . foeniculdceus, Grev. {fennel-leaved Bictyosiphon). Grev. 
Alg. Brit. p. 56. t. 8. — Scylosiphon fcenicul., Ag. Sp. Alg. v. 1. 
p. 164. — Conferva facnicul., Iluds. — Fucus subtilis. Turn. Bfist. 
Fuc. t. 234. 

In basins of water left by the receding of the tide ; upon Chorda Fi- 
hun and other Algrs ; frequent on the western coasts and isles of Scot- 
land, and in the Firth of Forth. Dr. Grcville. In Anglesea. Dillenin.s. 
Cornwall. Hudson. Bantry Bay, Miss Hutchins, and Belfast, Dr. 
Drummond. 0. Spr. and Summer. — “Onetomany feet long, much branch- 

AUiJE INAR'nCUl,A'lVE. [Dictijolci. 

ccl with confer va-like (but not jointed) branches, of an olive-brown 
colour. Branches much elongated and attenuated, except the ultimate 
lamuli, which are short and remarkably slender. Substance slightly 
gelatinous, so as to adhere to pa|)er. Fructification, scattered seeds, 
slightly imbedded in the frond.”— From the MSS. of Capt. Carmichael, 
who has examined tliis plant with much care in a recent state, 1 extract 
the following remarks. — “ Fronds gregarious, about the thickness 
ot a bristle, chestnut-coloured, repeatedly branched, branches patent at 
the base, and beset with tapering flexuose ramuli ; the latter often 
transversely striated as if jointed. Fructification unknown to me, and 
I slioukl suppose exceedingly rare, for 1 have examined hundreds of spe- 
cimens in ^ vain in search of it. This plant is ahvays more or less 
clothed with conferva-like hairs, but these are so far from furnishing 
any aid to a specific character, that there are very few of the smaller 
rhalassio'pliijt(c^ without them. It varies prodigiously in length, ranging 
fiom one to fifteen feet, the latter proved by actual measurement.” 

18. Dictyota. Lamour. Dictyota. 

Frond flat, liigdily reticulated, membranaceous, dichotomous 
01 iiiegularly cleft Qialmato-flabelliform in F). (itomciricC^. 
Foot a mass of woolly filaments. Fructification composed of 
scattered, or variously aggregated, somewhat prominent seeds, 

on both surfaces of the frond. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. bl . t. 10. 

Name, br/.rmv, n net; the fronds, as in the preceding Genus, 
appearing reticulated tvlien magnified. 

1. D. dichotoma, Lamour. (dichotomous Dictyota); frond olive- 
green linear dichotomously divided, seeds singly scattered or in 
small irregular clusters, — Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 57. ^.10. — Zojiaria? 

dichot, Ag. Sp. Alg. v. \. p. 133 — Ulva dicliot., Hiuls E. Bot. 

t. t. 774. — (3. intricata; frond very narrow much branched 
twisted and entangled. Grev. — Zonaria? dichot., (3. intricata, 
Ag. Sp. Alg. V. 134. 

In the sea, on the larger Algas and on stones ; not unfrequent. — /3. Shore 
near Dumfries, Br. Richardson. Plymouth, 71/?’. Sconce. ©• Summer. — 
Besides the scattered single seeds on this plant, Mrs. Griffiths finds, at 
Sidmouth, other specimens “ covered with transparent vesicles rising 
above the surface : as they advance in age, a line of dark grains appears 
within them, and they at length are filled with capsules, which form 
groupes, and rise above the surface when ripe. In this state they are 
extremely rare.”' 

2. D.atomdria, Gve\. (sprinkled Dictyota) ; frond olive-brown 
palmato-flabelliform or cuneate irregularly cleft and laciniated, 
seeds forming waved transverse lines with intermediate scat- 
tered ones. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 58. — D. zonata and D. ciliata, 

Lamour. — Zonaria atomaria, Ag. Sp. Alg. v. 1. p. 128. Ulva 

atomaria,Woodw. — E. Bot. t. 419. 

Marine rocks, chiefly on the east and south of England, as at Cromer 
Corton and Gunton ; Sidmouth, Torquay and Ilfracombe ( Mrs. Griffiths). 

1 Mrs. Griffiths further observes, that there is a mistake in Dr. Crevilie’s 
Atga Brilannica:, (p. 68); as “it was the dusters and resides that were first 
found by me in 1822, and not ‘single seeds,' as there printed.” 




Wormshead, Glamorgan, L. IV. Dilhvyn, Esq. Rare in the tilth of 
Forth, Dr. Greville. © . Summer, 

19. CuTLERiA. Grev. Cutleria, 

Frond piano-compressed, cartilagiiieo-membranaceous, sub- 
flabellifonn, irregularly cleft. Foot a mass of woolly filaments. 
Fructification ; mitmte tufts of capsules, scattered on both sides 
of the frond, the capsules pedicellate, containing several distinct 
granules. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 59. t. 10. — Named in compliment 
to Miss Cutler of Sidmoutli, the discoverer of Grateloupiajili- 
cina in Britain, a lady zealously devoted to the study of marine 

1. C. multfida, Grev. {nmltfid Cutleria). Grev. Alg. Brit, 
p. 60, t. 10. — Zonaria multfida, Ag. Sp. Alg. v. 1. p. 135. — 
Ulca multfida, E. Bot.t. 1913. — Dictgota penicdlata, Lainour. 

Cast on shore on Yarmouth beach, Messrs. Turner and R'igg. 0- 
August. — Frond of an olive-brown colour and cartilagineo-membrana- 
ceous texture, but adhering to paper when dry, broadly flabelliforni, 
cut nearly to the base into 3—5 cuneate primary segments, and those 
again copiously divided into numerous, irregular, but more or less 
linear ones. Fructification scattered over both surfaces of the frond, 
consisting of clavate pedicellate capsules, arranged in small clusters. 
These capsules Dr. Greville aptly compares to the little black Fungus 
so common on rose-bushes in gardens, the Phragmidium mucronaUim, 

20, PadIna. Adans. Padina. 

Frond flat, highly reticulated, subcoriaceous, flabelliforni, 
mostly undivided, marked with concentric lines. Boot, a mass 
of woolly filaments. Fructification ; ovate, blackish seeds, fixed 
by their base, bursting through the epidermis in compact, con- 
centric lines (rarely spots), mostly on one surface of the frond. 
Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 61. t. 10. — Name of uncertain origin, as is 
the case with many of Adanson’s Genera. 

1. P. Pavonia, Lamour. (^Peacock’ s tail Padina); fronds broad- 
ly flabelliforni entire or dichotomously divided, the segments 
equally flabelliforni, with numerous concentric lines of fructi- 
fication white and somewhat powdery beneath, the margin 
revolute and fringed. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 62. t. 10. — Zonaria 
Pavonia, Ag. Bp. Alg. v. 1, p. 125. — Uiva Pavonia, Linn . — 
E. Bot. t. 1276. 

Rocks on the extreme southern shores of England, as Devonshire and 
Dorsetshire; (hence I am led to doubt the correctness of the station of 
“ Aberdeen,” given in Lightfoot’s Flora Scotica, on tlie authority of Dr. 
Cargill.) It . — One of the most beautiful and singular of our Algae. 

2. P. deusta, (^dark brown Padina) ; fronds subcoriaceous 
deep brown renifonii or orbicular lobed glabrous scarcely reti- 
culated, attached by the whole surface beneath, concentric lines 
of the same cfdour obscure. — Zonaria deusta, Ag. Sp. Alg. p. 
132. Lpngb. Hgdroph. Ban. p. 19. — Fucus deust., FI. Ban. f. 420. 



Marine rocks at Appin, Argyleshire, Capt. Carmichael. Miltowii 
Malbay, Ireland, Air. Harvey, blaly and sandstone rocks near high-water 
mark in Berwick Bay, Dr.Johnston. — An inch to an incli and a half broad, 
the specimens often imbricated, deep rich brown, opaque. This has, at 
the first appearance, a close affinity with P. (Zonaria, Ag.) squamaria from 
the Mediterranean, where the fronds are often equally orbicular, but 
they are woolly beneath, the substance is thinner, less opaque, and the 
concentric lines are very evident. P. deusta had hitherto been considered 
a native only of the extreme northern regions. “ Fronds gregarious, coria- 
ceous, opaque, of a brownish purple colour, and marked with concentric 
striae or zones, about an inch in diameter, suborbicular, flat, and adher- 
ing firmly throughout the whole lower surface, but separating without 
much difficulty. Fructification unknown.” Carm. “ Thin slices,” 
Mr. Harvey observes, of this plant, “ placed under a high power of the 
microscoi)e, appear closely cellular, with irregular polygonal meshes or 
cellules, for there is no regular reticulation, like that of others of the 
(lenus. This species is often papillose, and much resembles a Thele- 
phora. I believe it belongs to a distinct genus, of which I doubt not 
there are many species often overlooked as crustaceous zoophytes.” 

3. P . pdrvula, Gv&v . (^S7nall Padina) ; frond resupinate sub- 
orbicular membranaceous deeply lobed, lobes orbicular some- 
what imbricated, scarcely at all marked with concentric lines. 
Gi'cv. Crypt. FI. t. 360, Alg. Brit.p. 63. 

Rocks in the sea, near Sidmouth, Dr. Greville. Rocks near low- 
water mark, Miltown Malbay, Ireland, rare, Air. Harvey. ©. March. — 
I have not seen English specimens of this plant. Mr. Harvey, w^ho 
communicated his Irish specimens to me, observes in a letter, “ Since I 
have become possessed of the Cryptogamic Flora, I find by Dr. Gre- 
ville’s figures, that the reticulation on our plant is different; yet they 
quite accord in habit, resembling a Marchantia, creeping by its white 
radicular fibres over a space of a foot or more in extent; sometimes 
very closely attached to the rock, at others comparatively loose. In 
structure, both plants are true Diclyotece. The reticulation in my plant 
is less regular than in Dr. Greville’s, and the meshes are shorter than 
they are broad. If distinct, I propose to call mine P. decumbens.” 

21. Haliseris. Tozzelti. Haliseris. 

Frond flat, linear, membranaceous, with a midrib. Root a 
mass of woolly filaments. F ruclificatioii ; ovate seeds, forming 
distinction or groupes (mostly arranged in longitudinal lines). 
Grev. Alg. Brit.p. 63. 1. 8. — Name, xXis, the sea, ando-s^/;, 

endive ; signifying sea-endive. 

1. W. p>olypodioides, Ag. {Poly pod, ium-hke Haliseris') ; frond 
dichotomous obtuse entire at tbe margin, seeds solitary and 
scattered over the frond or arranged in oblong clusters parallel 
to and near the midrib. Ag. Sp. Alg. v. 1 . 1 42 . — Fucxis 

polypodioid., Lamour. — F. menthraiweeus, Stackli. Ner. Brit. t. 6. 
Turn. Syn. Fuc. p. 141, Hist. Fw. t. 67. F. Bot. t. 1758. 

Rocks in the sea, Torbay and Sidmouth, Airs. Griffiths. Cornwall, 
Air. Rashleigh. Shields beach, Mr. H’inch. Opposite Quilty Strand, 
at extreme low-water mark, Miltown Malbay, Ireland, rare, Mr. Harvey. 




— This beautiful and delicate plant is from 6 inches to a foot in height, 
of an olive-green colour ; its tender frond often obliquely jagged and 
torn at the margin, like an old leaf of Banana. I am indebted to Mrs. 

Griffiths for numerous specimens with the fructifications above noticed, 
and for a third state, with incipient capsules, apparently in small clus- 
ters, and enclosed in isolated, irregular, pale blotches, surrounded by a 
dark wavy line. Dr. Greville correctly observes that this species is proli- 
ferous, the young plants arising from very near the midrib ; and, also, 
that when recent, it has an extremely powerful and disagreeable smell. 

Tribe VII. Furcellarie.®. 

Marine plants, of a dull dark-purplish or brownish-red colour, 
changing to black on exposure to the air. Substance cartilaginous. 
Structure cellular, with a dense coloured stratum of horizontal f la- 
ments forming the circumference. Root creeping. I'rond cylin- 
drical, filiform, dichotomous. Fructification terminal, composed 
of' pod-like indehiscent receptacles, tvithin which is imbedded, near 
the circumference, a horizontal circxdar stratum of dark-brown ob- 
long pear-shaped seeds. Grev. 

22. Furcellaria. Lamour. Furcellaria. 

Frond cartilaginous, cylindrical, filifoimi, dichotomous. Fruc- 
tificedion ; terminal, elongated, pod-like receptacles, containing a 
stratum of dark, ohlong pear-shaped seeds in the circumference. 

Grev. Alg. Brit. p. Q>7 . t. 11 Name ; furcula ovfurcilla, x little 

fork ; from the forked or dichotomous ramifications. 

1. F . fastigiata, Lamour. (fastigiated Furcellaria). Ag. Sp. 
Alg. V. i. p. 103. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 67. t. 11. — F. lumbricalis, 

Lamour Lyngb. — F.fastigiatus, Huds. — F. lumbricalis, Gmel. 

— Turn. Sxjn. Fuc. p. 317, Hist. Fuc. t. 6. E. Bot.t. 894. 

Rocky sea-shores, frequent. . ? Fr. in the winter months. Grev. — 
C — 9 inches long, purplish-brown; apices blunt. In var. fi. of Mr. Tur- 
ner," the apices are compressed, transparent, ovato-lanceolate, .short, 
acute, and these Dr. Greville has observed to elongate and become 
healthy branches. 

Tribe VIII. Spongiocarpeje. 

Marine plants, of a didl dark reddish-purple colour, changing to 
nearly black on exposure to the air; of a cartilaginous substance 
and cellular structxire. Root scutate. Frond filiform, cylindri- 
cal and dichotomous. Fructification uniform, coxisisting of naked 
spongy xcarfs, composed of a mass of radiating filaments, among 
which are imbedded numerous roundish clusters of seeds, sur- 
rounded ivith a pellucid border ; the seeds wedge-shaped, fixed by 
their base to a centred point. Grev. 

23. PoLYiDEs. Ag. Polyides. 

Frond cartilaginous, filiform, cylindrical. Fructification ; 
naked, spongy wmrts, composed of radiating filaments, among 



wliicli are imbedded roundish clusters of wedge-shaped seeds, 
surrounded with a pellucid border, (and globular extremely 
minute granules, imbedded in swollen branches below the ex- 
tremities of the fronds. Griff '.^ Grev. Alg. lirit. p. 69. t. 11. — 
Name many, and dux. form or appearance.; but, as Dr. Gre- 
ville justly remarks, scarcely applicable in the present instance, 
as the only well known species is tolerably constant to all its 

1. P. rotundus, Grev. (cylindrical Polyidesf Grev. Alg. 
JBrif. p. 70. t. 11. — P. lumbriccdis, Ag. Sp. Alg. v. \. p. 192. — 
Furcelluria rotunda, Lyngh. — Fucus rotundus, Gmel . — Turn. 
Syn. Fuc. p. 309, Hist. Fuc. t. 5. E. Bot. t. 1738. — Fucus 
radiatus, Gooden. etWoodw. in Linn. Trans, v. 3. p. 202. — Fucus 
fastigiatus, Linn. Herb, (according to Turner). 

On the south and eastern shores of England, not unfrequent. Rare 
in Scotland. Dumfries and Firth of Forth. Appin, Capt. Carmichael . — 
Root a flattened disk. Fronds to G or 8 inches long, dark purplish- 
brown, the dichotomousbranches fastigiate, with the angles of the dicho- 
tomies rather obtuse, their extremities forked, acute. Besides the more 
common spongy fructification of this genus, Mrs. Griffiths has commu- 
nicated specimens from Sidinouth with “ rather long, swollen branches, 
beneath the. apices containing an immense quantity of globular, ex- 
tremely minute seeds, of a pale purplish colour, amongst the fibres of 
which the substance is composed.” — So closely is this plant allied in 
habit to the Furcellaria fastigiata, that it is much to be regretted they 
cannot be retained in the same Genus. 

Tribe IX. Floride^. 

Plaids all marine, of a purplish-red or fine rose-colour, seldom 
changing much by exposure to the air ; of a coriaceous, carti- 
laginous or membranaceous substance and cellular texture, often 
reticulated. Frond flat, compressed, or cylindrical, icith or ivithout 
a midrib ; sometimes furnished icith distinct leaves or foliaceous 
expansions. Fructificcdion often of two kinds ; the first, sphceri- 

'' The curious spongy fructification was, indeed, misunderstood by Capt. 
Carmichael, and considered to beadistinctandparasitic^tya. I fear, from this cir- 
cumstance, rather than from any other, my excellent friend. Dr. Greville (than 
whom no one was ever more ready to do justice to the merits of other Botanists) 
has been led to an erroiieousestimate of that gentleman’s character, when he says 
“ Capt. Carmichael was remarkable rather as an indefatigable collector than as a 
correct observer of plants ." — As an uccz<ra<e observer oi' nature, in general, tins re- 
served but highl}' talented individuaris publicli/ known by his “ .Account of the 
island of Tristan d’Acunha ” given in the 13th vol. of the Transactions of the 
Linncean Society, and by his “Journal” which latelyappeaied in the “ Memoirs 
of his life,” written by the Rev. Colin Smith, in the 1st and 2d vols of the '‘Bo- 
tanical Miscellany." As an acute and profound obsei'ver in detail, he is perhaps 
at present only known to myself by a most extraordinary collection of the mi- 
nutest of Nature’s works, as disi>layed in the vegetable creation : and amplejus- 
tice, it is hoped, will be done to his memory in the sheets of the present volume. 
So that instead of expressing our surprise at his having fallen into errors while 
studying this most difficult tribe of plants, the only wonder is, that, in an obscure 
corner of the coast of Argyleshire, deprived of access to books, cut off from all 
society congenial to his feelings by high mountains on one side and the stormy 
billows of the Atlantic on the other, he should have committed so few errors, 
while recorditig so many and such novel discoveries. 




cal or hemisplucrical capsules, sessile or stalked, and containing a 
round mass of seeds ; — the second composed of granules, fmostlg ter- 
nate') scattered or collected into little spots (sor/) or lines, and 
situated either in the general substance oj the frond, or in little 
leaflets or distinct jwd-Uhe foliaceous j^rocesses. More than one 
kind of fructification is never found upon the same individual . 

24. Delesseria. Lamour. Delesseria. 

Frond rose-red, flat, membranaceous, with a percurrent mid- 
rib. Fructificcdion oi 2 kinds containing a globular 

mass of seeds, and ternate granules forming definite sori in the 
frond or in distinct foliaceous leaflets. Grev. Alg. Brit- p. 71. 
t.\2. — Named in honour of 31. Benjamin Dclessert, a distinguished 
pati’on of Botany. 

1. D. sanguinea, Lamour. {ocdi-leaved Delesseria) ; stem cylin- 
drical branched bearing oblong or ov'^ate sinuated quite entiie 
waved transversely veined leaves, the midrib producing spha'ii- 
cal pedunculated capsules or scattered in oblong leafy pio- 
cesses. Ag. Sp. Alg. v. \, p. 172. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 72. 
Fucus sanguineus, Linn . — Turn. Sgn. Fuc. p. 7, FList. Luc. 
t. 36. E. Bot. t. 1041.— /3. latifolia ; leaves cordate lobed and 
plaited. Carni. 31 SS. 

Sea-shores, frequent. — /3. Appin, Cnpt. Carmichael. $ . Fructification 
in Winter and Spring.— An elegant and delicate .species, with leaves from 
4 to 6 or 8 inches length, of a fine rose colour, having deeper coloured 
veins. The fructification is generally found on the battered stalks and 
midrib. The var. is a singular and beautiful state of this plant, with 
leaves 4 inches in diameter, and hardly more in length, obtusely lobed 
and plaited. (Carm.) 

2. D. sinuosa, Lamour. {sinuous-leaved Delesseria) ; stem 
cylindrical branebed, frond at length pinnated with oblong den- 
tato-sinuate or pinnatifid transversely veined crenated leaves 
ciliated at the margins with seed-bearing leaflets, spbmrical cap- 
sules imbedded in the substance of the frond. — Ag. Sp. Alg. 
V. 1. p. 174. — Fucus sinuosus, Gooden, et Woodiv. — E. Bot. 
t. 822. Turn. Sgn. Fuc. p. 1, Hist. Fuc. t. 35.— Fucus nd>ens, 
Huds. — Stachh. 

Parasitic on the stems of the larger Fuel. $ . Fructification in Sum- 
mer and Autumn. — Six to eight inches or more in length. Less delicate 
in texture, and of a much deeper colour than the preceding. Of this 
Capt. Carmichael found a var. at Appin, with the fronds 3^ inches in dia- 

3. D. aldta, Lamour. {winged Delesseria) ; frond linear sub- 
dichotomous and much divided in a somewhat pinnatifid manner, 
the segments linear, sphserical sessile capsules and naked seeds 
both placed sometimes on the apices of the branches, and some- 
times on oblong leaflets originating from the midrib. — j3g. Sp. 




Alg. V. \.p. 178. Grev. Alg. Brit. p.l^. — Fucus alalus, Hads . — 
Turn. Syn. Fuc. p. 144. t. 160. — angustissima ; frond ex- 
tremely narrow without any trace of lateral membrane. Turn. 
Hist. Fuc. t. 160. 

Upon rocks in the sea ami larger Algae, frequent. — /3. Scarborougli, 
Mr. Pllchford and Lozie-mouth, Morayshire, Mr. Brodie, $ .? — 4 — 6 in- 
ches long, of a deep rose-colour, with a strong midrib. 

4. D. Hyjwglossum, A^. {proliferous Delesseria) ; frond lin- 
ear-lanceolate repeatedly proliferous from the midrib with leaves 
of the same shape and attenuated and acute, with very obscure 
pellucid simple oblique veins between the midrib and the mar- 
gin, sphterical capsules on the midrib of the lesser leaves and 

oblong spots of seeds near their extremities Ag. Sp. Alg. v. 1. 

ji. 176. — Fucus Hypoglossum, Woodw . — Turn. Syn. Fuc. p. 17, 
Hist. Fuc. t. 14. E. Hot. t. 1396. 

On rocks in the sea and on the larger Algae. ©. Fructification, Sum- 
mer. — 2 — 4 inches to a span long, varying much in the width of the 

5. D. ruscifolia, Lamour, {Ruscus-leaved Delesseria) ; frond 
linear-oblong proliferous from the midrib wdth leaves of the 
same shape and very obtuse Avith pellucid branched bearded ob- 
lique veins between the midrib and the margin, sphserical cap- 
sules on the midrib of the lesser leaves and oblong spots of seeds 
near their extremities. — Ag. Sp. Alg. v. \. p. 174. Grev. Alg. 
Brit. p. 76. — Fucus ruscifolius, Tarn, m Linn. Trans, v. 6. 
2 J. 127. t. 8.f. 1, Sy?t. Fuc. p. 12, Hist. Fuc. t. 15. E. Hot. 
t. 1395. 

Sea, on rocks and upon Algae, scarce. Norfolk and Suffolk, Devon- 
shire and Bognor. Bantry, Mhs Hutchins. Miltown Malbay, Ireland, 
Mr. Harvey. ©. Summer. — Plant smaller, the leaves being much 
shorter than in the preceding species and very obtuse, but quite as 
broad. The different texture of the frond, arising from the peculiar, 
oblique, pellucid veins, will afford a further character by which the two 
may be distinguished. 

25. Nitophyllum. Grev. Nitophyllum. 

Frond plane, delicately membranaceous, rose-coloured, reticu- 
lated, wholly without veins, or with very slight vague ones towards 
the base. Fructification ; hemisphserical capsules imbedded in 
tbe substance of the frond, and ternate granules forming distinct 
scattered spots. — Named from the Latin nitor, to shine, and the 
Greek (pu\7.ov, a leaf; from the glossy surface of the fronds. — 
This Genus appears to be a natural one; but 1 find tbe species 
so difficidt to distinguish in the dried state, that I have re- 
lied upon Dr. Greville for most of the characters. Beautiful 
specimens of nearly the Avhole of them 1 have received through 
the well known liberality of Mrs. Griffiths. 

1. N. ocelldtum, Grev. (ocellated Nitoidiyllam); frond with a 


Ai.G.^: inarticulat/t: 


roundish outline extremely thin quite veinless cleft almost to 
the base, the segments repeatedly divided in a manner more or 
less between palmate and dichotomous mostly linear obtuse at 
the ends, spots of granules in the segments. Grev. Crypt. FI. 
t. 347, Atg. Brit. p. 78, Ag. Sp. Alg. v. 1. p. 187. h aciis ocel- 

latns and F. granateus, Lamour. 

Bantry Bay, d/iss IIutcMm ; shores of Moray-shire, 717/-. 

{Grev.'). Torbay, Budleigh, llarbrech and Elberrey Cove, 
Griffiths. ©. Summer. — 4 — 5 inches in length, ol a very delicate 

2. N. punclutum, Grev. {dotted Nitophyllum); frond very thin 
quite destitute in every part of veins v'aguely cleft for half its 
length or more into segments which become narrower as jhey 
subdivide, spots of grannies scattered all over the frond. Grev. 
Alg. Brit. p. 79. t. 12. {txcl. the syn. of F. nhoides. Turn.) 
Ag. Sp. Alg. V. 1. p. 186. — Fucus punctutus, With. — E. Bot. 
t. 1575. Turn. Hist.Fuc.t. 71. — Ulva punctata, Stachh. 

In the sea, attached to various Algae. Weymouth, Stach house. 
Cornwall, Dillwyn. Caithness and Orkney, Borrer, Clouslon mid Hook. 
Isle of Bute, Hr. Greville. Appin, Cayt. Carmichael. Belfast, Hi. 
Hrummond. Miltown Malbay, Ireland, rare, Mr. Harvey. ©•“ 
Summer. — This is surely very nearly allied to N.oceUalum ; indeed I 
can hardly distinguish, even fructified specimens, except by the more 
generally diffused spots of seeds in the present species. 

3. N. ulvoideum, ( Ulva-Uke Nitophyllum^); frond thickish hut 
tender veinless roundish but very irregular in figure somewhat 
cuneate at the base variously cleft into oblong more or less 
broad segments rounded at the extremity, spots of granules 
small scattered over nearly the whole frond. — Fucus tdvoides, 
Turn. Hist. Fuc.t.^Q. E.Bot. t. 2134. — Nitophyllum Hilhce, 
Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 80. — Delesseria ulvoides, Hook. FI. Scot. 
P. II. p. 101, — D. Hillice, Grev. Crypt. FI. t. 351. 

In the sea; coast of Moray, Mr. Brodie. Bantr}', Miss Hidchius. 
Plymouth, Miss Hill. Torqimy, Mrs. Griffiths. Whitsand Bay, Mr. 
Arnott. Miltown Malbay, Mr. Harvey. ©. — This is of a much 
thicker texture than the preceding, more irregular in its circumscription 
and of a deeper colour, verging on green when old. I have referred 
Dr. Greville’s N. Hillice to the Fucus ulvoides of Mr. Turner, because 
Miss Hill’s own sjjecimens and those of Mrs. Griffiths, exactly agree with 
a finer individual of M r. Turner’s plant in my Herbarium ; and surely, too, 
with the figure above-quoted. The two ladies now mentioned, have had 
the good fortune to find both kinds of fructification, namely, scattered 
dots of seeds and hemisphajrical capsules. 

4. N. Bonnemaisonii, Grev. {discoid Nitophyllum); frond 
shortly stipitate extremely thin vaguely cleft the segments 
roundish wedge-shaped, the stem vanishing at the base of the 
frond in a few obscure veins, fructification scattered over the 
frond. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 81. — Delesseria Bonnemaisonii, Ag. 

-B8 ALG7E INARTICULATyli. [Rhodomenia. 

Sp. Alg. V. I. p, 186. Grev. Crj/pt. FI. t. 32’2. (excl. the figs. 
'2 and 3.) 

In the sea. Orkne}’, Rev. C. Clouston. Isle of Bute, Dr. GrevUle. 
Larne, near Belfast, Dr. Drummond. ©. Summer. — “Two to four 
inches in length, of a most beautiful rose-pink, which changes to pur- 
plish in drying. This species is clearly distinguished from the two sub- 
sequent ones by the spots of ternate granules being scattered over the 
disk of the frond. The figures 2 and 3 in the Cryptogamie Flora 
{t. 322) belong to N. Gmelini, many specimens of which closely resem- 
ble the present in general outline.” (Grev.) 

5. N. Gmelini, Grev. (inarginal-fruited Nitophyllum); stem 
sliort passing’ into a frond with a roundish outline deeply cleft 
the main segments broadly wedge-shaped vaguely subdivided 
faintly marked with vague flexuose veins, the margin entire, spots 
of ternate granules irregular marginal. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 82.' — 
Belesseria Gmelini, Lamour. Fss. p. 36. — Fucas laceratus, y. 
Turn. Hist. Fuc. v. p. 133. 

South coast of Devon, Mrs. Grijfiths. Ilfracombe, Miss Hill. Larne, 
near Belfast, Dr. Drummond. 0. Summer. — A beautiful and very dis- 
tinct plant, long known to Mrs. Griffiths, who finds it abundantly in 
Devonshire. It rarely e.Kceeds 2 or 3 inches in length. In substance 
and marginal fructification this approaches the following species; in the 
general outline and comparative breadth of the frond it approaches the 
preceding ones. Dr. Greville observes that the Irish specimens, which 
I have not seen, are twice the size of English ones. 

6. N. lacerdtum, Grev. (lacerated NitophyUimi); frond mem- 
branaceous very tender plane veiny mostly dichotomous, seg- 
ments sublinear thin apices rounded, the mai’gins lacinulated 
waved and bearing the oblong’ spots of granules. — Grev. Alg. 
Brit. p. 83. — Belesseria lacerata, Ag. Sp. Alg.v. 1. p. 184. — 
Fucus laceratus, Gniel . — Turn. Syn. Fuc. p. 154, Hist. Fuc. 

t. 68. E.Bot. t. 1067. — Fucus crispatus, Huds F. eitdivifolius. 

Light/. Scot. p. 948. t. 32. — /3. uncinata; fronds narrow, lesser 
segments minute. Turn. 

Common on the coasts of Great Britain. — /3. Yarmouth, Mr- Turner. 
O . — A very well marked, yet a variable plant in size and in the relative 
breadth of its frond and the more or less copious segments and lacinulas. 
Dr. Greville well observes that “ the whole frond has the power of at- 
taching itself by the edges and creeping, as it were, upon the rocks and 
plants in its way; so much so, that it can hardly be gathered without 
some resistance and laceration.” 

26. Rhodomenia. Grev. Rhodomenia. 

Frond plane, membranaceous, fine pink or red, quite veinless, 
sessile, or with a short stem w hich expands immediately into 
the frond. Fructi/ication: — 1. hemisphserical, scattered capsules; 
2. minute, ternate granules, spreading over the wdiole or some 
part of the frond (not in defined spots). Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 84. 




Name; go5o;, red, and hfirtv, a membrane. — This seems to differ 

from some of the Nitophylla, solely in the ternate grannies being 
scattered over the Avhole surface of the frond, not collected into 
definite spots. 

1. R. hiftda, Grev. (Jnfid Ruodomenki); frond thin membran- 
aceous dicliotomonsly divided broadly linear, the segments often 
subcuneate obtuse, capsules hemispha?rical chiefly marginal. 
Grev. Alg. Bvit.p. 85 . — Delesseria bifida, Lamour, — Spbcerococcus 
bifidifs, Ag. Sp. Alg. v. ^.p. 299 . — Ilahjmenia bifida, Gmel — 
Fuevs b fidus, Good, el Woodw. in Linn. Jra/is,v.‘3. t. 17.y. 1. 
E. Bot. t. 773. Turn. Sgn. Fuc. p. 1G3, Hist.Fuc. t. 154 — 
/3. cUiata; frond somewhat cartilaginous purplish-brown opaque 
divided, the margins fringed with spathulate laciniae. Turn. 1. c. 

On rocks and tlie larger sea-weeds, not unfrequent on the coast of the 
south of England, especially of Devonshire and Cornwall. Norfolk and 
Suffolk. Tynemouth. Belfast and Bantry, Ireland. ©. Summer.— The 
more usual state of this plant is of a beautilul deep rose-red, the margins 
free from laciniae or nearly so ; but the ciliated variety is so beset with 
linear, or, more frequently, spathulate laciniae, and is so copiously divided, 
that it can hardly be recognised as the same species ; its colour is much 
less bright, and its texture thicker and more opaipie. From INIrs. 
Griffitlis I possess numerous specimens. In some of these the cajisules 
are by no means confined to the margin. I he scattered gianules aie 
principally in the extremities of the frond, often, however,^ extending a 
good way down: frequently in the marginal laciniaa. The spi ending 
fronds are from one to three inches in length. 

2. R. lacinidta, Grev. (Jaciniuted Rhodomenia) ; frond sub- 
cartilaginous palmatedly dichotomous, the segments broadly 
linear-oblong obtuse or erose often fringed with marginal la- 
ciniae (linear or lanceolate) in wdiich the spbaerical capsules ate 
situated, scattered granules marginal. — Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 86. 
— Belesseria laciniata, Grev. FI. Edin. — Hook, in FI. Lond. N. 
Ser. cum Ic. — Fucus laciniatus, Uuds . — Turn. Sgn. Fuc.p. 161, 
Hist. Fuc. t. 69. E. Bot. t. 1068. 

More or less abundant upon all the coasts of Great Britain : very 
rare near Edinburgh, according to Dr. Greville. $ . Fructification 
Spring and Summer. — 4—6 or 8 inches long. The smaller and more 
delicate specimens have much resemblance to R. bifida. 

3. "R. pohjcdrpa, Grev. (pnany-fruited Rhodomenia); frond 
between cartilaginous and membranaceous dichotomous or some- 
wdiat palmate, the segments subliuear laciniated and acute at the 
ends, capsules hemispliterical scattered over the frond. Grev. 
Alg. Brit.p. 87, and Sphcerococcus pohje., Grev. Crypt. FI. t. 352, 

Cast on shore under Tait’s Hill, near Plymouth, 1814; Afiss Hill, 
Whitsand Bay, AH. Arnott. ^ .V— Frond seven inches in length. Of 
this the capsular fructification only is known “ Its structure is dense 
and very similar under the microscope to that of Rhodomenia Palmelta ; 
but the'different colour (opaque, dull, pink-red, very dark at the base} 



[ lihodomcnin. 


and the fructification, besides its greater thickness, at once remove it 
from that jilant.” Grev. — This species I am unacquainted with.' 

4. R. Pahuetta, Grev. (small palmated Pliodomenui) ; stipes 
short terete, frond subflabelliforin more or less deeply divided 
in asomewliat palmated manner, the segments oblong or cuneate 
bifid the axils rounded the margins entire, capsules in the disk 
and margin, scattered granules forming a cloud at tbe extremity 

of the segments Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 88. 12. — Splicerococcus 

Palm., Ay. Sp. Alg. v. .p. 243. — Delesseria Palm., Lamour ., — 
Pucits Palm., Esp . — Turn. Syn. Fuc. p. 2!, Hist. Fuc.t. 73. 
E. Bot. t. 1120 . — Fucus hijidus, Hitds. 

On rocks and the stems of the larger Fuci, especially on Laminmia 
digitata, chiefly in the south of England- Bantry, Aliss Hutchins. 
Miltown Malbay, abundant, Mr. Harvey. ©. Summer and Autumn. 

Of a fine deep rose colour ; the te.xture somewhat cartilaginous, so 
that the specimens, in general, do not adhere to [>aper. Length from 2 
to 4 or 5 inches ; the taller and narrow'er specimens have much the 
appearance of Splicerococcus membranifolius ; but, as Dr. Greville re- 
marks, the latter has always a livid purplish hue, and the fructification 
is very different. 

5. R. cristdta, Grev. (crested Rhodomenia') ; frond semicircu- 
lar membranaceous subdicbotomous, the segments somewhat 
dilated upwards repeatedly subdivided, tbe divisions alternate 
decurrent laciniate at the ends, capsules spliserical imbedded in 
the margin of tbe frond. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 89 — Splicerococcus 
cristatus, Ag. Sp. Alg. v. \. p. 300. Lyngh. Hydroph. Dan. 

t. 4. Grev. Crypt. FI. t. 5 Fucus cristatus, Linn. Herb . — 

Turn. Hist. Fuc. t. 23, (excl. tbe var. y.)— /3. frond narrow 
linear tbrougbout. Turn. 1. c. 

In the sea, upon the steins of Laminaria digitata. Firth of Forth, Dr. 
Greville. — /3. On the shore at Wick, Caithness, Borrer and. Hook. Ber- 
wick, Dr. Johnston. ©• July.— This is certainly a rare species, and I am 
not aware of any other stations than those just mentioned. The var- (i. 
(Turn-) is perhaps the same as Dmcus Dangii of Flora Danica, t. 1477. 
The var. y. of Mr. Turner is a species of Rytiphlisa, Jg. (R- complanata, 
Ag.) and not a native of Britain, that I am aware of, though stated, by 
Agardli, to be found in Ireland 

6. R. cilidta, Grev. (ciliated Rhodomenia) ; frond subcartila- 
ginous more or less lanceolate dichotomous and pinnatifid with 

1 Since the above was written, I have seen a specimen from Mr. Arnott, 
in the possession of Mr. Harvey; and I do indeed fully agree wiU) the former, 
who says, in a letter to me (and contrary to the opimon of Dr. Greville), 
“ I still think this is the Fucus Sarnieiisis of Mertens and Loth ; lor m the 
Catalecta Botanicaare figured distinct capsules very different from the fructi- 
fication of the Genus //ab/mcafa.”— These caj.sules are indeed very obscure and 
imperfect, as comjiared with those on Mr. Arnott s specimen, but 1 ha\e no 
hesitation in considering the two to be specifically identical ; and these are 
both, in my opinion, much more nearly allied to Rhodom. sobolifera than to 
palmata. At any rate, 1 am quite of opinion, that if R. Sarnieiisis be united 
with R. palmata, so must R. sobolifera and R. polycarpa. The real capsules 
have only' been found on this latter. 




lanceolate copiously ciliated laciuiae, cilia simple patent subulate 
bearing the capsules at the extremity, root fibrous creeping — 
Grev. Alg. ]3rit. ]). 90 . — Sptuerococcus ciliutus, Ag. Sp. Alg. 
V. 1. p. 263. Lyngh. Hydroph. Dan. t, 4. — Delesseria ciliata, 

Lamour Fucus ciliutus, Hads . — Turn. Syn. Fuc. p. 169, 

Hist. Fuc. t. TO. Jigs, a — e. E. Bot. t. 1069. 

Frequent on the coasts of England, especially in the south. ©. 
F ruclijication in the winter. — This and the following species Dr, Greville 
observes to differ from the rest of the Genus in the distinctly fibrous root ; 
li. Palmetta alone having its disk furnished with fibres which often 

7. ^.juhuta, Grev. {shaggy RhodomeniaJ; root fibrous, frond 
flaccid between membranaceous and coriaceous linear attenuated 
vaguely branched, the branches simple or once or twice pinnati- 
fid ciliated, the cilia linear-subulate containing the fructification. 
Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 91 . — SpJucrococcus jubatus, Grev. Crypt. FI. 
t. 359. — S. cilialus, vars. jubatus, linearis, an gust us and spinosus, 
Ag. Sp. Alg.v. \. p. 264 {according to Grev.^. — Fucus jubatus. 
Good, and Woodw. in Linn. Trans, v. 3. t. 17. Stackh. Ner. 
Brit. t. 11 . — Fucus ciliatus, vars. jubatus, lanceolatus, angustus 
and spinosus, Turn. Hist. Fuc.t. lO.Jigs.f. — h. {Greville.) 

In the sea ; attached to rocks and the larger Algae, abundant in Devon 
and Cornwall, Mis. Griffiths. Plymouth, Miss Hill, Mr. Sconce. Mil- 
town Malbay, iT/r. Harvey. ©. F ruclijication. Summer. — A most varia- 
ble plant, especially in the length of its laciniae, which are sometimes 5 
or 6 inches in length and cirrhose, as in specimens found by Mrs. Grif- 
fiths and Mr. Harvey. Mrs. Griffiths has the merit, Dr. Greville ob- 
seiwes, of clearly ascertaining the distinctness of this species, by point- 
ing out the “ flaccid substance, so different from the preceding, and 
the important fact, that the one is a summer and the other a winter 
plant.” The granules, too, in R. ciliata, invariably occupy the surface 
of the frond itself; while in R.jubata they are placed in the cilia. Still 
the opinion of many eminent Botanists is at variance with this, as may 
be seen by the above synonyms : and in regard to substance, I find it to 
be by no means constant. Mr, Arnott who has gathered this plant in 
Devonshire, bearing fruit on the 6th of May, does not consider it dis- 
tinct from R. ciliata. 

8. R, pahndta, Grev. {larger pahnated Rhodomenia or Dulse); 
frond submembrauaceous pahnated rpiite entire at the margin 
the segments oblong mostly simple, granules collected into 
widely irregularly shaped spots or clouds scattered over the 
whole frond. — Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 93 . — Halymenia palmata, 
Ag. Sp. Alg. V. 1 . p)- 204 . — Delesseria palmata, Lamour. — Fu- 
cus pahnatus, Linn. — Light/. Scot. v. 2. t. 27. Turn. Syn. 
Hist. Fuc. t. 115. E. Bot. t. 1306. — Ulva palmata, Lyngh, 
— /3. Sarniensis ; frond thinner laciniated the segments very 
narrow. — Grev. 1 . c. — Fucus Sarniensis, Mert. in Roth, Cat. 
Bot. V. 3. p. 103. p. 1. Turn. Hist. Fuc. t. 44. 

Abundant on all the rocky shores of Great Britain. — li. Jersey. — 0. 
or $ . Winter. — Four to six inches or a foot high, of a livid purplish 




colour. This is the Dulse of the Scotch, who are veiy fond of it in .t 
fresh and crude state. Lightfoot says, however, that they prefer it dried 
and rolled up, when they chew it like tobacco for the pleasure arising 
from the habit. This is the “saccharine Fuc/is,” or Sol of the Icelanders, 
the efflorescence of which has a sweetish and not disagreeable taste. It 
is dried by the natives, packed down in casks, and used as occasion re- 
quires, frequently cooked with butter. Cattle, sheep in particular, often 
eat this species with eagerness, whence it has been called Fucus ovinus. 
I follow the able author of the Algae Brit., in uniting the Fucus Sarniensis 
of Mertens with the Rhodomenia palniala, and indeed I have received 
specimens from Mrs. Griffiths which are clearly intermediate. The 
capsular fruit has been detected (by Professor Mertens) only on the var. 

See note to R. polycarpa, p. 290. 

9. R. sobolifera, Grev. {^proliferous Rhodomenia); frond mem- 
branaceous shortly stipitate, stem filiform dividing into brandies 
which expand into flat dilated fronds much deeply and irregu- 
larly cleft, the segments linear wedge-shaped laciniated at their 
apex. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 9o. — Ilahjmeniaf sobolifera, Ag. Sp. 
Alg. V. 1. p. 218 . — Fucus soboUferus, FI. Dan . — Turn. Hist. 
Fuc. t. 45. E. Bot. t. 2133. Hook. FI. Scot. P. II. jo. 107. 

On Laminaria difilala, shores of the Orkney islands. Mull of Gal- 
way, Rev. Dr. Walker. Glenarm, Ireland, Dr. Drummond. — fhe near- 
est ally of this is undoubtedly the var. /3. Sarniensis of Rhodomenia pal- 
mata: but it is much smaller, and the frond is marked with obscure but 
larger reticulations. Fructification unknown. 

10. R. reniformis, {kidney-shaped Rhodomenia); stipes very 
short, frond simple or branched suddenly expanding into a 
cartilagineo-membranaceous simple or proliferous entire lobed 
or laciniated reniform or suborbicular frond, capsules and 

granules scattered. — Iricdcea reniformis, Bory Halymenia 

renif., Ag. Sp. Alg. v. \. p. 201. — Fucus reniformis, Grev. Alg. 
Brit. V. 160. Turn. Hist. Fuc. t. 113, E. Bot. t. 2116. 

Sea-shore, Isle of Wight, Miss Everett. Rocks, Budleigh and Tor- 
quay, Mrs. Griffiths. Ilfracombe, Miss Hill. Cornwall, Mr. Rashleigh. 
Miltown Malbay, Mr. Harvey. If.? Summer and Autumn. — Frond 
sometimes 7 — 8 inches in length. The /3. of Mr.Turner scarcely deserves 
to be mentioned as a var., for it may be seen gradually passing into the 
more usual state of the species. — I have, at the suggestion of Mr. Harvey, 
and with the consent of Dr. Greville, referred this j)lant to Rhodomenia. 
It possesses the ternate granules; while the “immersed globules” of the 
latter author are truly a capsular fruit, figured and described by 
Mr. Turner. Mrs. Griffiths finds both kinds of fructification at Tor- 

{Rhodomenia Teediiof Dr. Greville will here be found under the Genus 

27. Plocamium. Lamour. Plocaraium. 

Frond filiform, compressed, between membranaceous and 
cartilaginous, fine pink-red, much branched, branches distichous 
(alternately secund and pectinate). Fructification of 2 kinds : 




—sphserical sessile capsules, and lateral minute processes contain- 
ing* oblong granules^ transversely divided into seveial parts by 
pellucid lines. Grev , — Named from ttXokximoj intertwined hair^ 
from the fine, much branched fronds. 

1. P. coccineum, Lyngb. (^scarlet Plocamiurn). Lyngh. Hy- 
dropL Dan. t. 9. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 98. t. l2.— Plocammm 
vulgare, Lnmour. — Delesseria Plocamiurn, Ag. Sp. PI. y. 1* 
180 . — Fucus Plocamiurn, Gmel. — Light/. — Fucus coccinms, 
Buds.— Turn. Syn. Fuc. p. 291, Hist. Fuc. t. 59. E. Bot. 
t. 1242. 

Sea-coasts abundant, every where. If.? Summer and Autunui. 

28. Microcladia. Grev. Microcladia. 

Frond filiform, compressed, subcartilaginous, irregularly 
branched, the branches distichous. Fructification of 2 kinds : 
sessile spha?rical capsules, accompanied by an involucre in the 
form of several short ramuli : and ternate granules in the swol- 
len apices of the branches. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 29. t. 13. 
Name, /i/xgo?, small, and xXaSo?, a branch, from the very delicate 

1. M, glandulosa, (jglandular Microcladia^. Grev. Alg. Brit, 
p. 99. t. 13. — Delesseria glandul., Ag. Sp. Alg. v. 1. p. 192. 
Fucus glandulosus. Batiks. Herb . — Turn. Hist. F uc. t. 38. E. 
Bot. t. 2135. 

On the larger marine Algae, Budleigh and Torquay, Mr&. Griffiths. 
©. Fruclification. September and October.— A small (2 or 3 inches 
high), but very distinct and well-marked plant. 

29. Odonthalia. Lyngb. Odonthalia. 

Frond plane, between membranaceous and cartilaginous, 
dark vinous-red, with an imperfect or obsolete midrib, alter- 
nately toothed at the margin. Fructification marginal or axil- 
lary or in the teeth : — 1. Capsules, containing pear-shaped ^eer/5 
fixed by their base : — 2 slender processes, containing ternate 
granules. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 100. t. 13. — Name; edw;, o>to;, a 
tooth, and 6a7.affSri, the sea; iji allusion to the toothed margin of 
this marine plant. 

1. O. dentdta, Lyngh. (toothed Odonthalia); frond branched, 
the branches pinnatifid, lacinise linear-oblong alternate sharply 
toothed at the extremity, peduncles aggregate bearing clustered 
capsules. — Lyngb. Hydroph. Dan. t. 3. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 101. 
t. 13. — Rhodomela dentata, Ag. Sp. PI. v. 1. p. 370. — Delesseria 
dentata, Lamour. — Fucus dentatus, Linn . — Turn. Syn. Fuc. 
p. 149, Hist. Fuc. t. 13. E. Bot. t. 1241. 

On the northern coasts only of Great Britain, both on the Atlantic 
side and in the German ocean. Frequently on old stems of Lamiuarirc. 


ALG^ inarticulate:. 


2f, Fnictijicaiioa January and March. — In English Botany, and in Mr. 
Turner’s Hist. Fuc., the capsules are represented and described as urce- 
olate. Dr. (irreville finds them to be broadly ovate. 

30. Rhodomela. Ag. llliodoniela. 

Frond cylindrical or compressed, filiform, much branched, 
coriaceo-cartilag’inous (the apex sometimes involute). Friic- 
tijication ; — subglobose capsides, containing free, pear-shaped 
seeds-, and pod-like receptacles, with imbedded ternate granules. 
Grev. Alg. JJrit. p.10'2. t. 13. — Name; red, and piXxg, black ; 

in allusion to the change of colonr from a pnrplish-red when 
recent, to black, when dry. 

Summit of the branches straight fiot involute). 

1. R. Lycopodi.oides, Ag. {Club-moss Rhodomela) ; frond 
terete mostly simple every where covered with closely imbri- 
cated filiform patent ramuli generally forked at their apices and 

intermixed with the setaceous I’cmains of former branches 

Ag. Sp. Alg. V. 1. yj. 377. Grev. Alg. Idrit. p. 102. — Gigar- 
tina Lycopod., Lyngb. — Fucus Lycopod., Linn . — Turn. Sy 7 i. Fuc. 
p. 343, Hist. Fuc. t. 12. E. Bot. t. 1163. 

On the stems of Laminaria digitata, Sussex and Devon, but chiefly 
on the northern shores of Great Britain. 11 . — May— July. — 4—8 in- 
ches long. 

2. R. subfusca, Ag. {bi-oivnish Rhodomela) ; frond filiform 
much and irregularly branched, branches subulate pinnate and 
subalternate often clustered. Ag. Sp. Alg. v. \. p. 378. Grev. 
Alg. Brit. p. 103. — Gigartina, subfusca, Lamour. — Lyngb. — 
Fucus subfuscus, Woodw. in Linn. Trans, v. \. p. 131. t. 12. 
Turn. Syn. Fuc. p. 350, Hist. Fuc. t. 10. E. Bot. t. 1 164. 

Coasts of Great Britain ; on rocks and the larger Algae. $ . Frurtif ca- 
tion February and in Summer. — An extremely variable plant at different 
seasons of the year; being much injured in winter and destitute of the 

Summit of the branches involute. 

3. pinastroides, Ag. {Pinasler-lihe Rhodotnela) ; frond terete 
branched, the branches clothed w ith nnmerons secund spuriously 
jointed ramnli, recurved at the apex. — Ag. Sp. Alg. v. l.j). 381. 
Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 104. t. 13. — Gigartina Pinaster, T^yngb.— 
Fucus pinastroides, Gmel . — Turn. Syn. Fuc. p. 346, Hist. Fuc. 
L 11. E. Bot.t. 1042. 

On rocks in the southern coasts of England, frequent. Near Dublin, 
Dr. Scott. 14 .. — Winter. — 6 — 8 inches high, 

4. R. seorpioides, Ag. {scorpions tail Rhodomela) ; frond erect 
capillary mnch divided wdth horizontal branches, the uppermost 
singularly involute at the extremity — Ag. Sp.Alg.v. l.yj, 380. 
Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 105 — Fucus seorpioides, Huds. Angl. ed. 1. 




-Fucus amjjhibius, finds. Angl. ed. ‘2-— Turn- Fuc. p. 39l, 
Hist. Fuc. t. 109. E. Bot. t. 'iArn.—Flocamium amphibmm, 

^sZhern and eastern sea-coasts of England chiefly in 

among Atriplex and other saline phaenogainous plants V\ ales, nev. 

Hu, h Davies. ©.? Sunmmr.-l-3 inches ; a dnhious plar^^t as t^^ 

genus. Roth describes minute, axillary, roundish 

ceolate, pod-like receptacles of granules as not uncommon. . . 

hinted at its affinity with Poli/siphoniafastigiala; 

real articidations, Dr. Greville considers it as a connecting 

that plant and the Alga; Inarliculatce. Its place of growth is remarkable. 

I have fathered it abundantly at Cromer in Nortolk, growing in tutts 

like Cladonia rangiferim, which it much resembles in ramification. 

31. Bonnemaisonia. Ag. Bomiemaisonia. 

Frond membranaceous, compressed or plane, filiform, much 
branched, the branches pectinated with distichous cilia, truc- 
tificatiun, sessile or pedicellate capsules, containing a cluster ot 
pyriform (compound?) seeds, fixed by their base. Grev. Alg. 
Brit. p. 10(5. t. 13. — Named in honour of 31. Bomumaisoii, a 
French Algologist. 

1. B. asparagoides, Ag. {Asparagusdike Boyinemaisoma) ; 
frond compressed very much branched delicate ciliated wit i 
distichous subulate ramuli, capsules alternating with these ramuli 
and pedunculated. Ag. Sp. Alg. v. 1. p. 197 .—Plocamium 
asparag., Lamour. — Fucus asparag., Woodw. in Lmn. I rmis. 
v.2.t. 6. E. Bot.\. Turn. Syn. Fuc. p. 393, Hist. Fuc. 

On rocks and stones in the sea, rare : Cornwall, Norfolk and Suffolk. 
Bantrv Bay and near Belfast. Abundant at Quilty, Miltown Malhay 
Joshua Fennell, Esq.— Q. Summer.— A delicate and very beautiful 
plant, of a cellular texture. Mr. Harvey finds on this species a modi- 
fication of the capsule, which appears analagous to what Ur. Oreville 
describes on Laurencm pinnatijida as “ disciform rccci)lacles» 

32. Laurenci.v. Liomonr. Laiirencia. 

Frond cylindrical, filiform, between gelatinous and cartila- 
ginous, mostly yellowish or purplish-red. Fructification oi two 
; — 1. ovate capsules with a terminal pore, containing a 
cluster of stalked pear-shaped seeds fixed by their base: 2. ter- 

nate granules imbedded in the ramuli. Grev. Alg. Brit.p. 108. 

14. Named in compliment to a French Naturalist, 31. de 

la Laurende.—^^ All the species,” Dr. Greville observes, “ have 
their branches either obtuse and often lobed, or set with little 
incrassated ramuli ; and it is in these parts that the ternate 
granules are always imbedded. 

* Hamuli turgid, obtuse. 

1. L. pinnatijida, Lamour. (pinnatijid Laurcncia') ; frond 




compressed Subcartila/:^lnoiis bi-tripinnatifid the brandies alter- 
nate, ultimate ones obtuse simple or lobed. Grev. Alg. Brit, 
p. 108. 14 — Choiidria jnniHitiJida, Alg, Sp.Alg.j). \ .p 337. — 

Gdidmm pinvatif., Lyngh. — Fucus pinnatif., Huds . — Tarn. Syn. 
Fac.p, 267, TIisf. Fuc. t, 20. E. Bot. t. 1202. — /?. Osmunda ; 
frond flat generally undivided, ramuli short and multifid. Turn. 
I- c. — Fucus Osmunda, Gmel. Stachh. — y. angusta ; frond 
roundish, ramuli cylindrical thickened upwards set on all sides 

of the stem often clustered and simple. Turn. 1. c b. tcjiuis- 

shna I frond flat, ramuli very thin and much branched, the 
branches divaricated. Tur?i. I. c. 

a. p>. y. Rocks in the sea, every where.— S. Devon and Cornwall, Mr. 
Stackhouse, I\Irs. Griffiths. ©. Summer. — Besides tlie common inodes 
of fructification on this very variable plant, Mrs. Griffiths finds capsular 
receptacles, and Miss Cutler, saucer-shaped receptacles, filled with 
“ numerous linear, simple, or divided bodies, vertically arranged, appar- 
ently composed of very short filaments surrounding a longitudinal axis, 
the whole terminated by a number of round [)ellucid lobes.” The spe- 
cies is from one to many inches in length. 

2. L. oblusa, Lamour. (hlant-pointed Laurencia') ; frond cy- 
lindrical filiform repeatedly piuuated, branches generally oppo- 
site, ramuli cylindrical short patent truncated. Lamour. Essai 
p. 42 (^and L. intricata, L. cyanospermia, together ivith L. gela- 
tinosa and liitea of the same author, according to Ag.). Grev. Alg. 
Brit. p. 111. — Chondria, obtusa, Ag. Sp. Alg. v. 1. p. 340. — 
Fucus ohtusus, Huds . — Twai. Syn. Fuc. p. 43, Hist. Fuc. A 21. 
E. Bot. t. 1201. 

Parasitic on the larger Alg<e on most of our coasts, but chiefly in the 
south. ©. Summer. — 3 — G inches long. Colour a pale very fugitive 

** Bamuli much attenuated at the base. 

3. L. dasyphylla, Grev. (thick-leaved Laurencia'^ ; frond fili- 

form cylindrical branched in an irregularly pinnated manner, 
branches patent mostly simple, ramnli cylindrical scattered pro- 
liferous, attenuated at the base. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 112 

L. ccvspitosa et Gigarlina dasyphylla, Lamour. — Chondria 
dasyph., Ag. Sp. Alg. v. 1 . p. 350. — Fucus dasyph., TVoodiv. in 
JAnn. Trans, v. 2. p. 239. 21. Turn. Syn. Fuc.p. 38, Hist. 

Fuc. t. 22. E. Bot. t. 847. 

Rocks and stones, on the sea-shore in various parts of Great Britain. 
©. Summer. — Frond 3 — 6 inches in length, pale pinky-brown, generally 
marked with transverse strim. 

4. L. ienuissima, Grev. (^slendtr Laurencia') ; frond filiform 
much branched in a pinnated manner, ultimate brancblets short 
setaceous much attenuated at the base. — Grev. Alg. Brit.p. 113. 
— Gigariina tenuiss., Lamour. — Chondria tenuiss.,Ag. Sp.Alg. v. 
1. p. 353. — Fimis tetmiss., Good, et Woodio., in Linn. Trans, 
y. 3. p. 215. t. 19. Turn. Syn. Fuc. p. 35, Hist. Fuc. t. 100. 
E. Bot. t. 1882. 

Ch^locladia.] alG^ INARTICULATE;. 

On rocks and on the larger AlgcBon the coast of Dorset {Goodenough 
and Woodward). Isle of Wight, Rev. G. R. Leathes. Devon (Mrs. 
Griffiths), and Cornwall (E. Rot.). ©. Summer.— 6— 8 inches high. 
Readily distinguished by its very slender uniform ultimate ramuh or 
pinnules. — I possess most beautiful specimens from Mrs. Griffiths, 
gathered at Elberrey Cove, in fructification. 

3-3. Chylocladia. Grev. MSS. Chylocladia. 

Frond cylindrical, filiform (often constricted as if jointed), 
between gelatinous and cartilaginous, of a pinky-red colour. 
Fructification of two kinds : — 1. spluerical, ovate or conical cap- 
s?</eA‘,witli wedge-shaped or angular seeds : — 2. imbedded, ter- 
nate granules. Grev. AJg. Frit, (under Gastridiuni) j). 114. 
t. 14. — Name juice, and xa«6o;, nhrancltSrom the succulent 

nature of the ramuli. — The name Gastridiuni having been pre- 
viously given to a Genus of Grasses, it lias been necessary to 
change it. 

* Frond ivithout constrictions. 

1. C.clavellosa, (clavellated Chtjlocladia) ; frond subgelatinous 
filiform cylindrical much and irregularly branched, branches and 
ramuli mostly alternate and distichous, ultimate ones more or 
less lanceolate attenuated at the base. — Gastridiuni davellosuni 
Lijngh . — Grev. Alg. Frit.p. 1 15 . — Chondria clavel., Ag. Sp. Alg. 
V. 1. p. 353. — Gigartina clavel., Laniour. — Facus clavellosus. 
Turn, in Linn. Trans, v. Q. p. 123. t. 9. Hist. Fuc. t. 30. E. 
Bot. t. 1283. — /S. sedifolia ; ramuli between oblong and ovate 
crowded undivided. Turn. 1. c. — Gastridiuni purpurascens, 
Lyngh. Hydroph. Dan. t. 17. 

On various parts of the coast of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ©, 
Summer. — Three inches to almost a foot in length. IMr. Harvey finds 
an appearance of joints in the ultimate ramuli, very evident when fresh. 

** Ramuli elliptical, rarely sonieivhat elongated and constricted. 

2. C. ovdlis, (oval-leaved Chylocladia) ; frond subgelatinous 
nearly cylindrical filiform dichotomous naked below above bear- 
ing elliptical simple ramuli tapering at their base, capsules 
sphaerical with a pellucid border. — Gastridiuni ovale, Grev. Alg. 
Frit. p. 116. t. 14. — Chondria ovalis, Ag. Sp. Alg. v. 1. 
p. 348. — -Gigartina verniicularis etovata, Laniour. — Fucus ovalis, 

Huds E. Fot. t. 711. Turn. Syn. Fuc. p. 30, Hist. Fuc. 

t. 81. — F. sedoides, Good, et Woodw. in Linn. Trans, v. c. 117. 

In the sea, on rocks, or parasitic on the larger Algae, on almost all our 
coasts. ©. Summer. — The ramuli are usually simple; but, as Dr. Gre- 
ville remarks, sometimes elongated to half an inch or more, constricted 
3 or 4 times, with a few minute branchlets at the constrictions, as in the 
following species ; from which it is in other respects considerably 

Frond constricted as if jointed. 

3. C. haliformis, (Salsola-like Chylocladia) ; frond subgebi- 




tiiious tubular constricted as if jointed iuucIt and irregularly 
bratiched, branches generally bearing whorls at the constric- 
tions, capsules sphserical with a pellucid border. — Gastridium 
hallforme, Li/vgh, — Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 117. — Chondria kcdi- 
formis, Ag. Sp. Alg. v. 1. p. 355. — Gigartina kaliformis, La- 
mour. — Fuchs kaliformis, Good, et Woodtv. in Linn. Trans. 
V. 3. p. 206. t. 18. E. Bot. L 640. Turn. Syn. Fuc.p. 377, 
Hist. Fuc. t. 29. 

In similar situations and on tlie same coasts with the preceding. 0. 

4. Qj.pdrvida, (feast Chylocladvf ; frond with scattered en- 
tangled branches, the constrictions nearly equal in length and 
breadth, capsules ovate containing a sphserical mass of wedge- 
shaped seeds. — Gastridium parvidurn, Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 119. 
— Chondria parvula, Ag. Sp. Alg. p. 207. Grev. Crypt. FI. 

V. 6. t. 346 Fucus kaliformis, y. nanus. Turn. Hist. Fuc.v. 1. 

p. 67. 

Parasitic on the larger Algae. Coast of Devon, Mrs. Griffiths. 
Brighton, Mr. Borrer. 0. Summer. — 2 — 3 inches long. Distinguished, 
according to Dr. Greville, from C. kaliformis, of which it will be seen 
that Mr. Turner makes it a variety,hy the ovate capsules, destitute of a 
pellucid border. Mrs. Griffiths observes that its fructification is pro- 
duced a month later. 

5. C. articiddla, (articidated Chylocladia); frond tubular con- 
stricted throughout as if jointed much branched dichotomous and 
whoi’led subfastigiate, articulations subcylindrical, capsules ur- 
ceolate. — Gastridium articidatum, Grev. Alg. Brit. p>. 120. — 
Chondria artic., Ag. Sp. Alg. v. 1. p. 357. — Lomentaria artic., 
Lyngh . — Gigartina artic., Lamour. — Fucus artic.. Light /. — Turn. 
Syn. Fuc. ji- 383, Hist. Fuc. t. 106. E. Bot.t. 1574. 

On rocks and the larger Algce, on most of the British shores. 0. 
Summer. — Three and four inches to a foot in length, in some of Miss 
Hutchins’ specimens from Bantry; and varying much in the thickness of 
the frond ; the whole jointed in a catenulated manner. “ There is not 
much,” observes Captain Carmichael, “ in the definition to distinguish 
thi$ species from C. kaliformis, though, to look at them beside each other 
we should pronounce them at once to be distinct. Lyngbye has fallen 
upon an ingenious contrivance to avoid the confusion that might take 
place from too near an approximation of them. He has erected the latter 
into a separate Genus; nor only that, he has transferred it into a dif- 
ferent section under the idea of the frond being solid, which assured!}’ 
it is not, at least in this part of the world.” Carni. 

34. Gigartina. Lamour. Gigartina (Gigartina awr? Gracilaria. 


Frond more or less cartilaginous, filiform, cylindrical or 
compressed, irregularly branched, of a dull red colour. Fruc- 
tification ; — capsules containing a mass of minnte roundish seeds; 
and (in many of the species, perhaps in all) ronndisli or oblong. 

alci.t: inarticulate. 



simple (jrcinul€s, imbedded in the fronds of distinct plants. 
Grev. AUj. Brit. p. \2\.t. 14 and p. 146. t. 16. — Name; from 
ytyoi^TOv, Vi grape-stone, which the seeds somewhat resemble as seen 
through the capsule.— At the suggestion of Mrs. Griffiths and 
Mr. Harvey, and with the approbation of Dr. Greville, I 
gladly unite Gracilaria of the latter with Gigartina. The for- 
mer of these Botanists having discovered the second or granular 
mode of fructification upon Gigartina acicularis, it may be pre- 
sumed to exist, though as yet unnoticed, in other GigartiiUB ; 
and in G. Griffithsice and G. plicata no regular fructification 
has been detected. 

1. G. purpurdscens, Lamour. (piopdsh Gtgartina'); frond 
cylindrical filiform much and irregularly branched, rarnuli seta- 
ceous scattered bearing splnerical tubercles immersed in their 
substance. — Gracilaria purpur., Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 122. — 
Sphccrococcus purpar., Ag. Sp. Alg. v. \. p. 318 — Facus pur- 
pur., Huds . — Turn. Syn. Fuc. p. 357, Hist. Fuc. t. 9. E. Bot. 
t. 1243. — F. tuhercidatus. Light/. 

On submarine rocks and Algae, frequent. ©. Summer. — Varying in 
size, from 6 — 8 inches to more than a foot, and also in the branches 
which sometimes terminate in a kind of tendrils, twisting round other 
Algae. The frond is somewhat gelatinous so as generally to adhere to 
paper when dry, the colour is somewhat ])ellucid purplish-red, often 
greenish in decay : but the best character is to be found in the immersed 
capsules, causing a swollen appearance all round the rarnuli which pro- 
duce them. 

2. G. confervoides, Lamour. (^Conferva-like Gigartina'); frond 

cartilaginous cylindrical filiform irregularly branched, branches 
elongated bearing numerous slender rarnuli attenuated at each 
end, capsules external roundish scattered. — Gracilaria conferv., 
Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 123. — Sphcerococcris conferv., Ag. Sp. Alg. 
V. 1. p. 303. — Fucus confervoides, Linn . — Turn. Syn. Fuc. 
p. 328, Hist. Fuc. t. 84. — E. Bot. t. 1 668. — F. verrucosus, Huds. 
— (3. procerrinia ; branches very long generally simple and 
almost naked. Turn. — F. longissimus, Stackh. — y. albida ; 

frond compressed mostly dichotomous, rarnuli subulate. Turn. 
— F. alhidus, Huds . — j. geniculata ; frond distorted and bent 
as if broken at the tubercles. Turn. 

Rocky sea-shores, not unfrequent, especially in the south. Rare in 
Scotland. Firth oCYay,Rev.J.Macvicar. Captain Carmichael, 

and at Miltown Malbay, Ireland, Mr. Harvey. — More cartilaginous 
than the preceding, and generally more slender, and abundantly distin- 
guished by the different mode of fructification. 

3. G. compressa, (compressed Gigartina); frond cartilagi- 
nous brittle between cylindrical and compressed dichotomous, 
branches subdistichous spreading lax gradually attenuated to a 
subulate point, capsules hemispbserical. Gracilaria compressa, 
Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 125. — Sphccrococcus conrprcssus, Ag. Sp. Alg. 




v.\. p. 308. — S. lichenoides, Grev, Crypt. FI. v. 6. t. 341. («o< 
Linn, and Turn.) 

Sea-shore at Sidmouth, Mrs. Griffiths. ©. August. — No one has had 
the good fortune to meet with this Alga except Mrs. Griffiths, to whom 
I am indebted for very fine specimens. To me, its nearest affinity (ex- 
clusive of the fructification) appears to be with G. yurpumscens. It is 
nearly of the same colour and texture, but stouter and shrinking very 
remarkably in drying. In colour and substance it is strikingly 
different from the Fucus lichenoides of Linn, and the Hist. Fuc., to 
which, on account of the similarity of the ramification, both Mrs. 
Griffiths and Dr. Greville were disposed to refer it. The specimens 
bear both the kinds of fructification of the Genus. 

4. G. erecta, (^small upright Gigartina); frond cylindrical 
dichotomous erect, brandies sub-simple, capsules globose, gran- 
ules in terminal pod-like ramuli. Gracilaria erecta, Grev. Alg. 
Brit. p. 124. t. 14. — Sphoirococcus? erectus, Grev. Crypt. FI. 
t. 357. 

Flat rocks and half-immersed in sand, on the coast of Devon as at 
Torbay and Sidmouth, Mrs. Griffiths. 1(. February, March. — Another 
of the many interesting discoveries of Mrs. Griffiths, who has long dis- 
tinguished it by the appropriate name of “ snffocatar growing, as it does 
in a tufted manner, and more than half buried in the sand. It is slen- 
der, erect, rigid, 2 — 4 inches high, and bears, besides the true capsules, 
lanceolate, pod-like receptacles, containing oblong scattered granules 
imbedded in the circumference. 

5. G. pistilldta, Lam our. (^pestle-bearing Gigartina); frond 
horny linear compressed vaguely dichotomous and beset wdtb 
numerous subulate distichous horizontal ramuli which bear the 
capsules at or near their extremities. — Grev. Alg. Brit.p. 146. — 

Fucus pistillatus, Gmel. — F. Gigartinus, I Ann Turn. Syn. 

Fuc. p. 280, Hist. Fuc. t. 28. E. Hot. t. 908. 

Rocks on the coast of Cornwall, Dr. Wenman. Mount’s Bay, Dr. 
Macciilloch. Padstow, Miss Hill. I have specimens from the same 
coast, gathered by Mr. Sconce. — 4 — 6 inches high, remarkably horny and 
rigid, of an opaque bluish-purple colour. One of the most distinct and 
rarest of the British Algte. 

I 6. G. aciciddris, Lamour. (ffi}arp-pointed Gigartinci); frond car- 
tilaginous cylindrical filiform irregularly dichotomous, branches 
divaricated beset with often unilateral patent acuminated ramuli, 
capsules sphserical sessile scattered. — Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 147. 
t. 16. — SphcErococcus acicularis, Ag. Sp. Alg. v. 1. p. 322. — Fu- 
cus acicularis, IVuf . — Turn. Hist. Fuc. t. l26. E. Bot. t. 2190. 

Among the rejectamenta of the sea near Belfast, Mr. Templeton — 
Rocks, Cornwall, Mr. Ra.shleigh. Several places in Devon, Mrs. 
Griffiths. Plymouth, and rocks in Cawsand bay, R. Sconce, Esq. Sid- 
mouth, Miss Cutler and Mrs. Griffiths. If. Fructijication .Tanuary, — 
2 — 4 inches in length, much spreading. Colour a deep reddish-purple, 
il/rs. Griffiths has favoured me with capsuliferous specimens and others 
with obscure, scattered granules in some of the ultimate ramuli ; whicli 
arc probably more evident in a recent state. 




■ 7. G. Tecdii, Lamoiir. {Teedts Gigartina); frond subcartik- 
ginoiis linear acuminated flat repeatedly pinnated with very 
narrow horizontal branches, the ultimate ramuli setaceous 
(bearing the splnerical capsules). SpJtceroccccus Teedii, Ag. 
Sp. Alg. V. p.'-m. Grev. CrgjA. FI. t. Qb^.—Ehodomenia 
Teedii, Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 9G. — Funis Teedii, hoik. Cat. Bot. 3. 
p. 138. t. 4. Turn. Hist. Fuc. t. 208. 

In the sea, Lu|)ton and Elberty Coves and Tor Abbey rocks, 
Torbay, Mrs. GriffUhs.— Two to 4—3 inches long, very much branched, 
with tlie branches often opposite ; not unfreqnenlly the ramuli are se- 
cund. The beautiful and numerous specimens that I have received from 
Mrs. Griffiths are so copiously pinnated, that their appearance is very 
different from the figure of Roth and Turner. Much of the difference 
indeed may be occasioned by the former not being in fructification, in 
which state Mrs. Griffiths has never found it. That lady justly 

remarks that “ this species is not in its place among the Rhodoinenice, 
and that it comes much nearer to the Gracilarice of Dr. Greville, espe- 
cially G. acicularis." Inileed I possess some small specimens of G. 
acicularis that can hardly be distinguished from a less ramified G. 

8. G. GriffithsicB, Grev. (il/rs. Griffith's Gigartina^; frond 
cartilaginous cylindrical filiform dichotomous throughout aud 
fastigiate, fructification (?) oblong warts composed of moniliform 
filaments surrounding the stem. — Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 149 — 
Sphcerococcus Griffithsice, Ag. Sp. Alg. v. 1. p. 31G. — Polyides 
Griffiths^, Gain. — Fucus Griffithsice, Turn. Hist. Fuc.J. 37. 
E. Bot. t. 192G. 

Rocks in the sea, Torba}', and at SIdmouth, Mrs. Griffiths. Exmouth, 
Miss P'ilmore and Rev. J. Jarvis. Balbriggan, near Dublin, Br. Scott. 
©. Autumn, Winter. — One to four inches long, slender, considerably 
resembling Polyides rotundus in miniature and having somewhat similar 
warts or tubercles, which appear destined to contain the fructification. 

9. G. plicdta, Lamour. (entangled Gigartina); frond horny 
cylindrical filiform equal irregularly branched and bearing nu- 
merous ramuli which are obtuse and frequently secund, fructi- 
fication oblong irregular warts composed of obscurely articu- 
lated filaments. — Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 150. — Sphcerococcus plica- 
tus, Ag. Sp. Alg. V. \. p. 313. — Fucus plicatus, Huds . — Turn. 
Syn. Fuc. t. 323, Hist. Fuc. 1 . 180. E. Bot. t. 1089. — Scytosi- 
phon hippuroides, Lyngh. Hydroph. Dan. t. 14, (according to 

Submarine rocks, very frequent. 11 . — A remarkably entangled, wiry 
species, the branches varying much in length. 

35. Chondrus. Stackh. Chondrus. 

Frond cartilaginous, dilating upwards into flat, nerveless, 
dichotomously divided segments, of a purplish or livid colour. 
Fructification ; subsphaerical capsules, in the substance of the 
frond (rarely supported on little stalks), containing a mass of 
minute free seet/s. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. \2Q. t. 15. — Name from 




)(^6vd^og, cartilage; from the cartilac'iiiouis substance of the 

1. C. mammillosus, Grev. (^maoimillated Chondrus) ; frond 
elongato-cnneiform dicholoinons channelled proliferous, capsules 
spluerical on very short peduncles scattered over the disk of the 
frond. — Grev.Alg. Brit, 1. 127. — Sphcerococcus mammil., Ag. Sp. 
Alg. V. 1. p. 260 — Bucks mammil., Good, et Woodw . — Turn, 
Syn. Flic. jr. 237, Hist, Fuc. t. 218. E. Bot. t. 1054. — F. j)oly- 
morphus, var. Lamour. — F. echinatus, Stachh. — F. ceravoides, 
f. and Lightf, 

Common on bubmarine rocks. 1^. Winter. 

2. C. crispus, Lyngb. (curled Chondrus') ; frond flat nerveless 
dichotomous often curled the segments subcuneate, capsules 
hemisphterical occupying tbe disk on one side of the frond, and 
producing a depression on the opposite side. — Grev. Alg. Brit. 

p. 129. 15. — C. pohjmo'^phus, Lamour Sphcerococcus crispus, 

Ag. Sp. Alg. V. \.ji. 256. — Fiieus crisjms, Linn . — Turn. Syn. 
Fuc. p. 226, Hist. Fuc. t. 216, 217. E. Bot.t. 2285. — L\ cera- 
noides, Gmel. — Lightf. — F. stellatus and lacerus, Stachh. — F. 
filiformis, Huds. — F. patens. Good, et Woodw. 

Rocky shores, abundant. . Spring. — Variable as is thi.s species in 
the length of its fronds, from 2 or 3 to 10 or 12 inches, in the degree of 
ramification, and in the relative breadth of the segments, yet the expe- 
rienced eye will not find it difficult to recognise it. Mr. Turner enu- 
merates the following vars. — /3. virens ; frond snbmembranaceous, 
branches dilated upwards, flattish, extreme segments long and acumin- 
ated. Turn. — y. stellatus ; frond snbmembranaceous, branches dilated 
upwards, divided at their apices into very numerous clustered short 
lacinim. Tun:. — S. cequalis ; frond cartilaginous, thick, all the branches 
equal, linear, the extreme segments obtuse. Turn. — i.f liformis; frond 
cartilaginous, subcylindrical, branches nearly linear, apices long and 
acuminated. Turn. — patens; frond siibcartilaginous, channelled on 

one side, dichotomous, angles of the dichotomies patent. Turn. — n. la~ 
cerus, frond cartilaginous compressed, apices very narrow, elongated, 
branched. Turn. — 9-. Sarniensis ; frond between coriaceous and cartila- 
ginous, branches slightly channelled on one side, dilated upwards, 
apices rounded and emarginate. Turn. — /. planus ; frond subcoriaceous, 
flat, wide, branches linear, apices obtuse. Turn. — genirulatus ; 
frond cartilaginous, compressed, branches nearly linear, tubercles sub- 
globose, black, frond bent, and often broken at the tubercles. Turn. — 
Chondrus crispus has been extensively collected on the coasts of Ireland, 
washed and bleached and employed for making blanc-mange, and for 
other purposes in lieu of Isinglass. It was at one time sold by the pea- 
santry at 2s. per pound ; but now that it is found to be so common, its 
value is much reduced. 

3. C. membranifolius, Grev. (membranous-leaved Chondrus); 
stipes cylindrical filiform branched tbe branches expanding into 
snbcnneate membranaceo-cartilaginons twm-lobed or dichoto- 
mous segments, capsules ovate shortly pedunculated arising from 
tbe stipes. — Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 131. — Sphwrococcus mcnihranif, 




An. Sp.Ahj. V. \.p. 240. — Fticiis membranif., Good, ct Wooda\ 
Turn. Sijn. Fnc. p. 25, Hist. Fuc. t. 74, {excl. var. roseus.) 

E. Hot. t 1965. — F . fimhriatus, Huds. 

Submarine rocks, on almost all our coasts. If . Winter. t is 
again Mr. Turner enumerates several varieties:— «• lacer; leaves tlicho- 
tomous, segments linear, apices obtuse. Turn.—y- stellatus; apices o 
the leaves cleft into very numerous narrow segments. Utnt.—}). Jim- 
briutus ; leaves fringed at the margin. Turn.—i. lalijoims ; leaves «iem- 
branaceous semi-orbicular, multifid in a [lalmate manner, segments sboit- 
ish rounded at the apices. Turn—%. rusem ; stipes simple, expanded at 
its apex into a single, oblong, simple \e-dl Ihirn—v). angudminms ; leaves 
very narrow, nearly linear, irregularly divided, jiroliferous from the mar- 
gin. Turn. 

4. C. Brodccii, Grev. {Mr. Brodies Chondrus) ; stipes cy- 
lindrical branched, the branches expanding into oblong meni- 
branaceo-cartilaginous simple or forked flat segments, capsules 
spluerical sessile upon the apices of the segments.— GVcr. Alg. 
Brit. p. 133. — Sphcerococcus Brodicei, Ag. Sp. Alg. p. 239.- 
Delesseria Brodicei, Lamour. — Fucus Brodicei, Turn. Hist. 
Fuc. t. 72. E. Bot. t. 1966.— simplex; stipes short ex- 
panding into an oblong mostly simple or once forked rose- 
coloured frond. Grev.—F. membranifolius, var. roseus, Turn. 

East coast of Scotland, on submarine rocks, frequent.— /3. Coast of 
Devon, Mrs. Griffiths.— On the var. |S. are frequently dark red spots m 
the disk of the frond, composed of a dense mass of momhform filaments, 
which is deciduous, and leaves a scar behind. 

36. Phyllophora. Grev. Phyllophora. 

cartilaginous or membranaceous, of a purple rose-ied 
colour, plane, proliferous from the disk, furnished with a more 
or less imperfect or obscure midrib. Fructijication ; 1. Cap- 
sules containing a mass of minute roundish free seeds: 2. 

Sori of simple granules, in little foliaceous processes. (In 
two species, the nemathecia of Agardh, or a thickened mass of 
Jilciments, have been observed, but no granules.) Grev. 
Alg. Brit.p. 135. t. 15.— Name pnXXov, a leaf, and (pog.w to bear, 
from the proliferous nature of the frond. 

1. P. rubens, Grev. {red Phyllophora); stipes very short, 
expanding into a linear-cuneate frond obscurely ribbed and re- 
peatedly branched with proliferous shoots resembling the pri- 
mary frond, capsules on the disk of the frond hemisphterical ses- 
sile v'ery rugose. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 135. t. 15. — Sphcerococcus 
rubens, Ag. Sp. Alg. v. \. p. 237. — Chondrus rubens, Lyngb.— 
Delesseri a rubens, Lamour. — Fucus rubens, Linn . — Turn. Syn. 
Fuc. p. 216, Hist. Fuc. t. 12. E. Bot. t. IQ5Z.—F. jtrolifer, 
TJghtf. — F. crispvs, Huds. 

On the rocky coa.sts of England, frequent ; rare in Scotlancl, and 
chiefly found on the west coast {Liglilfool). Appin, Capt. Carmichael. 
Orkney, Rev. C. Clouston. Among rejectamenta, in the Firth of Forth, 




Dr. Greville, Belfast, Dr. Drummond. Miltown Malbay, Mr. Harvey. 
'U . Winter. — Mr. Harvey’s specimens of Phyllophorn rubens are some- 
what peculiar, more than 8 inches in length, very narrow, mucli curled, 
several times dichotomously divided, and in some the proliferous char- 
acter is nearly obliterated by the j)rimitive frond being much elongated 
and branclied ; no fructification, except nemathecia be considered such, 
has been found upon them. 

37. Si’iiyEROCoccus. StackJi. Sphaei’o coccus. 

Frond cartilaginous, compressed, two-edged, linear, distich- 
ously branclied. Frm.hjicalion ; mucronate capsules, containing 
a mass of ovate, shoi tly pedicellate, red seeds. Grev. Alg. Brit, 
p. 138. t. 15 — Name; c(px/^ot,a sp/icere or globe, and -/.oxxo;, fruit, 
from the globose fructifications. — Dr. Greville has confined the 
Genus iSp/icerococcus to the Fucus coronopifolius, Good, and 
Woodw., and the F. crinHus, Gmel. 

1. S. coronopifdlms, Ag. (^Sioine's ci'ess-leaved SpheBrococcus^; 
frond cartilaginous much branched in a distichous and alternate 
manner compressed and two-edged below nearly flat upwards, 
the branches acute at the apex, capsules sphaerical mucronate on 
little stalks fringing the smaller branches. Gr. — Ag. Sp. Alg. 
V. 1. p. 291. Grev. Alg. Brit.p. 138. t. 15. — Gelidium coronopif, 
Lamour. — Desmia Hornemanni, Lyngh. — Fucus coronopifolius, 
Good, et Woodw . — Turn. Syn. Fuc. p.2QQ, Hist. Fiic. t. 122. 
E. Bot. t. 1478. 

Submarine rocks, chiefly on the extreme southern coasts of England. 
Isle of Bute, very rare. Dr. Greville. Near Belfast, Air. Templeton 
and Dr. Drummoiid. Bantry Bay, Miss Hutchins. Miltown Malbay, Mr. 
Harvey. $ . Autumn. 

38. Gelidium. Lamour. Gelidium. 

Frond between cartilaginous and horny, compressed, linear, 
more or less regularly pinnated. Fructification: — 1. capsules 
imbedded in the substance of the ramuli, containing a mass 
of minute roundish seeds : — 2. ternate or otherwise compound 
granxdes, in the ramuli, on distinct individuals. Grev. Alg. 
Brit.p. 139. t. 15. — Name ; from the Latin gelu, frost, whence 
also gelatine, applicable to some of the species when boiled or 
macerated in warm water. 

1. G. cartilagmeum, Grev. {cartilaginous Gelidiuxn); frond 
horny nearly flat repeatedly pinnatifid with horizontal mostly 
alternate linear segments, the ultimate ones very short obtuse 
and bearing the mucronated capsules at their apices. — Grev. 
Alg. Brit.p). 140. — G. concatenation, and G. versicolor, Lamour. 
— Splicer ococcus cartilagineus, Ag. Sp. Alg. v. \. p. 286. — Fucus 
cartilagineus, Linn . — Turn. Syn. Fuc. p. 284, Hist. Fuc. t. 224. 
E. Bot. t. 1477. 

Fresh-water Bay, in the Isle of Wight, Dr. Withering; probably waft- 




ed from otlier shores. 11 . — This is remarkable for its varied colours in a 
dried state. 

2. G. corneum, Lamour. (horny Gelidium); frond between 
cartilaginous and horny nearly flat distichously branched, 
branches linear attenuated at each end pinnate and bipinnate, 
pinmdes mostly opposite patent obtuse bearing within their apices 
elliptical capsules. — Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 141. t. 15. — Sphccro- 
coccus Cornells, Ay. Sp.Alg. v. 1./;. 279 . — Fucus corneus, Hucls . — 
Turn. Syn. Fac.p. 272, Hist. Fuc. t.^57. E. Bot. f. 1970. — /3. 
Jiliciniim ; frond setaceous, pinnae horizontal widened very blunt. 

Turn F. fiUcinus, Huds. — F. nereidus, Liglitf. — y. pinnatuni ; 

frond narrow tripinnate, pinnae patent nearly linear bluntish. 
Turn — F.pinnatus, Huds d. unforme; all the pinnae patent at- 
tenuated at the b.ase obtuse at the points and scattered. Turn . — 
£. capillaceuni; frond narrow, pinnae clustered towards its sum- 
mits nearly setaceous and somewhat erect. Turn. — deforme ; 
frond twisted irregularly pinnated, pinnae divaricated oblong 
very short undivided. Turn. — s. sesquipedale ; frond long’ be- 
tween compressed and flat linear tripinnate, ramuli linear-oblong 
short obtuse. Turn. — x. confertuni ; frond compressed repeat- 
edly pinnated, ramuli long very thin clustei’ed irregularly divided. 
Turn . — X. altenuutum ; frond compressed in the lower part sim- 
ply pinnated, in the upper tripinnate, ramuli extremely short 
somewhat acute, others obtuse. Turn — (j^. pulchellum ; frond 
capillary compi’essed tripinnate, pinnae between linear and cla- 
vate obtuse. Turn. — v. claviferum ; frond cylindrical capillary 
irregularly divided, ramuli obovate edged with minute scattered 
teeth. Turn . — g. abnorme; frond compressed irregularly branch- 
ed naked in its lower part towards the middle generally bear- 
ing a few simple scattered pinnae, and near the apices clusters 
of short deflexed ramuli. Turn . — tt. latifolium; frond broad 
nearly flat, pinnae linear-lanceolate mostly simple set with nu- 
merous short setaceous pinmdae. Grev. — g.acuhatum; frond com- 
pressed very thin pinnated very irregularly divided and set 
with minute divaricate subulate ramuli crowded towards tbe 
summit of the frond. Grev . — c. clavatuni; frond capillary be- 
tween cartilaginous and membranaceous decumbent cree^iing, 
ramuli in the form of inversely lanceolate or ovate leaves much 
attenuated at their insertion. Grev. 1. c. — Sphcerncoccus corne- 
us, var. clavatus, Ag. Sp. Alg. v. 1 . 284 — Gelidium clavatuni 

find G. intricalum, Lamour . — Chondria jntsilla, Hooh. FI. Scot. 
P. II. p. 106. Grev. Crypt. FI. t. 79. — Fucus pusillus, Stachh. 

— Turn. Hist. Fuc. t. 108. — F. cccspitosus, Stachh t. crinale; 

frond setaceous subcylindrical somewhat dichotomously branch- 
ed sometimes trichotomous at the top and bearing a few ellip- 
tical oblong ramuli attenuated at tbeir insertion. Grev. 1. c. 

Sphccrococcus corneus, var. crinalis, Ag. Sp. Alg. v. \.p. 285 

Fucus crinalis, Turn. Hist. Fuc. t. 198. 



ALGiH inarticulate;. 


Abundant upon the rocky coasts, every where, together with many 
of the varieties.— ?. Exinouth, Sir T. Frankland. — v. Peakhead, near 
Sidmouth, Dr. Greville. — f^,. and v, Bantry Bay, Miss Hutchins. — Corn- 
wall, Mrs. Griffiths. — tr. Cornwall and Devon, Airs. Griffiths. — 
Mount’s Bay, Cornwall, Mrs. Griffiths. — <r. Devon and Cornwall, Mr. 
Stachhousc. Sussex, Air. Borrer. Firth of Forth, Dr. Richardson. 
Appin, abundant, Capt. Carmichael. — r. Norfolk, Air. Turner. Sid- 
moiith, Mrs. Griffiths. Near Ilfracombe, Mr. Hare. Cornwall, Air. 
Rashleigh, Brighton, ilPr.,^o?T<?r. Belfast, Mr. Templeton. If.. Sum- 
mer. — This is perhaps the most variable of all our submersed Algae, and 
few who have been accustomed to observe the plant on its native rocks 
at ditferent seasons and in different localities, will hesitate in agreeing 
with Agardh, that the Fucus pusillus of Stackh., and F. crinalis of 
Turner, should be united with it. I have here adopted the British varie- 
ties of this plant, enumerated by Mr. Turner, and have added others 
from Dr. Greville. 

39. Grateloupia. Ag. Grateloupia. 

Frond cartilagineo-membranaceous, plane, somewliat pin- 
nated with branclilets or fringed with foliaceons processes. 
Fructification ; minute aggregated tubercles furnished wdth a 
pore, and containing a mass of free elliptical or roundish seeds. 
Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 151. L 16 — Named in compliment to Dr. 
Grateloup, a French Algologist. 

1. G. filicma, Ag. (^Fern-like Grateloupia) ; frond linear~at- 
tenuated simple or divided irregularly pinnated wdtli rarauli at- 
tenuated at each extremity. Grev. Sp. Alg. Brit. p. 151. t. 16. 
— DeJesseria filicina, Lamoicr. — Fucus filicimis, Widf . — Turn. 
Hist. Fuc. t. 150. 

On rocks and marine substances, Sidmouth and Ilfracombe, Aliss 
Cutler. 7f’^ Fructification. Autumn. — I have not had the good fortune 
to obtain British specimens of this rare plant, and I have only seen a 
solitary barren one in the possession of Air. Harvey. Those in my 
Herbarium from the Mediterranean, gathered by Mr. Swainson, are of 
an olive-green colour, copiously once or twice pinnated and of a very 
, lubricous texture so as to adhere firmly to paper when dry, well 
agreeing indeed with the figure and description of Mr. Turner, rather 
than with the Devonshire specimens, which are smaller, of a purplish 
red, and adhere but slightly to paper. 

40. CHiETospORA. Ag. Cliaetospora. 

Frond subgelatinous, filiform, branched, rose-coloured, tdti- 
mate ramuli setaceous, swelling into lanceolate receptacles, com- 
posed of naked branched filaments radiating from an axis, in the 
centre of wdiich is situated the obscure fructification (minute 
seeds or capsules). Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 153. t. 16. — Name ; 
a bristle, and <rcToooi, a sporule or seed ; in allusion to the fructifi- 
cation as connected with filaments. 

1. C. Wigghii, Ag. (iT/r. Wigg's Cha^tospora). — Ag. Sp. 
Alg. p. 146. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 153. t. 16. — Fucus Wigghii, 

aixj.e inarticulate*:. 



Tarn, in Linn. Trans, v. 6. p. 135. t. 10. St/n. Fuc. p. 362, 
Hist. Fuc. t. 102. E. Hot. t. 1165. 

Only, I believe, seen among rejectamenta upon our shores and very 
rare. Yarmouth, il//’. Wigg. Brighton, il/r, Folkstone, iT/iw 

Everett. Sidmouth, Mrs. Griffiths. Bantry, Ireland, Miss Hutchins. 
0. Summer. — A highly beautiful and curious plant, with the habit and 
much of the structure of Mesogloia, with which Miss Hutchins thought 
it ought to be arranged. 

41. Ptilota. Ag. Ptilota. 

Frond compressed or flat, pectinato-pinnate, of a red colour, 
between membranaceous and cartilaginous. Fructification 
minute, aggregated : the capsules surrounded by an involucre. 
Grev. Alg. Brit.p. 154. L 16. — Name; nrn'hoiro-,, pinnated ; from 
the extremely beautifully pinnated appearance of the richly 
coloured fronds. 

1. P. plumosa, Ag. (^feathered Ptilota') ; frond compressed 
cartilaginous much and irregularly branched, the branches re- 
peatedly pectinato-pinnated, ramuli opposite bearing the fructi- 
fication at their apices. — Ag. Sp. Alg. v. 1. />. 385. Grev. Alg. 
Brit. p. 155, t. 16 . — Plocamium plumosum, Lamour. — Fucus^ 
plumosus, Linn . — Turn. Syn. Fuc. p. 296, Hist. Fuc. t. 60. 
E. Bot. t. 1308. — capillaris ; frond very narrow, the seg- 
ments nearly cylindrical jointed. Turn. 1. c.f. g — h. 

Rocky sea-shores, frequent. — g. Not unfrequent on the perpendicular 
faces of rocks, 2(.. Summer and Autumn. — A jointed appearance is 
visible in the young and tender parts of this plant, especially in an early 

Tribe X. GastrocarpeeE. 

Plants all marine, with a scutate root, of a pink, red, or pur- 
plish-red colour, most of them not changing much on exposure to 
the atmosphere, of a carnose, gelatinoso-cartilagmous or gelatinoso- 
membranaceous substance; the structure consisting of a cellular 
external coat or membrane, and a pelhicid gelatinous internal 
mass, mostly traversed by colourless jointed f laments arising from 
the outer membrane. Frond cylindrical, compressed or fiat, con- 
tinuous, destitute of midrib or veins. Fructification; roundish 
clusters or globides of red seeds, imbedded in the internal gelatinous 
substance of the frond, and often unaccompanied by any external 
pore. Grev. 

42. Irid.ea. Bory. Iridsea. 

Frond flat, expanded, carnose or gelatinoso-cartilaginous, 
more or less of a purplish-red colour. Fructijicaiion ; globules 
of roundish seeds, imbedded between the two coats of the frond. 
Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 157. t. 17. — Named from the iridescent hues 
displayed by many of the species when recent. 




1. I. edidis, Bory, (esculent Iridcea); frond subcartilaginous 
simple obovate or cuneiform rounded at the apex attenuated at 
the base into a short stipes. — Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 158. t. 17. — 
Hahjmenia edidis, Ag. Sp. Alg. v. \. p>. 202 . — Belesseria edidis, 
Lamour . — Ulva edidis. Be Cand. — Fucus edidis, Stacldi . — Turn. 
Syn. Flic. p. 180, Hist. Fiic. t. 114. E. Bol.t. 1307. Hooli. in 
FI. Bond. N. Series, cum Ic. 

Abundant on the rocky shores. $ . October. 

(IridcBa reniformis oi Bory and Dr. Greville, will be found under Rho- 
domeuia in this volume.) 

43. Halymenia. Ag. Halymenia. 

Frond nearly flat or cylindrical, gelatinoso-membranaceous, 
of a pinky-red colour, more or less dichotomous, the segments 
often laciniated. Fructification ; punctiform globules of seeds, im- 
bedded in the central substance of the frond. Grev. Alg. Brit, 
p. 161. A 17. — Name «>?, dXig, the sea, and a membrane, — 

1. H. liguldta, Ag. (strap- shaped Halymenia'); frond gela- 

tinoso-membranaceous almost plane irregularly dichotomous, the 
axils rounded, the segments ligulate attenuated towards the 
apex and often proliferous at the margin. Grev. — Ag. Sp. 

Alg. V. 1. p. 210 (and H. elongata of the same author). Grev. 
Alg. Brit. p. 162. t. 17. — Ulva ligulata, Woodio. — E. Bot. t. 429. 
— Ulva rubra, Huds. 

Rocks and stones, chiefly on the southern coasts. Norfolk and Suf- 
folk, and Anglesea. ©. Summer. 

2. lA. furcelldta, Ag. (^forked Halymenia); frond gelatinoso- 
membranaceous cylindrical repeatedly and uniformly dichoto- 
mous the segments obtuse, not unfrequently proliferous. — Ag. 
Sp. Alg. V. \.p.2l2. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. \QQ.— Ulvafurcellata, 
Turn, in Sclirad. Journ. v. 2.j9. 301. E.Bot. t. 1881. — Bumon- 
tia ti-iquetra, Lamour. 

Rocks in the sea, chiefly on the southern and eastern shores of Eng- 
land. Bantry Bay, Miss Hutchins. 

44. Dumontia. Lamour. Dumontia. 

Frond cylindrical, simple or branched, membranaceous, 
tubular, gelatinous within, of a red or purplish-red colour. 
Fructijication ; globides of seeds, attached to the innei sui ace 
of the membrane of the frond. Grev. Alg. Brit.p. 164. ’ 

Named in honour of M. Bumont, a contributor to the Bictxon- 
naire d'Hist. Naturelle. 

1. T>.Jilif6rmis, Gyqv. (fliform Bumontia); frond gelatinoso- 
inembranaceous cylindrical attenuated at each extremity, pin- 
nated with branches which are long scattered or subfastigiate 
simple and attenuated at their base. — Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 165. 
17 . Bumontia incrassata, Lamour. — Halymenia filiformis. 

AI, (!.!•: INAiniCULAlVE. 



Ag. Sp. Alg.v. \.p. ^\A.— GastridiumJiUforme, Lyngh . — Viva 
purpurascens, E. Bot. t. 641. — Ulva incrassata, U., spongi- 
formis, and U. JiUformis, FI. Dan. — /3. crispata ; frond com- 
pressed waved curled and twisted, of a brownish-purple colour. 
Grev. 1. c. — Hahjmenia pxirpurasccns, var. ci'ispata, Grev. Crypt. 
FI. t. 240. 

On rocks and stones in the sea, frequent. — [i. Firth of Forth, Dr. 
GrevUle. Firth of Clyde, at Helensburgh. ©. Summer. 

45. Catenella. Grev. Catenella. 

Fronds filiform, somewhat compressed, creeping, throwing 
up numerous branches, conti’acted, as if jointed, in a moniliform 
manner, composed interiorly of branched filaments I’adiating from 
the centre. ^[^Fructification unknown. Grev. Alg. Brit. jJ’ 167. 
^.17. — Name; catenella, a little chain, Avhich its fronds resem- 
ble. — In deference to Dr. Greville, I adopt tliis Genus ; but its 
fructification is wholly unknown. Mr. Harvey, too, observes 
in a letter to me, “ I confess I would rather leaA^e this plant in 
Chondria (^Gaslridium, Grev.) until the fructification l»o dis- 
covered, as it perfectly agrees with the other species in habit, 
and, unless I greatly eiT, in structure also. When at the coast 
I took some pains, struck with the similarity in habit between 
the Gastridia and C. Opuntia, to dissect, as minutely as I was 
able, the fronds of G. articidatam, as being the species most near- 
ly allied (externally) to the plant in question ; and the result 
was a conviction on my part that the structure Avas precisely 
similar. I found the pseudo-joints full of very lax gelatine, in 
which articulated filaments appeared to be loosely floating, fixed 
only to the periphery, though I presume, originating in a central 
point; but my instruments were not sufficiently delicate to dis- 
sect them without laceration ; neither has Dr. Greville been able 
to do so with C. Opuntia. The filaments themselves are colour- 
less, arachnoid, much branched in a dichotomous manner.” 

1. C. Opuntia, Grev. (^Opuntia-lihe Catenella ^. — Grev. Alg. 
Brit. p. 166. t. 17. — Chondria Opuntia, Hook. Scot. P. II. 
p. 106. — Halymenia Opuntia, Ag. Sp. Alg. v. 1. p. 217. — 

Gigartina Opuntia and pilosa, Lamour Rivularia Opuntia, 

F. Bot. t. 1868. — Chordaria Opuntia, Spreng. — Lomentaria 
Opuntia, Gain. — Fucus Opuntia, Good, and Woodiv. — Turn. 
Syn. Fuc.p. 307, Hist. Fuc. t. 107. — F. ccespitosus, Stackh . — 
F. repens. Light /. — Ulva articidata, |3. Huds. 

Frequent on the rocky shores of Great Britain. 1 (. . — From half an 
inch to an inch or more in length, densely matted, remarkably catenu- 
lated with the constrictions. 

Tribe XI. Ulvace/E. 

Plants found in the sea, hi fresh-ioater or on damp ground, Sfc., 
of an herbaceous green or fine purple colour, of a thin tender mem- 




hranaceoits substance and reticidated structure, rarely gelatinous. 
Frond with a very minutely scutate root, expanded, or tubular and 
continuous. Fructification, roundish and mostly quaternate gra- 
nules or minute sporular grains, imbedded in the delicate mem- 
brane of the frond, 

4G. PoR^HYRA. Ag. Porpliyra, or Purple-Laver. 

Frond plane, exceedingly thin and of a purple colour. Fruc- 
tification ; — 1. scattered soi’i of oval seeds; — 2. roundish gra- 
mdes, mostly arranged in a quaternate manner, and covering the 
whole fx’oiid. Grev, Alg. Frit. p. 168. 18. — Name; 

purple; in allusion to the colour of the fronds; — a heautiful 
Genus, distinguished by the delicacy and colour and glossy hue 
of the frond ; the species of which I fear are too closely allied. 

1. P. lacinidta, Ag. (laciniated purple- Laver); fronds aggre- 
gated deeply cleft the segments dilated, variously cut and 
waved. Grev. Alg. Frit.p. 168. — Alga laciniata, Lightf. Scot, 
p. 974. t. S3. Ag. Sp. Alg. v. \. p. 104 — Ulva umbilicalis, 
E. Fot. t. 2296. 

In the sea, on rocks, stones, Algfe and wood, abundant. ©. Spring to 
Autumn. — This, under the name of Laver, is much eaten in many places, 
especially the south of England, pickled with salt and preserved in jars, 
and, when brought to table, served up with lemon juice. According to 
Lightfoot, the inhabitants of the western isles gather it in the month of 
March, and after pounding and macerating it with a little water, eat it with 
pepper, vinegar, and butter. Others stew it with leeks and onions. — 
Dr. Greville describes the fructification, as — 1. roundish granules ar- 
ranged in fours and covering the whole frond in which the}’ are imbed- 
ded ; and 2. sori of smaller ovate granules scattered without order 
chiefly towards the margin of the frond. 

2. P. vulgaris, Ag. (common purple-Laver); frond ovato-lau- 

ceolate, the margins more or less waved. Grev. Alg. Brit, 
p. 169. — Ulva purpurea, Roth, Cat. Fot. v. 1. t. 6. Ag. Sp. 
Alg. 1 9 1 . — Ulva umbilicalis, Lightf. 

in the same situations as the preceding, from which I should fear it is 
not really different. ©. Spring to Autumn. — A foot or more long. Dr. 
Greville saw a specimen which measured 3 feet. The same author 
observes that the quaternate granules are smaller here than in the pre- 
ceding species. 

3. P. ? minidta, Ag. (scarlet purple-Laver'); frond solitary 
plane oblong gelatinous red-rose colour. — Ag. Syst. p. 191. 
Carm.MSS . — Ulva miniata, Lyngb. Hydroph. Dan. p. 29. t. 6. 

In the sea: coast of Appin, Capt. Carmichael.— My only authority 
for clainring this plant as a native of these shores, was a fragment found 
floating in the sea. It was three inches in diameter, plane, curled on the 
margin, of a bright sanguineous colour, extremely gelatinous and filled 
with” close-set roundish sporidia. When laid on paper to dry, it dis- 
solved into a reddish sanies, being probably in a state of putrescence, 
and nothing remained but a mere stain. From its texture and fructifi- 
cation, it evidently does not belong to this genus.” Carm. MSS. 




4. P. linearis, Crev. (jiarrow purple-Laver) ; frond linear or 
linear-lanceolate acute, the margin nearly flat. Grev. Alg. Brit, 
p. 170. t. 18. — Ulva purpurea, var. elongata, Lyngh. Hydroph. 
Dan.]). 20, 

Kocks beneath Peakhead, near Sidmouth, within high-water mark, 
Greville. At Dunmore, near Waterford, Mm- ©. April 
and Ma 3 '. — 3 — 5 inches high, supported on a very short stipes. Fructifi- 
cation, oval granules not arranged in a quaternate manner, but partly 
scattered and partly in lines. 

47. Ulva. Linn, (^partof). Ulva, or Green-Laver, 

Frond membranaceous, of a green colour, plane (in some cases 
saccate, and inflated in the young state). Fructijicatmi ; minute 
gramdes, mostly arranged in fours, Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 171. 
t. 18. — Name; according to Theis, from Ul, water, in Celtic; 
applied to some aquatic plant. 

* Marine species. 

1. U. latissima, Linn. Suec. (broad green- Lav er') ; frond plane 
widely oblong or roundish waved of a full green colour and 

very tender substance. Grev Linn. FI. Suec. (not Sp. PL). 

Ag. Sp. Alg. v. 1. p. 607. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 171. — U. Lac- 
tuca, E. Bot. t. 1551. — U. Lactuca, var. latissima. Light/. 

Abundant, on rocks, stones, &c. in the sea. © . Summer and Autumn. 
— " Most authors consider this as a larger state only of the following. 
Both are, 1 believe, indiscriminate!}' eaten under the name of green-La- 
ver, or Oyster-green, being serv'ed at table with lemon-juice, in the same 
w’ay as the pu7-ple-Laver. This diet is esteemed good, as almost all esculent 
vegetables are, for scrophulous habits. Lightfoot says that the island- 
ers ascribe to it an anodyne virtue, and bind it about the forehead and 
temples to assuage headache in fevers, and to procure sleep. 

2. U. Lactuca, Linn, (^Lettuce green- Laver) ; frond at first 
ohovate saccate inflated at length cleft down to the base, the 
segments plane unequal laciniated semitransparent. Grev . — 
Ag. Sp. Alg. v. 1. p. 409. Grev. Crypt. FI. t. 313. 

In the sea, on rocks and various marine substances. © . May and June. 

3. U. Linza, Linn, (ribband green-Laver) ; frond linear-lan- 
ceolate attenuated at each extremity waved at the margin com- 
posed of two closely applied membranes. Grev. — Ag. Sp. Alg. 
V. p. 413. — Solenia Linza, Ag. Syst. 

Rocks and stones in the sea. ©. Summer. — The frond is peculiar, as 
Dr. Greville says, in being composed of a double membrane, so closely 
applied, indeed, as to appear but one. Hence Agardh arranges it with 
Solenia in his Systema Algarum. “ This plant delights to grow in 
those gravelly spots where the fresh water oozes up during the ebb-tide. 
In such situations,dt is not uncommon to find specimens 4 feet in length 
with a diameter not exceeding two inches.” Carm. 

ALGiE inarticulate:. 



** Fresh-Boater species. 

4. U. bullosa, Rotli, (hlistti'ed green-Laver^; frond obovate sac- 
cate gelatinous at length irregularly expanded floating waved and 
bullate. Greo. Ag. Sp. Alg. v. J. p. 414. E. Bot. t. 2‘d20.-—Ulva 
Lacluca, /3. Huds. — L ighf 

Stagnant pools and ditches of fresh water. ©. Spring and Summer. 
— Much resembling U. Lactuca, but smaller, subgelatinous, lubricous, 
firmly adhering to paper, and excessively tender. Lightfoot observes 
that it has the appearance of being in a state of fermentation : and I 
have, myself, in the Flora Scotica, hazarded an opinion that its differ- 
ences from the species just-mentioned may arise from the different 
places of growth. It is very soft and lubricous. In its texture it seems 
to unite Telraspora with Ulva. 

* Terrestrial species or growing on loalls and rocks. 

5. U. crispa, Ligbtf. (crisped green-Laver') ; fronds densely 

crowded inflated plaited and Avrinkled wdth rounded lobes 

Ag. Sp. Alg. p. 116. Grev. Alg. Brit. p>- 175. — Ulva terrestris, 
Both . — Ulva Lactuca, y. Huds. — Dill. Muse. t. 9.yi 6. 

Shady walls, on thatched roofs, at the foot of walls, rocks, houses, 
&c., not unfrequent. ©. Winter and Spring. 

6. U. farfurdeea, Horn, (furfuraceous green-Laver'); fronds 
very minute roundish-ovate distinct suberect, forming a thin 
crowded stratum. GBev — FI. Dan. t. 1489. Lyngh. Hydroph. 
Dan.p. 32. Ag. Sp. Alg. v.\. p. 4\7. Grev. Crypt. FI. t. 265. 
Alg. Brit.p. 176. t. 18. 

On the tops of a few of the large boulders near the high-water line, and 
on a rock by the side of one of the lakes of Lismore, at ail seasons. 
Capt. Carmichael. On the walls of King’s College, Cambridge, Rev. 
M. J. Berkeley. — “ Fronds closely tufted, forming a vivid green stratum, 
a yard or more in extent, 2 — 3 lines in length, erect, obovate, truncated 
and usually eroded at the top, tapering at the base into a longish claw, 
margin inflected, substance firm and void of lubricity. Sporidia in 
fours. It does not adhere to paper.” Carm, MSS. 

7. U ? calophylla, Spreng. (deliccde green-Laver); fronds cses- 
pitose from a capillary base dilated into a membrane marked 
with 4 — 12 longitudinal lines, granules biseriate in each stria. 
Carm. — Grev. Crypt. FI. Synop. p. 42. Alg. Brit. p. 176. — 
Bangia ccdophylla, Carm. in Grev. Crypt. FI. t. 220. 

On a stone, within 50 yards of the Manse door, Lismore; October; 
Captain Carmichael. On old deca) ed pieces of railing attached to a 
cot-house in the Greenses, Berwick, Dr. Johnston. — “ This very rare and 
beautiful Alga grows in considerable tufts of a vivid green colour, hav- 
ing the effect of a continued fleece covering the whole surface of the 
stone. Filaments about a line in length, form a capillary base, dilated 
into a lanceolate foliaceous membrane, generally flat, but sometimes 
remarkably twisted and marked with from 4 to 12 longitudinal stripes 
each stripe consisting of a double series of globular granules.” Carm. 
MSS. — Although arranged by Captain Carmichael among the Baugice, 




it is but justice to his memory to state that lie remarked in a note that 
this plant and Bangui velulina of Lyngbye were more nearly allied to the 
Ulvix, than to the gelatinous Bangxce of the 2d Division. 

48. Tetraspora. Litik. Tetraspora. 

Fro^id tubular or inflated, gelatinous. Fructification', minute 
granules, loosely arranged in fours. Ag. — Name; Jour, 

and (TTro^'x,, the seed; from the quaternary arrangement. 

1. T. hihrica, Ag. {lubricous Tetraspora^; frond quite simple 
tubular subgelatinous waved and sinuated. Ag. Syst. Alg. 
p. 188. — Viva luhrica,Roth. — Ag. Sp.Aly. v. L p)- 415. — Gastri- 
dium luhricum, Lyngh. 

In gently running fresh-water. Hellesdon, Norfolk. Appin, Captain 
Carmichael. — This foi’ins irregular masses of considerable extent, and 
is exceedingly lubricous. 

2. T. gelatinosa, Desv. {gelatinous Tetraspora^; frond vesicu- 
lar ovate clavate very gelatinous. Ag. Syst. Alg.p. 138. — Viva 
gelatinosa, Vauch. Conf. p. 244. 

Fresh-water stream, Mucruss, Killarney, il/r. Harvefi — Of this I have 
seen no recent specimens. It is described as resembling Frog’s spawn, 
but of a green colour, with sporules arranged in fours. 

49. Enteromorpha. Link. Enteromorpha. 

Frond tubular, hollow, membranaceous, of a green colour 
and reticulated structure. Fructification; three or four round- 
ish granules, aggregated in the reticulations. Grev. Alg. Brit, 
p. 178. t. 18- — Name; si'rsfoi/, the entrail, and go^xpri, form or 
appearance ; from the tubular and often more or less inflated 

1 . E. CornucopicB, Carm. ( Cornucopia-like Enteromorpha^ ; 
gregarious small, fronds tubular at the base, dilated upwards 
plaited laciniated and torn at the margin. Carm. MSS. — Scy- 
tosipkon intestinalis, y. Cornucopia:, Lyngh. Hydropk. Ban. p. 67. 
Ay. Syst. Alg. p. 185. 

On Corallines, &c., in rocky pools, frequent. Captain Carmichael. © . 
Spring, Summer. — “ Fronds gregarious, about an inch long, funnel- 
shaped, from a short tubular base, expanding into a plaited laciniated 
membrane, torn and jagged at the extremity. Granules in fours, all over 
the frond. Colour dark-green below, pale above.” — “Without pushing the 
system of varieties to an extravagant length, this plant cannot be con- 
sidered as a variety of E. intestinalis; the characters of the definition 
mark it as abundantly distinct, and to these characters it is universally 
constant. I look upon it, indeed, as a much more distinct species than 
E. compressa ; specimens of which occur now and then very difficult to 
be distinguished from E. intestinalis.'' Carm. 3ISS. 

[ 2. E. hitestindlis, Link, {intestinal Enteromoiplui) ; fronds 
elongated broadlv linear inflated and sinuated simple (often 

311 . 



floating). Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 179. — Solenia mtestinalis, and 
S. Bertoloni, Ag. Syst. Alg. p>- 1^5 — Uloa intestinalis, Linn. 
— Ag. Sp. Alg. v. 1. p. 418. — Scytosiphon intest., Lyngh. 
|3. crispa ; frond compressed, the margin crisped and curled. 
Grev. — Solenia intestin., var. crisjm, Ag. — Dill. Muse. t. 9.f. 7. 

On the sea-shore and in ditclies and pools, both of salt and fresh 
water, frequent. ©. Spring, Summer. — “ Fronds closely aggregated, 
swelling from a slender, filiform base to several lines in diameter round- 
ed, inflated, ami puckered in various ways, a foot or more in length, of 
a membranous structure, and pale-green colour. The var. crisjm gene- 
rally grows solitary, attaining the length of 3—6 feet, and upwards of 2 
inches in diameter. It decays gradually from the extremity downw^ard, 
and on the edge of the decayed part, the granules are easily discer- 
nible, very minute, and with little or no interval between them.” Carm. 

3. E. comprhsa, Grev. {compressed Enteromorpha') ; frond 
tubular linear or filiform simple or branched subcompressed the 
branches elongated attenuated at the base. — Grev. Alg. Brit, 
p. 180. t. 18 — Solenia compressa, Ag. Syst. Alg. p. 186. 

— Viva compressa, Linn. — Ag. Sp. Alg. v. 1 j3. prolifera ; 

frond somew^hat inflated throwing out capillary branches 
on all sides. Grev . — Viva prolifera, FI. Dan. t. 762. f. 1. — 
Scytosiphon compressus, var. ci’ispatus, Lyngh. Hydroph. Dan. 

p. 6. 

On various substances in the sea, abundant. 0. Spring — Autumn. 
— “ Fronds gregarious or tufted, from 6 inches to 3 feet or more in 
length, and from half a line to two inches in diameter, compressed or 
collapsed and wrinkled, almost naked, or sending off innumerable long 
slender simple branches chiefly from the margin. I am much inclined 
to the opinion expressed in the Flora Scotica of Dr. Hooker, that S. 
intestinalis is merely one of the numerous forms which this very variable 
species assumes, and which run so insensibly into each other, tliat any 
attempt to arrange them into varieties would prove equally difficult and 
useless.” - Carm. MSS. 

4. E. Linkidna, Grev. {fLinh's Enteromorpha') ; frond cylin- 
drical tubular filiform reticulated pellucid of a very pale 
green colour membranaceous (rigid when dry) much branch